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Article

Philipp Bierl and Nadine H. Kammerlander

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the process of family equity creation and its role for transgenerational entrepreneurship.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the process of family equity creation and its role for transgenerational entrepreneurship.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper combines a systematic literature review on family equity with conceptual theory building, resulting in a model of family equity creation.

Findings

The proposed model contains three phases of equity creation that ulitmately leads to transgenerational entrepreneurship: harvesting, institutionalization (via a single family office) and reinvestment.

Originality/value

This paper conceptually introduces the family equity creation model, which may serve as integrative framework for future research on transgenerational value creation by entrepreneurial families. The presented findings are of relevance for family entrepreneurship scholars, entrepreneurial families, as well as for practitioners.

Details

Journal of Family Business Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2043-6238

Keywords

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Article

Jefferson Marlon Monticelli, Renata Bernardon and Guilherme Trez

The purpose of this paper is to analyze entrepreneurship in the context of the second, third and fourth generations of family businesses, considering the family as an…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze entrepreneurship in the context of the second, third and fourth generations of family businesses, considering the family as an institution and mapping the reasons and influences to institutional forces across generations.

Design/methodology/approach

Three focus groups conducted for the study revealed that each generation has dealt differently with issues related to institutional forces, such as legitimacy, business professionalization and succession.

Findings

The perpetuation and transmission of entrepreneurial behavior has been greatly influenced by the family and this is especially clear when it is seen as an institution that unites and binds its members, while guiding or restricting the choices available to these agents through limits imposed on them. The family exerts a strong institutional influence across generations, both defining boundaries and creating opportunities for its members. Regardless of the generation of family business, the family founders and their successors’ responses are modeled by institutional forces.

Research limitations/implications

The main limitation is concentration of focus on a specific context, Brazilian family businesses. Therefore, the results are limited to this case. With regard to the methodological approach, the authors employed cross-sectional data collection, making it difficult or even impossible to make a historical analysis of the facts that are limited to the present perceptions of the interviewees. It should also be considered, from the institutional perspective, that the authors only analyze the family as an institution, leaving out of the context other institutions and institutional dimensions such as the political and industrial, for example.

Practical implications

This study helps to explain entrepreneurship in the context of the second, thirrd, and fourth generation of family businesses, considering family as an institution, mapping the motivations and influences of institutional forces across generations. The relevance of family as an institution as drivers of family businesses, as demonstrated in this study, can contribute to decision making and succession of family businesses. Equally, the results can contribute to avoidance of the possible pitfalls of transgenerational changes and facilitate better management of problems such as legitimacy caused by a lack of norms and procedures or transfer of tacit knowledge.

Social implications

There have been few attempts to understand the dynamics of the family business as an institution that also consider transgenerational changes. Rather, family business has been analyzed separately from institutions. Institutions are rarely taken into account in studies of family businesses. Consequently, a perspective that aims to understand the relationship between family businesses and institutions, taking account of transgenerational influences should further theory. Transgenerational family businesses are an appropriate object of study in this context, because of the institutional changes they undergo due to the influence of institutional forces over time.

Originality/value

This study shows the relevance of understanding how these issues are dealt with in different generations of a family institution. Aspects related to entrepreneurship in the context of family businesses have been attracting attention from researchers interested in family businesses and scholars of institutional entrepreneurship.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 26 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

Keywords

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Article

Jacob Donald Tan, Hendrawan Supratikno, Rudy Pramono, John Tampil Purba and Innocentius Bernarto

This paper aims to explore and explain how predecessors (incumbents) of ethnic Chinese family small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Indonesia or appropriately…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore and explain how predecessors (incumbents) of ethnic Chinese family small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Indonesia or appropriately called Chinese-Indonesian family SMEs nurture their successors in procuring transgenerational entrepreneurship.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 25 participants were involved in this qualitative study which employed a multi-method triangulation design with the following research instruments: semi-structured in-depth interviews with experts, incumbents and successors of Chinese-Indonesian family SMEs, field notes from conversations and observations during engagement with participants affiliated to the family SMEs, a focus group discussion with academicians and literature reviews. Another key approach is source triangulation, where different participants – e.g. from among the experts, from among the incumbents, successors and family members in each family business case were interviewed and engaged outside the interview sessions.

