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Book part
Publication date: 28 September 2015

Md Shah Azam

Information and communications technology (ICT) offers enormous opportunities for individuals, businesses and society. The application of ICT is equally important to…

Abstract

Information and communications technology (ICT) offers enormous opportunities for individuals, businesses and society. The application of ICT is equally important to economic and non-economic activities. Researchers have increasingly focused on the adoption and use of ICT by small and medium enterprises (SMEs) as the economic development of a country is largely dependent on them. Following the success of ICT utilisation in SMEs in developed countries, many developing countries are looking to utilise the potential of the technology to develop SMEs. Past studies have shown that the contribution of ICT to the performance of SMEs is not clear and certain. Thus, it is crucial to determine the effectiveness of ICT in generating firm performance since this has implications for SMEs’ expenditure on the technology. This research examines the diffusion of ICT among SMEs with respect to the typical stages from innovation adoption to post-adoption, by analysing the actual usage of ICT and value creation. The mediating effects of integration and utilisation on SME performance are also studied. Grounded in the innovation diffusion literature, institutional theory and resource-based theory, this study has developed a comprehensive integrated research model focused on the research objectives. Following a positivist research paradigm, this study employs a mixed-method research approach. A preliminary conceptual framework is developed through an extensive literature review and is refined by results from an in-depth field study. During the field study, a total of 11 SME owners or decision-makers were interviewed. The recorded interviews were transcribed and analysed using NVivo 10 to refine the model to develop the research hypotheses. The final research model is composed of 30 first-order and five higher-order constructs which involve both reflective and formative measures. Partial least squares-based structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) is employed to test the theoretical model with a cross-sectional data set of 282 SMEs in Bangladesh. Survey data were collected using a structured questionnaire issued to SMEs selected by applying a stratified random sampling technique. The structural equation modelling utilises a two-step procedure of data analysis. Prior to estimating the structural model, the measurement model is examined for construct validity of the study variables (i.e. convergent and discriminant validity).

The estimates show cognitive evaluation as an important antecedent for expectation which is shaped primarily by the entrepreneurs’ beliefs (perception) and also influenced by the owners’ innovativeness and culture. Culture further influences expectation. The study finds that facilitating condition, environmental pressure and country readiness are important antecedents of expectation and ICT use. The results also reveal that integration and the degree of ICT utilisation significantly affect SMEs’ performance. Surprisingly, the findings do not reveal any significant impact of ICT usage on performance which apparently suggests the possibility of the ICT productivity paradox. However, the analysis finally proves the non-existence of the paradox by demonstrating the mediating role of ICT integration and degree of utilisation explain the influence of information technology (IT) usage on firm performance which is consistent with the resource-based theory. The results suggest that the use of ICT can enhance SMEs’ performance if the technology is integrated and properly utilised. SME owners or managers, interested stakeholders and policy makers may follow the study’s outcomes and focus on ICT integration and degree of utilisation with a view to attaining superior organisational performance.

This study urges concerned business enterprises and government to look at the environmental and cultural factors with a view to achieving ICT usage success in terms of enhanced firm performance. In particular, improving organisational practices and procedures by eliminating the traditional power distance inside organisations and implementing necessary rules and regulations are important actions for managing environmental and cultural uncertainties. The application of a Bengali user interface may help to ensure the productivity of ICT use by SMEs in Bangladesh. Establishing a favourable national technology infrastructure and legal environment may contribute positively to improving the overall situation. This study also suggests some changes and modifications in the country’s existing policies and strategies. The government and policy makers should undertake mass promotional programs to disseminate information about the various uses of computers and their contribution in developing better organisational performance. Organising specialised training programs for SME capacity building may succeed in attaining the motivation for SMEs to use ICT. Ensuring easy access to the technology by providing loans, grants and subsidies is important. Various stakeholders, partners and related organisations should come forward to support government policies and priorities in order to ensure the productive use of ICT among SMEs which finally will help to foster Bangladesh’s economic development.

