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Article

Gregory W. Allen, Prince A. Attoh and Tao Gong

The purpose of this research was to examine the mediating roles of staff-level employee perceptions of corporate social responsibility (PCSR) and organizational…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research was to examine the mediating roles of staff-level employee perceptions of corporate social responsibility (PCSR) and organizational identification in the relationship between transformational leadership and affective organizational commitment.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey was administered to staff-level employees of private sector companies through social media groups comprising members of the alumni associations of two universities in the northeast of America. A total of 218 responses were received, and the data were analyzed using a serial multiple mediator model.

Findings

The research indicates that transformational leadership helps staff-level employees perceive the organization as socially considerate, which in turn adds to their feelings of identification and commitment to the organization. Perceived corporate social responsibility and organizational identification do mediate the relationship between transformational leadership and affective organizational commitment. Leader development programs should consider emphasizing transformational leadership to achieve a win for both organizations and society.

Originality/value

This study adds empirical evidence to understand the linkage between transformational leadership and PCSR in staff-level employees. The research provides insight into how leaders can be responsive to stakeholder demands through transformational leadership, how PCSR is engendered at the staff-level, how staff-level employee PCSR contributes organizational value and how PSCR and organizational identification partly explain how transformational leadership effects affective organizational commitment.

Details

Social Responsibility Journal, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-1117

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Article

Afokoghene Z. Okpozo, Tao Gong, Michele Campbell Ennis and Babafemi Adenuga

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of ethical leadership on the burnout process among resident physicians, and the mediating roles of general…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of ethical leadership on the burnout process among resident physicians, and the mediating roles of general self-efficacy and perceived supervisor support (PSS) in the relationship between ethical leadership behavior and various aspects of burnout.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 203 residents of three teaching hospitals in the South Atlantic Division of the USA completed the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey, the General Self-Efficacy Scale, and Survey of Perceived Supervisor Support and rated the ethical leadership of their supervising attending physicians on the Ethical Leadership Scale. Confirmatory factor analysis and path analysis were conducted to test the measurement and hypothesized structural models.

Findings

The results showed that ethical leadership had a negative indirect effect on emotional exhaustion through PSS and a positive indirect effect on personal accomplishment through general self-efficacy. However, PSS and general self-efficacy did not mediate the relationship between ethical leadership and depersonalization.

Originality/value

This study adds to the body of knowledge on the impact of ethical leadership on three aspects of burnout syndrome, i.e., emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and personal accomplishment. Moreover, this is the first study to consider PSS and general self-efficacy as intervening variables to the ethical leadership-burnout relationship.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 38 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

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Article

Alaba Apesin and Tao Gong

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of college leadership experiences on the leader self-efficacy development of freshmen in two historically black…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of college leadership experiences on the leader self-efficacy development of freshmen in two historically black institutions (HBIs).

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected in two phases from 200 freshmen to assess their leader self-efficacies at the beginning and end of a 16-week semester. The authors developed an eight-item questionnaire to measure college leadership experiences and adapted the 22-item leader efficacy questionnaire developed by Hannah and Avolio (2013) to measure self-efficacy.

Findings

The result of the structural equation modeling revealed that college leadership experiences have a significant positive impact on college leader self-efficacy. Moreover, college leadership experiences significantly mediated the effect of high school leadership experiences on college leader self-efficacy. Pre-college leader self-efficacy had a significant positive effect on college leader self-efficacy but an insignificant effect on college leadership experiences. The findings indicated that holding leadership positions and volunteering in the first semester of college were positively and strongly related to college leadership experiences.

Originality/value

First, this study will empirically examine the causal relationships between college leadership experiences and leader self-efficacy by controlling for the effect of the pre-college leader efficacy. Without controlling for the pre-existing differences among participants, the effects of college leadership experiences on leader self-efficacy development may be overestimated. Second, despite self-efficacy being a critical component in leadership models and being important in boosting leaders’ confidence, only limited research uses well-defined conceptual leadership models in studying student leader self-efficacy. This study fills the gap by using a contemporary conceptual model that encompasses the key leadership variables necessary in assessing the student leadership development.