Findings

The proposed theoretical framework depicts comprehensive attributes of nurturing Chinese-Indonesian successors to continue enterprising at the helm of family SMEs. Propositions are used to explain the impacts these attributes have on transgenerational entrepreneurship specifically. At the personal level, incumbents have to focus on discovering the successors’ passions and nurture them in formal education, childhood involvement, as well as bridging them in entrepreneurial knowledge through cultural values, mentorship, autonomy and role modelling. Incumbents also had to plan for their retirements to provide autonomy for successors. At the firm/family level, incumbents must be able to set a foothold on family governance, firm governance and ownership distribution to reduce conflicts in their family businesses. Furthermore, as a minority group with past traumatic experiences, Chinese-Indonesian family SMEs usually equip themselves with contingency plans to protect their assets for the long-term future.

Research limitations/implications

This study was conducted in Indonesia amongst Chinese-Indonesian family SMEs and thus it is not generalisable in other settings. Literature reviews on family SMEs succession are still scant, especially on the Chinese-Indonesian.

Practical implications

Predecessors/incumbents of Chinese-Indonesian family SMEs could consider implementing the proposed nurturing strategies to their successors to sustain the longevity of the business based on trust, stewardship and harmony. The theoretical research framework resulted from this study offers general suggestions on how to nurture the next generation specifically from personal/interpersonal perspectives, which must be accompanied by specific scopes of family and firm aspects. This study extends beyond indicating the factors (ingredients) by explaining how to nurture transgenerational entrepreneurship (cook the ingredients) in SMEs for a tactful transition. Hence, the incumbents play vital roles and must be poised to adjust their mindsets to certain aspects indicated in this study.

Social implications

Most overseas Chinese businesses are family-owned, and besides Indonesia constituting the largest Chinese population outside the Republic of China, this 3 per cent of Indonesia’s people are known for controlling about 70 per cent of the economy. Furthermore, SMEs play a significant role in the Indonesian economy, as they provide about 97 per cent off the country’s employment and 57.8 per cent of the gross domestic product. Hence, the longevity of Chinese-Indonesian family SMEs must be well managed to bolster the economy and social welfare of the country.

Originality/value

A transgenerational entrepreneurship model in the context of Chinese-Indonesian family SMEs which incorporates the nurturing process of the successor to step up the helm of the business is proposed in the study.

Details

Journal of Asia Business Studies, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1558-7894

Keywords

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Article

Gökay Selcuk and Lech Suwala

By combining manifold approaches from migrant entrepreneurship and family business studies, the purpose of the paper is to shed some light upon the contextual features of…

Abstract

Purpose

By combining manifold approaches from migrant entrepreneurship and family business studies, the purpose of the paper is to shed some light upon the contextual features of motivation, resources, generational pathways of Turkish migrant family entrepreneurs in Berlin – through the lens of a mixed and multiple embeddedness approach.

Design/methodology/approach

An explorative research design, based on an eclectic theoretical framework and on purposive sampling, combines qualitative in-depth interviews/content analysis and on-site observation resulting in an almost ethnographic assessment of selected case studies of Turkish migrant family entrepreneurs (concerning age (min. 20 years), size (15+ employees) and currently at a stage of succession).

Findings

The results show that despite specific strategies vary – four circumstances hold true for all cases: (1) firm trajectories were characterized by little strategic planning and mostly trail-and error processes in the past and business survival is highly dependent on owner families; (2) owner families heavily relied on personal, family and collective resources, not benefiting from promotion programmes or micro-funding measures for SMEs; (3) owner families have actively developed their (mixed) embeddings during the growth of their migrant business beyond the single ethnic group at various spatial scales; (4) succession adds another layer of context – what we call here multiple embeddedness – with ambivalent effects: emerging potentials and conflicts between the preceding and succeeding generation.

Practical implications

Results have shown that is it necessary to set up both: customized funding opportunities for migrant start-ups in general and succession consulting for migrant family entrepreneurs in particular. Given the magnitude of family migrant entrepreneurs and the accelerating migration patterns in most Western European countries, there is urgent need for such measures.

