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Article
Publication date: 7 August 2017

Henrik Pålsson, Lena Winslott Hiselius, Sten Wandel, Jamil Khan and Emeli Adell

The Swedish government is likely to implement longer and heavier road freight vehicles, so-called high-capacity vehicles (HCVs), in the near future. The purpose of this…

Abstract

Purpose

The Swedish government is likely to implement longer and heavier road freight vehicles, so-called high-capacity vehicles (HCVs), in the near future. The purpose of this paper is to analysis the expected effects on the whole transport system regarding tonne-kilometres, vehicle-kilometres on road, CO2 and socio-economics with three possible implementation strategies (HCVs on all roads, a designated road network and a designated road network with a kilometre-based truck charge) and two vehicle types (74 t/25.25 m and 74 t/34 m).

Design/methodology/approach

Calculations are based on two well-established scenarios for transport development in Sweden. Changes per tonne-kilometre are modelled for ten product groups with considerations taken to their transport networks. Socio-economic effects are analysed using the net present value rating method over a 40-year period.

Findings

The study shows the increase in demand for transport and the modal shift, from rail and sea to road, in terms of tonne-kilometres, vehicle-kilometres and CO2 emissions for three implementation strategies of HCVs in two scenarios. All implementation strategies show a positive social net-benefit with the introduction of HCVs.

Research limitations/implications

The results reveal potential benefits to the implementation of HCVs. The results are limited by possible over/under-estimations of effects considered in the calculations, due to uncertainties and assumptions.

Practical implications

The results highlight expected levels of modal shift and induced transport for different HCV implementation strategies and how they depend on transport and climate policies and the expected growth of tonne-kilometres.

Originality/value

The calculations consider socio-economic effects, particularly from increased CO2 emissions due to modal shift and induced traffic, which is lacking in previous studies. To balance conflicting economic and environmental goals, the findings indicate that the implementation of HCVs could be accompanied by other policy measures. The findings are based on the Swedish context, but the model can be adapted to other countries or regions and to study other freight transport reforms.

Details

International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, vol. 47 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0960-0035

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1989

Alan C. McKinnon

The volume of road freight movement in the UK has more than doubledover the past 25 years and its present growth is considerably exceedingofficial forecasts made in 1984…

Abstract

The volume of road freight movement in the UK has more than doubled over the past 25 years and its present growth is considerably exceeding official forecasts made in 1984. An attempt is made to explain why this growth has occurred, taking account of the close relationship between tonne‐kilometres and economic growth and outlining several spatial processes likely to have contributed to freight traffic growth. The spatial concentration of economic activity is identified as the dominant influence. The growth process appears to have undergone a major change during the 1980s, with the increase in average length of haul easing and the earlier downward trend in freight tonnage being sharply reversed. The implications of these recent trends for future freight traffic growth are discussed and an assessment made of the likely impact of the Channel Tunnel and deregulation of international haulage on the volume of road freight movement in the 1990s.

Details

International Journal of Physical Distribution & Materials Management, vol. 19 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0269-8218

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Book part
Publication date: 19 November 2003

Alan C. McKinnon

Abstract

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Handbook of Transport and the Environment
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-080-44103-0

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Book part
Publication date: 14 September 2007

Chris Nash and Andrew Smith

Abstract

Details

Handbook of Transport Modelling
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-08-045376-7

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Abstract

Details

Handbook of Transport and the Environment
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-080-44103-0

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Book part
Publication date: 4 December 2014

Richard Smokers, Lóránt Tavasszy, Ming Chen and Egbert Guis

Logistics as a sector has a key role to play in reducing greenhouse gas emissions and in reducing the dependency of our economy on non-renewable energy sources. The…

Abstract

Purpose

Logistics as a sector has a key role to play in reducing greenhouse gas emissions and in reducing the dependency of our economy on non-renewable energy sources. The challenges are enormous: by 2050 the sector needs to have achieved about 50% lower fossil fuel use and CO2 emissions. If freight volumes grow according to expectations, this requires over 70% less CO2 emissions per unit of transport. This chapter explores the options for reducing CO2 emissions from freight transport and their reduction potential, and analyses whether the logistic sector would be likely to achieve the required reduction based on its intrinsic drive for cost reduction alone.

Methodology/approach

In this conceptual chapter we identify options for sustainable logistics and discuss the necessary economic conditions for their deployment using a simple cost/benefit analysis framework. We distinguish between three regimes of measures for improving sustainability: efficiency measures with net negative costs (‘low hanging fruit’), cost-neutral measures and measures that allow to reach societal targets at net positive costs. Policy measures are discussed that may help the sector to implement cost-effective greenhouse gas abatement measures that, in the absence of incentives, go beyond the point of lowest cost from an end user perspective.

Social implications

Sufficient energy saving options are available to be implemented in the short to medium term, which can lead to operational cost savings with a short return on investments period. The potential contribution of the logistics sector to sustainability is larger, however, as logistics can make large steps ahead in sustainability with cost neutrality or with small cost increases. The full potential has been underrated by many stakeholders and should be explored further.

Originality/value of the chapter

Efficiency measures are a necessary but insufficient condition for sustainable logistics. The industry will need to go beyond cost saving measures, or even cost-neutral measures to reach the long-term energy saving and emission reduction targets for freight transport. We provide a systematic presentation of these options and discuss the additional necessary measures.