Details

Journal of Applied Research in Higher Education, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-7003

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Article

Cynthia Mignonne Sims, Tao Gong and Claretha Hughes

Women are starting businesses at unprecedented rates, yet little is known about the leadership of small business owners. Establishing new ventures may allow women to use…

Abstract

Purpose

Women are starting businesses at unprecedented rates, yet little is known about the leadership of small business owners. Establishing new ventures may allow women to use their full abilities and benefit from a more level playing field. Business owners have the unique opportunity to lead and define their businesses based on their authentic selves, values and goals; therefore, they are more likely to be authentic leaders. Women in nontraditional industries may be challenged because the owner’s characteristics do not match those of the industry. When the enactment of one identity interferes with another identity, identity interference (II) occurs. Relational authenticity and role incongruity suggests that women founders must uniquely resolve II and find synergy among their gender and leader identities if they are to extend the boundaries of what it means to be a woman and an industry’s business leader. This research aims to determine whether gender and leader II was an antecedent or link to authentic leadership (AL).

Design/methodology/approach

Study participants were from 63 businesses in the USA states of California, Ohio and Maryland. Three leader models were established to determine whether owner gender functioned as a moderator: all genders (n = 155), women only (n = 75) and men only (n = 65). The individual owners and their employees were the units of analysis and structural equation modeling was used.

Findings

The findings revealed that II was an antecedent to AL, owners were AL and owner gender moderated AL and II.

Research limitations/implications

This study supports (Kernis, 2003; Gardner et al., 2005) the proposition that identity congruence is necessary for AL; the less interference found between gender and leader identities, the more authentic the leader. II functioned as an antecedent to AL. Moreover when the AL self’s subscales were examined relative to II, the components that were active varied dramatically based on leader gender. This suggests that addressing II and resolving the incongruence between what it mean to be a woman (or a man) and a leader contributes to the development of AL. Additionally, the AL boundary condition of relational authenticity was supported by this study; leader gender was related to the different amounts of AL (Eagly, 2005; Kernis, 2003). Support was found that AL was a dynamic process between leaders and employees. When authentic leadership questionnaire (ALQ) self (leader) and rater (employee) were compared, there was a significant amount of consistency between these ratings. For the all genders leader model, when ALQ self’s subscale was analyzed relative to the employees’ ratings, the leaders’ relational transparency was found to be active. The women only leader model revealed that AL was activated through internalized moral perspective suggesting they were able to tap into the hearts and minds of their employees. For the men only leaders, no relationship was revealed between ALQ self’s subcomponents and employee AL ratings. Relational authenticity suggests that this may be due to employees rating men owners more based on the experience and perceptions of men leaders in general and not these business owners in particular.

Practical implications

Leadership development professionals should address how II may help women examine who they are, how they work with others, and their values; decrease leader II by providing insight on how to manage potentially conflicting roles through examples of synergistic behaviors and benefits; and, build upon women owners’ ability to connect with their followers by sharing their goals and aspirations. Men owners may benefit by ensuring their employees know their business’ unique value proposition.

Originality/value

This research sought to link the identities of leader and gender to AL in the context of small businesses. It builds upon the AL theory of Avolio et al., (2004) and Jensen and Luthans (2006) who advocated using AL to study small businesses. This study determined whether business owners experienced interference between their gender and leader identities; II hindered the formation of AL and was an antecedent to AL; and the owner’s gender led to more or less AL and thus determined if leader gender moderated AL. The support for studying leader gender comes from role incongruity (Eagly and Diekman, 2005) and relational authenticity (Eagly, 2005; Kernis, 2003) which suggests that differences in how employees perceive AL may be a function of the owner’s gender. Added support comes from Jensen and Luthans (2006); they asked future studies to examine AL to determine the mechanisms behind gender differences in small businesses. Such research provides insight on the development of AL in theory and practice.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal, vol. 32 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

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Article

Song Lin, Edward G. Rogoff, Check-Teck Foo and Xiaoyuan Liu

This empirical study aims to test the impact of four types of entrepreneurial context on the growth and success rates of new ventures in China and related the findings to…

Abstract

Purpose

This empirical study aims to test the impact of four types of entrepreneurial context on the growth and success rates of new ventures in China and related the findings to the theory and practice of entrepreneurship dating back 2,500 years to ancient China.

Design/methodology/approach

After describing the business guidelines given by Fan Li, an entrepreneurial merchant selling Chinese medicines in ancient times, a conceptual framework was extracted as the basis for a discussion of the relationship between entrepreneurial context and entrepreneurial activity. Entrepreneurial context was conceptualized as being composed of family, social, business and institutional components. Five hypotheses about the influence of these different context variables on entrepreneurial activities were developed. From data compiled from the sampling of 239 business entrepreneurs in Beijing, a hierarchical regression was formed and the hypotheses tested.