Originality/value

Family entrepreneurship has been often discussed without a migration perspective, neither taking a systematic look at pertinent motivation, resources, and future trajectories nor context. Migrant entrepreneurship studies barely take the family or family-specific issues (e.g. succession) into account, and mainly deal with the integration or economic aspects. Our mixed and multiple embeddedness approach allows for a holistic view on transgenerational migrant family entrepreneurship by integrating both socio-spatial (actor, family, network, micro, meso, macro) and multi-generational contexts (preceding, succeeding).

Details

Journal of Family Business Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2043-6238

Keywords

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Article

Rafal Mierzwiak and Ewa Więcek-Janka

The purpose of the paper is to analyse the relationships between the competency structure of the successors of family enterprises in Poland and dimensions like gender…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the paper is to analyse the relationships between the competency structure of the successors of family enterprises in Poland and dimensions like gender, self-awareness of development, taking their ideas into consideration in shaping the strategy of the firm and the size of the firm.

Design/methodology/approach

Grey relational analysis was employed to analyse the empirical material in the paper. The results of the analysis served a more thorough qualitative analysis of the subject of the family enterprise successors’ competencies by comparing them to theoretical assumptions and other research within this scope.

Findings

In the paper, the relation was shown between the structure of family firm successors’ competencies and the variables such as gender, development self-awareness, taking their ideas into consideration in shaping the strategy of the firm and the size of the firm.

Research limitations/implications

The research was conducted in Poland and therefore its generalisation has limited scope resulting from the cultural and historical conditioning.

Practical implications

The results of the research may serve the creation of tools and methods of succession process management in a family enterprise.

Originality/value

The paper presents the possibilities of employing grey system theory in the research remaining within the scope of the subject of succession in family enterprises, as a tool complementing qualitative analysis.

Details

Grey Systems: Theory and Application, vol. 5 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2043-9377

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, vol. 25 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-5794

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Book part

Maria Elo

To understand how diaspora entrepreneurship evolves and becomes a small-scale emerging market multinational and how this process is enabled.

Abstract

Purpose

To understand how diaspora entrepreneurship evolves and becomes a small-scale emerging market multinational and how this process is enabled.

Methodology/approach

Case study and ethnographic methods were employed.

Findings

Diaspora entrepreneurs can act as change agents who create and penetrate markets under difficult conditions. They are less influenced by institutional voids in home and host countries when they have strong international diaspora networks that enable a connection to resources, overcoming such voids. Diaspora entrepreneurs may be resource-embedded socially in a way that creates superior competitive advantages and reduces liabilities of foreignness and of outsidership.

Research limitations/implications

Diaspora entrepreneurship incorporates invisible and idiographic potential, such as social capital and knowledge networks. These are not available for other non-incumbent companies (e.g., foreign entrants) and are difficult to research due to access barriers.

Practical implications

Perception and active management of network-based resources is important for opportunity and business development. Management in a transition economy context requires holistic views, deep understanding, and working linkages across markets.

Social implications

Transgenerational entrepreneurship and ethnic traditions are important for the community. Entrepreneurship provides continuity and identity, such as using ethnic language, as well as prosperity and solidarity that are important for supporting cultural identity.

Originality/value

This study connects diaspora entrepreneurship in Central Asia and emerging market multinationals that are small and medium-sized enterprises. Both are underexplored domains, but may share particular institutional settings. Growth and internationalization into a multinational enterprise with an emerging market origin, especially by women entrepreneurs, are rarely studied. This case illustrates the need to capture the processual dynamics, resources, and actor networks, including sociocultural and spatiotemporal factors for better contextualization.

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Article

Paul Agu Igwe, Robert Newbery, Nihar Amoncar, Gareth R.T. White and Nnamdi O. Madichie

The purpose of this paper is to examine the attributes of the Igbos in Eastern Nigeria and the underlying factors influencing their entrepreneurial behaviour. More…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the attributes of the Igbos in Eastern Nigeria and the underlying factors influencing their entrepreneurial behaviour. More specifically, the study highlights the links between family, culture, institution and entrepreneurial behaviour in the African context.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper is based on a qualitative research method by interviewing 50 entrepreneurs and community leaders of the Igbo nation. Igbos have been described as “naturally enterprising and ingenious” and can be found throughout Nigeria and West Africa. Understanding the vagaries of ethnic entrepreneurship can arguably only be achieved through research that is undertaken within these socio-historically rich, traditional and cultural contexts.

