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Article
Publication date: 17 June 2019

Philipp Bierl and Nadine H. Kammerlander

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the process of family equity creation and its role for transgenerational entrepreneurship.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the process of family equity creation and its role for transgenerational entrepreneurship.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper combines a systematic literature review on family equity with conceptual theory building, resulting in a model of family equity creation.

Findings

The proposed model contains three phases of equity creation that ulitmately leads to transgenerational entrepreneurship: harvesting, institutionalization (via a single family office) and reinvestment.

Originality/value

This paper conceptually introduces the family equity creation model, which may serve as integrative framework for future research on transgenerational value creation by entrepreneurial families. The presented findings are of relevance for family entrepreneurship scholars, entrepreneurial families, as well as for practitioners.

Details

Journal of Family Business Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2043-6238

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 October 2018

Jefferson Marlon Monticelli, Renata Bernardon and Guilherme Trez

The purpose of this paper is to analyze entrepreneurship in the context of the second, third and fourth generations of family businesses, considering the family as an…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze entrepreneurship in the context of the second, third and fourth generations of family businesses, considering the family as an institution and mapping the reasons and influences to institutional forces across generations.

Design/methodology/approach

Three focus groups conducted for the study revealed that each generation has dealt differently with issues related to institutional forces, such as legitimacy, business professionalization and succession.

Findings

The perpetuation and transmission of entrepreneurial behavior has been greatly influenced by the family and this is especially clear when it is seen as an institution that unites and binds its members, while guiding or restricting the choices available to these agents through limits imposed on them. The family exerts a strong institutional influence across generations, both defining boundaries and creating opportunities for its members. Regardless of the generation of family business, the family founders and their successors’ responses are modeled by institutional forces.

Research limitations/implications

The main limitation is concentration of focus on a specific context, Brazilian family businesses. Therefore, the results are limited to this case. With regard to the methodological approach, the authors employed cross-sectional data collection, making it difficult or even impossible to make a historical analysis of the facts that are limited to the present perceptions of the interviewees. It should also be considered, from the institutional perspective, that the authors only analyze the family as an institution, leaving out of the context other institutions and institutional dimensions such as the political and industrial, for example.

Practical implications

This study helps to explain entrepreneurship in the context of the second, thirrd, and fourth generation of family businesses, considering family as an institution, mapping the motivations and influences of institutional forces across generations. The relevance of family as an institution as drivers of family businesses, as demonstrated in this study, can contribute to decision making and succession of family businesses. Equally, the results can contribute to avoidance of the possible pitfalls of transgenerational changes and facilitate better management of problems such as legitimacy caused by a lack of norms and procedures or transfer of tacit knowledge.

Social implications

There have been few attempts to understand the dynamics of the family business as an institution that also consider transgenerational changes. Rather, family business has been analyzed separately from institutions. Institutions are rarely taken into account in studies of family businesses. Consequently, a perspective that aims to understand the relationship between family businesses and institutions, taking account of transgenerational influences should further theory. Transgenerational family businesses are an appropriate object of study in this context, because of the institutional changes they undergo due to the influence of institutional forces over time.

Originality/value

This study shows the relevance of understanding how these issues are dealt with in different generations of a family institution. Aspects related to entrepreneurship in the context of family businesses have been attracting attention from researchers interested in family businesses and scholars of institutional entrepreneurship.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 26 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 21 March 2019

Jacob Donald Tan, Hendrawan Supratikno, Rudy Pramono, John Tampil Purba and Innocentius Bernarto

This paper aims to explore and explain how predecessors (incumbents) of ethnic Chinese family small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Indonesia or appropriately…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore and explain how predecessors (incumbents) of ethnic Chinese family small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Indonesia or appropriately called Chinese-Indonesian family SMEs nurture their successors in procuring transgenerational entrepreneurship.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 25 participants were involved in this qualitative study which employed a multi-method triangulation design with the following research instruments: semi-structured in-depth interviews with experts, incumbents and successors of Chinese-Indonesian family SMEs, field notes from conversations and observations during engagement with participants affiliated to the family SMEs, a focus group discussion with academicians and literature reviews. Another key approach is source triangulation, where different participants – e.g. from among the experts, from among the incumbents, successors and family members in each family business case were interviewed and engaged outside the interview sessions.

