This paper aims to evaluate the FIFA requirement that World Cup host nations make alcohol available at World Cup stadia because of its sponsorship agreement with Anheuser-Busch…
This paper aims to evaluate the FIFA requirement that World Cup host nations make alcohol available at World Cup stadia because of its sponsorship agreement with Anheuser-Busch. This paper suggests a framework that FIFA should use in evaluating potential host nations to address the ethical implications of alcohol at the World Cup, especially considering the recent Qatar 2022 World Cup, the first to be held in an Islamic Country.
Using historical analysis of recent World Cups and guided by the Culture-Centered Approach (Dutta, 2008) and stakeholder analysis literature, this paper examines the ethical dilemmas host nations have faced because of FIFA’s insistence on alcohol sales at World Cup stadia.
The analysis suggests that a three-step process of host country assessment, stakeholder mapping and negotiation would enable the discovery of potential ethical conflicts and thus their negotiation to mitigate the ethical conflicts FIFA’s preexisting sponsorship agreements create for some World Cup host nations, especially Islamic countries.
While the framework is conceptual and has not been tested, the components from which the authors draw are well established. The application to mega events sports hosting negotiations is an original contribution. The interdisciplinary nature of the framework also provides a contribution to the research field.
Application of the framework would enable FIFA and host countries to negotiate mutually agreeable conditions and avoid placing host nations in ethically compromising situations, which is especially timely as FIFA expands into Islamic countries. Its utilization would provide a Halal environment for World Cups hosted in Islamic and perhaps other, countries.
FIFA’s commitment to alcohol at World Cups should be questioned. FIFA should not expand this dangerous practice of associating sports with alcohol. Female fans may feel safer, as occurred in Qatar 2022.
This paper's framework uniquely combines communication and strategic management literature and applies it to mega sports events in an original way that would lead to more ethical and culturally contextualized World Cups rather than reifying the alcohol–sport nexus.
Using questionnaires and interviews, a survey was undertaken of publishers/producers of electronic information with regard to retention, storage and access. It was found that, although some large publishers were innovative with their use of electronic material for different purposes, many commercial publishers are only gradually getting involved with electronic production methods and few have policies on electronic archiving. Among publishers, there is a low level of awareness of the Knowledge Warehouse project and a marked disinclination to deposit material with a national electronic archive on a voluntary basis. Database producers have more interest in electronic archiving and take more measures to refresh their magnetic media. There is some evidence of material produced in electronic form only that is in danger of being deleted from databases, electronic newsletters and videotex. CD‐ROM is the medium of the future for several publishers and database producers. The archival life of various electronic media is considered, and standards relating to electronic publishing are discussed. Some initiatives in electronic archiving are described.
Most years, several AIB members are elected as AIB Fellows on account of their excellent international business scholarship, and/or past service as AIB President or Executive…
Most years, several AIB members are elected as AIB Fellows on account of their excellent international business scholarship, and/or past service as AIB President or Executive Secretary. The Fellows are in charge of electing Eminent Scholars as well as the International Executive and International Educator (formerly, Dean) of the Year, who often provide the focus for Plenary Sessions at AIB Conferences. Their history since 1975 covers over half of the span of the AIB and reflects many issues that dominated that period in terms of research themes, progresses and problems, the internationalization of business education and the role of international business in society and around the globe. Like other organizations, the Fellows Group had their ups and downs, successes and failures – and some fun too!
Aim of the present monograph is the economic analysis of the role of MNEs regarding globalisation and digital economy and in parallel there is a reference and examination of some…
Aim of the present monograph is the economic analysis of the role of MNEs regarding globalisation and digital economy and in parallel there is a reference and examination of some legal aspects concerning MNEs, cyberspace and e‐commerce as the means of expression of the digital economy. The whole effort of the author is focused on the examination of various aspects of MNEs and their impact upon globalisation and vice versa and how and if we are moving towards a global digital economy.
I am delighted to be here today to honor the work of Alan Rugman. Alain Verbeke (Calgary) and I will discuss Alan's contributions, with me focusing primarily on his contributions…
I am delighted to be here today to honor the work of Alan Rugman. Alain Verbeke (Calgary) and I will discuss Alan's contributions, with me focusing primarily on his contributions to the field of international business (IB); Alain, his contributions to international management (IM).