Findings

Linked to the social learning theory, Igbo families provide an entrepreneurial leadership platform which influences youths through role models, providing mastery experiences and socialisation. The extended family provides a safe environment for risk taking, creativity and innovation. Also, an informal apprenticeship system provides entrepreneurial learning that prepares the younger generation to take to business as a way of life.

Research limitations/implications

The study is based on a relatively small sample size of 50 respondents, which makes it difficult to generalise the findings despite the benefits of the research methods adopted in the study. Also, there are limitations to the extension of the findings to a generalised Igbo population comprising individuals who may, or may not, behave entrepreneurially.

Practical implications

There are significant practical implications, both nationally and internationally, for policy makers that are concerned with developing jobs for the growing population of unemployed youths and inclusive entrepreneurship in Nigeria.

Originality/value

The research has three main contributions. First, it valorises indigenous knowledge of family and institutional entrepreneurial behaviour in an African context. Second, it highlights the importance of the linked institutions of the extended family and the informal apprenticeship system in Igbo culture. Finally, it provides a model and an explanation of how the Igbo culture nurtures and develops transgenerational entrepreneurial behaviour.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 26 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

Keywords

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Article

Na Shen

The purpose of this paper is to enhance the existing socioemotional wealth (SEW) theory. Particularly, the current research proposes a dynamic SEW model using insights…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to enhance the existing socioemotional wealth (SEW) theory. Particularly, the current research proposes a dynamic SEW model using insights from prospect theory. The application of the proposed dynamic SEW model leads to several propositions that will reveal the relationship amongst family business, transgenerational succession, business risks and diversification strategy.

Design/methodology/approach

This study is mainly a theoretical research. A dynamic SEW model is proposed in which the SEW is not static and can be increasing or decreasing. SEW is framed as a gain or loss under different scenarios, and the shift in reference point will change the framing or value of SEW.

Findings

The current research presents several interesting propositions based on the dynamic SEW model. Generally, family firms are less likely to diversify than non-family firms. However, when family firms face business risks, they are more likely to diversify than those that do not face business risks. Family firms with second generation involvement in management are more likely to diversify than those without second generation involvement. The dynamic SEW model can also be applied to analyse R&D and IPO underpricing for family firms.

Originality/value

This study builds a dynamic SEW model, which is totally new to the literature. The conceptual framework that reveals the relationships amongst family business, transgenerational succession, business risks and diversification strategy also contributes to the literature and has empirical implications to researchers, policy makers and family business owners.

Details

Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, vol. 25 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-5794

Keywords

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Article

Albert James, Elias Hadjielias, Maribel Guerrero, Allan Discua Cruz and Rodrigo Basco

This article is the editorial for the special issue on “Entrepreneurial Families in Business Across Generations, Contexts and Cultures”. We aim to develop a road map that…

Abstract

Purpose

This article is the editorial for the special issue on “Entrepreneurial Families in Business Across Generations, Contexts and Cultures”. We aim to develop a road map that can help academics and practitioners navigate the findings of the articles contained in this special issue. We also suggest future lines of research around the topic of entrepreneurial families in business.

Design/methodology/approach

We develop a conceptual model for interpreting and understanding entrepreneurial families in business across contexts and time.

Findings

Our conceptual model highlights the importance of context and time when conducting research on entrepreneurial families in business.

Practical implications

The findings in this special issue will be of relevance for decision makers who tailor policies that embrace different economic and social actors, including entrepreneurial families.

Originality/value

This editorial and the articles that make up this special issue contribute to family business research by contextualising the phenomenon of entrepreneurial families in business. We propose a new holistic perspective to incorporate context and time in the study of entrepreneurial families that own, govern and manage family firms over time.

Details

Journal of Family Business Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2043-6238

Keywords

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