Findings

The proposed theoretical framework depicts comprehensive attributes of nurturing Chinese-Indonesian successors to continue enterprising at the helm of family SMEs. Propositions are used to explain the impacts these attributes have on transgenerational entrepreneurship specifically. At the personal level, incumbents have to focus on discovering the successors’ passions and nurture them in formal education, childhood involvement, as well as bridging them in entrepreneurial knowledge through cultural values, mentorship, autonomy and role modelling. Incumbents also had to plan for their retirements to provide autonomy for successors. At the firm/family level, incumbents must be able to set a foothold on family governance, firm governance and ownership distribution to reduce conflicts in their family businesses. Furthermore, as a minority group with past traumatic experiences, Chinese-Indonesian family SMEs usually equip themselves with contingency plans to protect their assets for the long-term future.

Research limitations/implications

This study was conducted in Indonesia amongst Chinese-Indonesian family SMEs and thus it is not generalisable in other settings. Literature reviews on family SMEs succession are still scant, especially on the Chinese-Indonesian.

Practical implications

Predecessors/incumbents of Chinese-Indonesian family SMEs could consider implementing the proposed nurturing strategies to their successors to sustain the longevity of the business based on trust, stewardship and harmony. The theoretical research framework resulted from this study offers general suggestions on how to nurture the next generation specifically from personal/interpersonal perspectives, which must be accompanied by specific scopes of family and firm aspects. This study extends beyond indicating the factors (ingredients) by explaining how to nurture transgenerational entrepreneurship (cook the ingredients) in SMEs for a tactful transition. Hence, the incumbents play vital roles and must be poised to adjust their mindsets to certain aspects indicated in this study.

Social implications

Most overseas Chinese businesses are family-owned, and besides Indonesia constituting the largest Chinese population outside the Republic of China, this 3 per cent of Indonesia’s people are known for controlling about 70 per cent of the economy. Furthermore, SMEs play a significant role in the Indonesian economy, as they provide about 97 per cent off the country’s employment and 57.8 per cent of the gross domestic product. Hence, the longevity of Chinese-Indonesian family SMEs must be well managed to bolster the economy and social welfare of the country.

Originality/value

A transgenerational entrepreneurship model in the context of Chinese-Indonesian family SMEs which incorporates the nurturing process of the successor to step up the helm of the business is proposed in the study.

Details

Journal of Asia Business Studies, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1558-7894

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 April 2020

Gökay Selcuk and Lech Suwala

By combining manifold approaches from migrant entrepreneurship and family business studies, the purpose of the paper is to shed some light upon the contextual features of…

Abstract

Purpose

By combining manifold approaches from migrant entrepreneurship and family business studies, the purpose of the paper is to shed some light upon the contextual features of motivation, resources, generational pathways of Turkish migrant family entrepreneurs in Berlin – through the lens of a mixed and multiple embeddedness approach.

Design/methodology/approach

An explorative research design, based on an eclectic theoretical framework and on purposive sampling, combines qualitative in-depth interviews/content analysis and on-site observation resulting in an almost ethnographic assessment of selected case studies of Turkish migrant family entrepreneurs (concerning age (min. 20 years), size (15+ employees) and currently at a stage of succession).

Findings

The results show that despite specific strategies vary – four circumstances hold true for all cases: (1) firm trajectories were characterized by little strategic planning and mostly trail-and error processes in the past and business survival is highly dependent on owner families; (2) owner families heavily relied on personal, family and collective resources, not benefiting from promotion programmes or micro-funding measures for SMEs; (3) owner families have actively developed their (mixed) embeddings during the growth of their migrant business beyond the single ethnic group at various spatial scales; (4) succession adds another layer of context – what we call here multiple embeddedness – with ambivalent effects: emerging potentials and conflicts between the preceding and succeeding generation.

Practical implications

Results have shown that is it necessary to set up both: customized funding opportunities for migrant start-ups in general and succession consulting for migrant family entrepreneurs in particular. Given the magnitude of family migrant entrepreneurs and the accelerating migration patterns in most Western European countries, there is urgent need for such measures.

