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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2003

Stephanie Taylor

XML is a standard used to create a text‐based structure for storing information. It is a set of rules used to lay out text to make it easy to navigate for computer…

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Abstract

XML is a standard used to create a text‐based structure for storing information. It is a set of rules used to lay out text to make it easy to navigate for computer programs. It works by separating style from content, a simple but revolutionary concept that is very applicable to the library and information environment. This guide offers an overview of XML, what it is, how and why it has been developed, how it works and where future developments might lead. In addition, the “Frequently used terms” section contains definitions of the terms and acronyms associated with XML that can be confusing to the beginner. The “Resources” section offers suggestions for further reading on the subject, to help in building on the basic overview offered here.

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Interlending & Document Supply, vol. 31 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-1615

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1990

EFTHIMIS N. EFTHIMIADIS

This review reports on the current state and the potential of tools and systems designed to aid online searching, referred to here as online searching aids. Intermediary…

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187

Abstract

This review reports on the current state and the potential of tools and systems designed to aid online searching, referred to here as online searching aids. Intermediary mechanisms are examined in terms of the two stage model, i.e. end‐user, intermediary, ‘raw database’, and different forms of user — system interaction are discussed. The evolution of the terminology of online searching aids is presented with special emphasis on the expert/non‐expert division. Terms defined include gateways, front‐end systems, intermediary systems and post‐processing. The alternative configurations that such systems can have and the approaches to the design of the user interface are discussed. The review then analyses the functions of online searching aids, i.e. logon procedures, access to hosts, help features, search formulation, query reformulation, database selection, uploading, downloading and post‐processing. Costs are then briefly examined. The review concludes by looking at future trends following recent developments in computer science and elsewhere. Distributed expert based information systems (debis), the standard generalised mark‐up language (SGML), the client‐server model, object‐orientation and parallel processing are expected to influence, if they have not done so already, the design and implementation of future online searching aids.

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Journal of Documentation, vol. 46 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1991

Joan M. Smith

Computer‐aided acquisition and logistic support (CALS), dealingwith the automation and integration of all functions and processes thatmake up the many aspects of…

Abstract

Computer‐aided acquisition and logistic support (CALS), dealing with the automation and integration of all functions and processes that make up the many aspects of acquisition and logistic support of weapons systems, is explored with particular reference to the area of standard generalised mark‐up language (SGML).

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Logistics Information Management, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-6053

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1989

Bill Tuck

Desktop publishing has emerged in the last few years as perhaps the most exciting new application of the microcomputer. Prior to this development, the only way of…

Abstract

Desktop publishing has emerged in the last few years as perhaps the most exciting new application of the microcomputer. Prior to this development, the only way of producing high quality printed output from computer generated text was to use elaborate embedded formatting codes for driving a typesetter (as in the Unix troff system) or else to use very expensive purpose built equipment (such as that developed for the newspaper printing industry). Thanks to desktop publishing the situation has changed dramatically. With the aid of software packages such as Ventura Publisher or Pagemaker, low cost microcomputers and laser printers can be used to produce high quality camera ready output in a great variety of formats and with sophisticated typographic control. With such cost savings, the quality of presentation material can be greatly improved. It becomes affordable for even small organisations to produce, in‐house, properly printed brochures, newsletters, factsheets, and other forms of documentation. This move towards a higher quality of published information helps immeasurably to improve the public image and credibility of the organisation. With greater control over the printing process it also becomes easier to provide more frequent updates of material. Thus information can be more timely and accurate, as well as better presented. In addition, it may no longer be necessary to print off large numbers of any particular document at any one time: short runs and ‘publication on demand’ become feasible with DTP. Even online storage and document delivery over communications networks become possible, particularly with the adoption of a standard page description language (such as PostScript). In summary, desktop publishing makes communication easier, both by making the printed product more readable and by enabling a whole range of additional services to be added; such as frequent updating, demand publishing and electronic archiving. New methods of document distribution, using electronic mail or other digital networks, also become possible. In this sense, it may represent just the first step towards a radical change in the way we communicate.