Findings

The impact of entrepreneurial context on entrepreneurial activity can be divided into two layers, internal factors (e.g. family context) which are similar to “yin” (?) in the traditional Chinese philosophy while external factors (e.g. business, social and institutional contexts) were like “yang” (?). The two factors play different roles in entrepreneurial activities, while different contexts mediate and moderate each other in complex ways.

Research limitations/implications

Research limitations pertain to the size and locale of the sample. A larger sample that involved subjects from different regions would facilitate a wider understanding of the effects of entrepreneurial context upon the entrepreneurial process.

Originality/value

The theory of entrepreneurial context is in its beginning stages, and the paper completed a systematic study of entrepreneurial context through theoretical model building using large-sample empirical research. In addition, the paper is the first ever to relate the theory and practice of entrepreneurship back 2,500 years. Through a multi-research methodology, the study clearly shows the critical importance of integrating Chinese history into the development of management theory.

Details

Chinese Management Studies, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-614X

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Article

Ray Chan

– The purpose of this paper is to study police powers and accountability from a comparative perspective in both China and Hong Kong.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study police powers and accountability from a comparative perspective in both China and Hong Kong.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper compares and contrasts police powers and accountability.

Findings

The implications are many, including different political systems in which China is more authoritarian or paternalistic whereas Hong Kong is more pluralistic; checks and balances mechanisms in Hong Kong are far greater than in China; and the concept of accountability to the public is different in that Hong Kong police are accountable to members of the public but the mainland Chinese police force has a limited and top-down concept of accountability.

Originality/value

An original comparative approach to policing in Hong Kong and China.

Details

Asian Education and Development Studies, vol. 3 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-3162

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Chinese Management Studies, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-614X

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Abstract

Details

Journal of Management History, vol. 15 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1751-1348

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Article

Chicheng Liu, Libin Song, Ken Chen and Jing Xu

This paper aims to present an image-based visual servoing algorithm for a multiple pin-in-hole assembly. This paper also aims to avoid the matching and tracking of image…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present an image-based visual servoing algorithm for a multiple pin-in-hole assembly. This paper also aims to avoid the matching and tracking of image features and the remaining robust against image defects.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors derive a novel model in the set space and design three image errors to control the 3 degrees of freedom (DOF) of a single-lug workpiece in the alignment task. Analytic computations of the interaction matrix that link the time variations of the image errors to the single-lug workpiece motions are performed. The authors introduce two approximate hypotheses so that the interaction matrix has a decoupled form, and an auto-adaptive algorithm is designed to estimate the interaction matrix.

Findings

Image-based visual servoing in the set space avoids the matching and tracking of image features, and these methods are not sensitive to image effects. The control law using the auto-adaptive algorithm is more efficient than that using a static interaction matrix. Simulations and real-world experiments are performed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

Originality/value

This paper proposes a new visual servoing method to achieve pin-in-hole assembly tasks. The main advantage of this new approach is that it does not require tracking or matching of the image features, and its supplementary advantage is that it is not sensitive to image defects.

Details

Assembly Automation, vol. 40 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-5154

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Article

Amjed Javid, Awais Irshad, Munir Ashraf, Abdur Rehman, Shagufta Riaz and Kashif Iqbal

This paper aims to evaluate the effect of plasma treatment on the performance and color strength of pigment printed polypropylene nonwovens fabrics.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to evaluate the effect of plasma treatment on the performance and color strength of pigment printed polypropylene nonwovens fabrics.

Design/methodology/approach

Melt spun nonwoven fabrics have been treated with plasma discharge using oxygen as a reactive gas to activate their surfaces for better interfacial interactions. The untreated and plasma treated fabrics are printed using pigment print pastes to investigate the print properties of nonwoven fabrics that are correlated to surface characteristics. The printed fabrics are characterized through FTIR, color fastness to washing and rubbing, flexural rigidity and moisture management observations.

Findings

The fabrics treated with oxygen plasma exhibited higher wettability, higher overall moisture management capability, enhanced color strength and superior color fastness to washing. However, bending length and flexural rigidity have been increased.

Originality/value

This study offers promising findings regarding the surface activation of polypropylene nonwovens for enhanced performance, comfort and color fastness characteristics.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 49 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

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