Originality/value

Family entrepreneurship has been often discussed without a migration perspective, neither taking a systematic look at pertinent motivation, resources, and future trajectories nor context. Migrant entrepreneurship studies barely take the family or family-specific issues (e.g. succession) into account, and mainly deal with the integration or economic aspects. Our mixed and multiple embeddedness approach allows for a holistic view on transgenerational migrant family entrepreneurship by integrating both socio-spatial (actor, family, network, micro, meso, macro) and multi-generational contexts (preceding, succeeding).

Details

Journal of Family Business Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2043-6238

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 May 2022

Cristina Iturrioz-Landart, Cristina Aragón-Amonarriz and M. Katiuska Cabrera-Suárez

The purpose of the study is to unveil the key role of family social capital (FSC) as a driver for transgenerational entrepreneurship (TE) in the specific contexts of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the study is to unveil the key role of family social capital (FSC) as a driver for transgenerational entrepreneurship (TE) in the specific contexts of challenged successor-driven entrepreneurship.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper adopts a multi-case study methodology. Guided by three theoretical propositions, three TE case studies are analyzed. Drawing on ten in-depth interviews with at least three different informants from each intra-family succession case study, evidence about this particularly complex phenomenon was obtained.

Findings

The paper highlights the effect of FSC as the key familiness driver to leverage challenged successor-driven entrepreneurship. The paper underscores the systemic and dynamic network of multiple exchanges required to construct successor’s own pool of knowledge resources and to support familiness and thus the competitive advantage of the family firm (FF).

Practical implications

Different scenarios are illustrated, and specific lessons are provided for successors and families that face TE opposition in intra-family succession, regarding the restoration of damaged FSC and involving non-family stakeholders in the successor-driven entrepreneurship. In these cases, opposition to successor-driven entrepreneurship may help to develop successor’s leadership abilities.

Originality/value

Focusing on a specific intra-family succession context where successor-driven entrepreneurial initiatives face stakeholder opposition, the paper highlights the specific role played by FSC in the successor knowledge construction in specific contexts of challenged intra-family succession.

Details

Journal of Family Business Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2043-6238

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 22 December 2021

Sarah Watiri Muigai, Edward Mungai and S. Ramakrishna Velamuri

The purpose of the paper is to examine the effects of perceived parental entrepreneurial rewards, or PPERs (i.e. the offspring's perception of the degree of parental…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the paper is to examine the effects of perceived parental entrepreneurial rewards, or PPERs (i.e. the offspring's perception of the degree of parental success in entrepreneurship), on the corporate venturing (CV) mode of entrepreneurial entry and the interaction effects of family business involvement (FBI) and formal employment on the association between PPER and CV by the next-generation family members.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey was administered to a sample of 738 small business owners in Kenya; of which, 440 small business owners were selected because they grew up in a family business context. A probit model was used to examine the main and interaction effects.

Findings

PPERs significantly influenced CV. FBI improves the positive relationship whereas formal employment reduces the effects of PPER on CV.

Practical implications

Families in business need to improve conversations with their children to include discussions concerning the intrinsic and extrinsic rewards of running a family business, which may shape not only the entrepreneurial entry path of their offspring but also the willingness to establish businesses that may grow and lead to continuity of the family business of origin.

Originality/value

The study investigates the effect of being embedded in a business family in shaping the CV mode of entrepreneurial entry by the next-generation family members who may not, on the one hand, find independent own founding an attractive option and for whom, on the other hand, the succession mode of entry may not be an option.

Details

Journal of Family Business Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2043-6238

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 November 2015

Rafal Mierzwiak and Ewa Więcek-Janka

The purpose of the paper is to analyse the relationships between the competency structure of the successors of family enterprises in Poland and dimensions like gender…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the paper is to analyse the relationships between the competency structure of the successors of family enterprises in Poland and dimensions like gender, self-awareness of development, taking their ideas into consideration in shaping the strategy of the firm and the size of the firm.

Design/methodology/approach

Grey relational analysis was employed to analyse the empirical material in the paper. The results of the analysis served a more thorough qualitative analysis of the subject of the family enterprise successors’ competencies by comparing them to theoretical assumptions and other research within this scope.