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Aslib Proceedings, vol. 41 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0001-253X

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2000

Eduardo Peis, Félix de Moya and J. Carlos Fernández‐Molina

The eventual adaptation of archives to new technological possibilities could begin with the creation of digital versions of archival finding aids, which would allow the…

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Abstract

The eventual adaptation of archives to new technological possibilities could begin with the creation of digital versions of archival finding aids, which would allow the international diffusion of descriptive information. The Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML), document type definition (DTD) for archival description known as encoded archival description (EAD) is an appropriate tool for this purpose. Presents a methodological strategy that begins with an analysis of EAD and the informational object to be marked up, allowing the semiautomatic creation of a digital version.

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Library Hi Tech, vol. 18 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0737-8831

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1989

David P. Martinsen, Richard A. Love and Lorrin R. Garson

Mounting primary full text information into an online database requires journal text be segmented into the proper fields and indexed. The American Chemical Society…

Abstract

Mounting primary full text information into an online database requires journal text be segmented into the proper fields and indexed. The American Chemical Society keyboards its primary research journals for publication directly into a publishing database with all of the fields identified. Using this database, photocomposition software inserts the appropriate typesetting codes based on data type to produce the printed journals. Database building routines use this same resource to create an online full text file that allows for search and display of text based on data type. This dual purpose of the initial keyboarding step affords substantial savings in using the journal information for multiple purposes in electronic publishing. Many publishers of scholarly journal information, however, keyboard their journals with the primary intent of composition for publication in hard copy form. In order to mount these journals into a full text database, their computer composition files must be preprocessed to identify the field elements (authors, text, tables, figures, references, and so on), sentences, paragraphs, and special characters not included in the standard ASCII character set. This paper contains a description of the use of a generalized markup format for primary information that facilitates its conversion into an online full text database or other media for electronic publishing.

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Online Review, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-314X

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1989

Monica Blake

Using questionnaires and interviews, a survey was undertaken of publishers/producers of electronic information with regard to retention, storage and access. It was found…

Abstract

Using questionnaires and interviews, a survey was undertaken of publishers/producers of electronic information with regard to retention, storage and access. It was found that, although some large publishers were innovative with their use of electronic material for different purposes, many commercial publishers are only gradually getting involved with electronic production methods and few have policies on electronic archiving. Among publishers, there is a low level of awareness of the Knowledge Warehouse project and a marked disinclination to deposit material with a national electronic archive on a voluntary basis. Database producers have more interest in electronic archiving and take more measures to refresh their magnetic media. There is some evidence of material produced in electronic form only that is in danger of being deleted from databases, electronic newsletters and videotex. CD‐ROM is the medium of the future for several publishers and database producers. The archival life of various electronic media is considered, and standards relating to electronic publishing are discussed. Some initiatives in electronic archiving are described.

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The Electronic Library, vol. 7 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-0473

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1999

Matthew J. Dovey

Metadata is a complex subject, and many of its complexities are extremely subtle. To further complicate matters, “metadata” has become an overloaded term, and is often…

Abstract

Metadata is a complex subject, and many of its complexities are extremely subtle. To further complicate matters, “metadata” has become an overloaded term, and is often used in different contexts by different communities with different motivations. It is very easy to overlook this diversity of motivation since these communities share many of their tools and problems. This paper identifies three different such “schools” of metadata and discusses their history and motivations.

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VINE, vol. 29 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-5728

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1990

Betsy N. Kiser

All of us in the library community are familiar with the impact of the MARC (machine‐readable cataloging) record on library operations. Whether we specialize in…

Abstract

All of us in the library community are familiar with the impact of the MARC (machine‐readable cataloging) record on library operations. Whether we specialize in administrative, systems, public, or technical services, we recognize the MARC record as a standard data storage format that has made it easier to produce, store, and retrieve data. Few disagree that widespread adoption of the MARC record has enabled libraries to realize the full benefits of automation.

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Reference Services Review, vol. 18 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0090-7324

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1995

ROY J. Adams

Project ELSA is examining the use of documents encoded in SGML (Standard Generalised Markup Language) for the delivery of information to library end users and to…

Abstract

Project ELSA is examining the use of documents encoded in SGML (Standard Generalised Markup Language) for the delivery of information to library end users and to librarians acting as information intermediaries. A partnership of industry providers and an end user working together within the Third Framework of the CEC Libraries programme, is constructing a delivery system using SGML encoded journal articles which will be used to investigate technical issues and to examine the potential for offering new and improved services. The development of document delivery is discussed briefly followed by some background on SGML and comment on progress within the ELSA project. Some possible applications of such a system are discussed.

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Program, vol. 29 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0033-0337

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