Details

Sustainable Logistics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-062-9

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 16 April 2019

Inge Vierth, Rune Karlsson, Tobias Linde and Kevin Cullinane

For the case of Sweden, this paper aims to determine how a range of different infrastructure fees and taxes influences modal split, port throughputs, air emissions…

Abstract

Purpose

For the case of Sweden, this paper aims to determine how a range of different infrastructure fees and taxes influences modal split, port throughputs, air emissions, societal costs of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and air pollution, as well as logistics costs.

Design/methodology/approach

The Swedish national freight model is used to simulate a range of different proposed infrastructure fees, one by one and in combination. The volume of emissions of CO2-equivalents, NOx, SOx and PM under the different scenarios is calculated in both volume and monetary terms, by applying national emission factors and EU values for external costs.

Findings

Road user fees are calculated to have the largest impact on the modal split, GHG emissions and air pollution. The impact increases slightly when road user fees are combined with higher fees for sea and rail and/or gate fees in all Swedish ports. The imposition of gate fees over €30 per truck in all ports leads to shifts in cargo to land-based modes and to ports outside Sweden. The logistics costs in Sweden are found to be three to ten times higher than the benefits of reduced GHG emissions and air pollution, although other benefits to society need to be considered as well.

Research limitations/implications

Methods which attempt to evaluate alternative approaches to the internalisation of the external costs caused by transport need to be further developed. In particular, they need to encompass a more holistic perspective on “benefits to society”, other than merely reductions in GHG emissions and air pollution. To facilitate international acceptance and adoption, such methods require agreements to be reached on common definitions and routines.

Practical implications

The results can be used as basis for policy-making. They illustrate the environmental impacts of the fees and taxes one by one and in combination and to what extent these reinforce each other and should be co-ordinated.

Social implications

The outcomes are relevant to national and international policymakers and authorities, as well as port authorities, shippers and transport companies who need to determine unilateral strategies on how to reduce GHG emissions and air pollution, without undermining their wider business objectives.

Originality/value

The approach is original in facilitating the testing of policies which impact on the transport system and the environment across different dimensions. The work has additional value in informing policy because of its use of Sweden’s national freight transport model.

Details

Maritime Business Review, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2397-3757

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Article
Publication date: 12 January 2015

Hadi Ghaderi, Jiangang Fei and Stephen Cahoon

– The purpose of this paper is to identify current impediments to the competitiveness of the rail industry in the Australian non-bulk freight market.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify current impediments to the competitiveness of the rail industry in the Australian non-bulk freight market.

Design/methodology/approach

A systematic literature review was adapted to identify the impediments and challenge themes from 1,081 studies available on the Australian rail industry. To select the studies relevant to the research question, a tollgate criterion was then deployed. Impediments were identified by a structured data synthesis process and a heuristic algorithm was developed to explore the possible relationships between the impediments and challenges.

Findings

Four major themes are apparent, each of which presents the rail industry with challenges in the non-bulk freight market. “Infrastructural inefficiencies and the need for further integration” was ranked as the main rail industry challenge, while “environmental concerns and the associated costs of externalities” was the least. In addition, across the four themes data synthesis identified 43 impediments from purely policy related to technical and operational aspects.

Research limitations/implications

The major implication of this review is the identification of impediments that have no linkage to the four industry challenges as revealed by stakeholders in the literature. That means that the rail industry has been dealing with a number of issues that have not been explored and studied in depth either by practitioners or academics. The underlying elements of impediments in this group are perceived as managerial, organisational and leadership factors. The rail industry has failed to manage its organisational ties across the system, both horizontally and vertically. This issue has been intensified as the result of complex interactions between different transport modes and operators associated with the non-bulk freight sector.

Originality/value

For the first time in the Australian context, this study provides an en masse and summarised picture of impediments to the competitiveness of the rail industry in the non-bulk freight market by systematically reviewing the reports generated by different stakeholders in the last ten years. The outcomes will assist the rail industry and government to understand impediments impacting on the quality of rail freight services that may lead to collaboration on decision-making and investment strategies.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 27 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2005

Graham H. May

The purpose of this paper is to assess the future development of the transport sector in Europe.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to assess the future development of the transport sector in Europe.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing on published sources of information and some expert views, the paper considers trends, drivers of change, possible scenarios and policy issues.

Findings

Transport demand for passengers and goods has grown consistently in the past and is expected to continue to do so in the future. Existing policies are unlikely to modify this trend or alleviate existing problems.

Research limitations/implicaions

The paper is based on existing sources.

Practical implications

Decisions in a wide range of policy fields have implications for transport, which are seldom considered.

Originality/value

Questions the sustainability of continuing growth in transport demand and the adequacy of current policy.

Details

Foresight, vol. 7 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6689

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2005

David Woodward

Previous applications of the life cycle costing concept have approached the task as a mere extension of ‘conventional’ discounted cash flow. So while attempts have been…

Abstract

Previous applications of the life cycle costing concept have approached the task as a mere extension of ‘conventional’ discounted cash flow. So while attempts have been made to identify all relevant variables over the entire lifespan of proposed capital investments, and subsequently attribute estimates to them, analyses have nevertheless stayed very much within the quantitative domain. This paper suggests it is possible to adopt a more sophisticated approach whereby qualitative elements of the decision are also incorporated into the analysis. Taking the example of a European commercial vehicle manufacturer operating in a developing country, it demonstrates the initial calculation of the crucial measure of cost per tonne/kilometre. It then goes on to indicate how, even in those cases where such a figure initially appears unattractive versus the offering of a competitor, the result can be ‘turned round’ to become the favoured alternative when other, less‐quantifiable, factors are incorporated into the analysis.

Details

Asian Review of Accounting, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1321-7348

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