First, AIB conference themes have reflected the issues thought to be important during its 50 years of operations, and the Fellows have regularly staffed Plenary Sessions devoted to these yearly themes (e.g., Eden & Lenway, 2001 on globalization).
The purpose of this study is to provide a theoretical driven model, explaining the interaction between psychic distance and environment on increased (subsequent) resource…
The purpose of this study is to provide a theoretical driven model, explaining the interaction between psychic distance and environment on increased (subsequent) resource commitment decisions made by firms in their internationalization process. Increasingly, contrary to the Uppsala internationalization process (IP) model, firms are engaging in direct investment, rather than exporting as an initial step into overseas markets. Yet, it remains unclear how psychic distance affects firms engaged in increased resource commitment, especially in the initial phase of their international expansion when uncertainty is higher.
Building theory by integrating two key theories of internationalisation (IP model and eclectic paradigm), the paper explains increased resource commitment. Comparing firm types, the study also fills the research gap of recognising multinational enterprises (MNEs) as heterogeneous in their internationalization experience. Psychic distance and environment are analysed across three groups of firms (born‐global, recent and older entrants) to observe the moderating effects of firm experience and related uncertainty. A model and propositions of the relationships between psychic distance and environment, providing an increased commitment perspective, are presented.
There are mixed responses to the three groups of firms for psychic distance factors (political, geographic, social, information and commercial and economic development); and environmental factors (near‐market effects and sunk costs). Surprisingly born‐global and recent entrants are less affected by psychic distance, and more influenced by external factors, but for different reasons, in making early increased resource commitment decisions in the host market, than are older entrants.
Firms need to consider the strategic objectives of the parent company, psychic distance, local environment and international experience when engaging in increase resource commitment in host economies.
The paper provides theoretical insights and practical implications for those involved in international business and marketing.
Americans are increasingly aware that international business affects their lives. Consider the furor over foreign automobile imports or the concern about foreigners buying up U.S…
Americans are increasingly aware that international business affects their lives. Consider the furor over foreign automobile imports or the concern about foreigners buying up U.S. farmland. Remember how excited U.S. soft drink manufacturers got about diplomatic recognition of China's teeming millions of thirsty citizens? Overseas sales by U.S. firms have been growing in both developed and underdeveloped countries. On the other hand, involvement of foreign businesses in the U.S. economy has been increasing at a “significant pace” recently. Given that knowledge has been equated with money and with power, the need for information on international or multinational business should be apparent. But what is the best source or sources of such information? Two directories of international business, Kelly's Manufacturers and Merchants Directory and the Who Owns Whom (WOW) directories, are in their ninety‐third and twenty‐first editions respectively. In addition there is Bottin International: International Business Register, less well‐known to Americans but equally venerable, now in its 182nd edition. Dun and Bradstreet's Principal International Businesses (PIB), in its seventh edition, is the relative newcomer to the field. This review will compare and contrast the above‐named directories, pointing out areas where they overlap and suggesting to what segment of library users each might appeal.
A case can be made that, to some extent at least, the marketing discipline has not kept pace with the practice of international marketing. Recognizing that internationalization is…
A case can be made that, to some extent at least, the marketing discipline has not kept pace with the practice of international marketing. Recognizing that internationalization is a dynamic process that may vary across the business of marketing, the development of marketing thought, the direction of marketing education, and the marketing research process, this paper explores that premise. Then, given the current emphasis on the integration of business activities on a worldwide basis, it suggests an interdisciplinary approach, grounded in the concept of market imperfections and internalization theory, to deal with the major challenges that now confront international marketing scholars.
This chapter complements the one that appeared as “History of the AIB Fellows: 1975–2008” in Volume 14 of this series (International Business Scholarship: AIB Fellows on the First…
This chapter complements the one that appeared as “History of the AIB Fellows: 1975–2008” in Volume 14 of this series (International Business Scholarship: AIB Fellows on the First 50 Years and Beyond, Jean J. Boddewyn, Editor). It traces what happened under the deanship of Alan Rugman (2011–2014) who took many initiatives reported here while his death in July 2014 generated trenchant, funny, and loving comments from more than half of the AIB Fellows. The lives and contributions of many other major international business scholars who passed away from 2008 to 2014 are also evoked here: Endel Kolde, Lee Nehrt, Howard Perlmutter, Stefan Robock, John Ryans, Vern Terpstra, and Daniel Van Den Bulcke.