Findings

In the paper, the relation was shown between the structure of family firm successors’ competencies and the variables such as gender, development self-awareness, taking their ideas into consideration in shaping the strategy of the firm and the size of the firm.

Research limitations/implications

The research was conducted in Poland and therefore its generalisation has limited scope resulting from the cultural and historical conditioning.

Practical implications

The results of the research may serve the creation of tools and methods of succession process management in a family enterprise.

Originality/value

The paper presents the possibilities of employing grey system theory in the research remaining within the scope of the subject of succession in family enterprises, as a tool complementing qualitative analysis.

Details

Grey Systems: Theory and Application, vol. 5 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2043-9377

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 22 June 2021

Jesrina Ann Xavier, Feranita Feranita, Manimekalai Jambulingam and Manmeet Kaur Gorchan Singh

This paper aims to examine the impact of changes in human capital development and evolution of tacit knowledge following transgenerational succession in ethnic companies…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the impact of changes in human capital development and evolution of tacit knowledge following transgenerational succession in ethnic companies. The paper contributes to the understanding of transferring tacit knowledge across generations in ensuring ethnic business sustainability.

Design/methodology/approach

In answering the how question, this paper tracked the changes and their impact in the process over time, using the multiple-case study method. A total of six interviews were conducted with three Indian-owned companies in the jewellery industry in Malaysia, with each interview lasting between 45 and 60 min. Secondary data were collected to supplement the primary data for analysis. Data triangulation method was applied to strengthen the design of this study.

Findings

The results indicate that changes in human capital development and tacit knowledge have enabled ethnically Indian-owned jewellery-based companies to alter their products to respond to demands of modern society whilst sustaining and commodifying the ethnic identity of their businesses. The findings also highlight that proper succession planning by ageing entrepreneurs may promote sustainability of these ethnic enterprises.

Originality/value

Despite the growing attention on ethnic and migrant entrepreneurship, less is known about the impact of the changes through transgenerational succession over time in ethnic businesses, especially when such changes involve human capital as the key players. This study is important in addressing the gap, in identifying human capital development and tacit knowledge among the critical ethnic resources contributing to ethnic business sustainability. Using a conceptual framework, this paper sheds some light on how ethnic businesses are sustained through transgenerational succession.

Details

Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Administration, vol. 13 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-4323

Keywords

Content available

Abstract

Details

Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, vol. 25 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-5794

Article
Publication date: 13 September 2021

Emma Su and Joshua Daspit

The literature related to knowledge management (KM) is robust with respect to insights regarding firms in general. However, less is known about the KM of family firms…

Abstract

Purpose

The literature related to knowledge management (KM) is robust with respect to insights regarding firms in general. However, less is known about the KM of family firms despite these firms being the most common form of business organization worldwide. Further, even though the number of studies examining family-firm KM has increased in recent years, the insights gained remain fragmented. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to help coalesce and advance the study of family-firm KM.

Design/methodology/approach

In pursuit of these goals, a systematic literature review was conducted. Using a 6-step, systematic literature review protocol, 74 articles focused on family-firm KM published in 23 journals were identified and reviewed.

Findings

This literature review contributes to the synthesis and advancement of family-firm KM scholarship in several ways. First, key factors and relationships are identified and integrated into a robust framework. Second, scholarly insights are synthesized, and a review of the primary antecedents, outcomes and moderating factors associated with family-firm KM processes is presented. Third, promising opportunities for future research are highlighted to advance family-firm KM scholarship.

Originality/value

With a focus on reducing the fragmentation in the literature, this review synthesizes insights related to the most commonly studied antecedents, outcomes and moderators associated with family-firm KM. Additionally, antecedents are organized and reviewed according to the nature of their influence on family-firm KM processes, highlighting the simultaneous opposite effects of some influences. Further, key outcomes are synthesized based on their family versus firm-centric orientation. Even further, insights and opportunities focused on advancing the theory, antecedents, outcomes, moderators and other issues related to family-firm KM are presented in an effort to support the continued progress of scholarship in this area.

Details

Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. 26 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1367-3270

Keywords

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