Details

E-Services Adoption: Processes by Firms in Developing Nations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-325-9

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 April 2007

Shiaw‐Wen Tien, Yi‐Chan Chung, Chih‐Hung Tsai, Chia‐Hsiang Hsieh and Hung‐Hsi Chen

This research probes into the execution of small and medium‐sized enterprises’ value creativities by a difference analysis with different classifications, different…

Abstract

This research probes into the execution of small and medium‐sized enterprises’ value creativities by a difference analysis with different classifications, different capital, different turnover, different employees, and different established years. This study develop a questionnaire about value creativity with five dimensions and thirty‐five items according to “Valuation” by McKinsey and Company, Inc. and Copeland et al., such as: “Aspiration and target,” “Portfolio management,” “Organization design,” “Process management,” and “Business and individual performance management.” The results are as follows: (1) Most small and medium‐ sized enterprises (SMEs) have executed value creativities; (2) There is a difference in the execution of value creativities between the livelihood industry and the chemical industry; the execution of value creativities by livelihood industry is better than the chemical industry; (3) For value creativities of the execution of different capital and turnover for SMEs, bigger entities are better than smaller ones; (4) For the value creativities of the execution of different numbers of staff in SMEs, those with more staff are better than those with fewer staff; (5) For the value creativities of the execution of different established years for SMEs, those established longer are better than those established shorter.

Details

Asian Journal on Quality, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1598-2688

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Article
Publication date: 11 January 2008

M.H. Bala Subrahmanya

This paper aims to trace the evolution of industrial subcontracting in Japan, over a period of time. Subsequently, the transition in the spread and depth of subcontracting…

1383

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to trace the evolution of industrial subcontracting in Japan, over a period of time. Subsequently, the transition in the spread and depth of subcontracting along with relative performance of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in Japanese industry over a period of time are to be analyzed.

Design/methodology/approach

First, a historical over view of the evolution of industrial subcontracting in Japan is discussed based on literature and discussion with experts. Secondly, based on secondary data, the industry‐wise trends of subcontracting and performance of small, medium and large enterprises are analyzed.

Findings

Japanese industrial subcontracting and structure evolved over the period, particularly after World War II, represents integration and mutual coordination among small, medium and large enterprises across industries. Along with the growth of multi‐layered subcontracting, labour productivities of SMEs have improved as that of large though value added/value of output has remained more or less at the same level. Overall, there is reason to argue that SMEs have benefited from the system of subcontracting in Japanese manufacturing towards its overall competitiveness.

Practical implications

It would be worthwhile to promote multi‐layered industrial subcontracting, particularly with locally based/newly entered TNCs at the helm of the pyramid, in industrializing countries like India, to enhance the competitiveness of local SMEs.

Originality/value

This paper provides the reader with an understanding of evolution of industrial subcontracting in Japan since World War I and its recent trends and throws light on how SMEs have improved their performance over a period of time.

Details

Journal of Management History, vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1751-1348

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Article
Publication date: 10 July 2017

Raphael Odoom, Priscilla Mensah and George Asamoah

This paper aims to draw on the organizational ecology theory to examine variations in branding efforts and performance of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) across…

1025

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to draw on the organizational ecology theory to examine variations in branding efforts and performance of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) across enterprises sizes and business operating sectors.

Design/methodology/approach

A four-stage analysis involving principal component analysis, Pearson correlation, ANOVA and logistic regressions was used on a sample of 430 SMEs within an emerging market.

Findings

Principal component analysis identified four brand marketing efforts relevant to the SMEs. These efforts were used in fluctuating extents among small-sized versus medium-sized enterprises, as well as manufacturing versus services SMEs. Additionally, proportionate levels of performance corollaries were found to be accruable across the enterprise sizes and operating sectors.

Originality/value

The paper first identifies four brand-building efforts germane to SMEs within an emerging market and examines their precise contributions to firm performance within enterprise sizes and business operating sectors. It further reinforces the relevance of brand marketing programs to the growth of SMEs by establishing the likelihood and extent to which brand-building efforts impact on SME performance across enterprise sizes, as well as operating sectors. The study also presents issues of potential research and managerial interest from an emerging market, offering insightful implications to researchers and SME managers.

Details

Journal of Research in Marketing and Entrepreneurship, vol. 19 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1471-5201

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2001

Aidan Berry and Lew Perren

Influential reports combined with media attention on directors’ remuneration has sparked academic and practitioner interest in the whole area of corporate governance…

1708

Abstract

Influential reports combined with media attention on directors’ remuneration has sparked academic and practitioner interest in the whole area of corporate governance. Cadbury’s suggestion to strengthen the independent governance role has led to particular interest in non‐executive directors (NEDs). More recently, the role of NEDs in the governance of small and medium‐size enterprises (SMEs) has started to generate attention, and a number of registers of NEDs are established. Indeed, the role of NEDs in SMEs received special attention in the recent Hampel report (1998). Until recently, only two papers directly addressed the role of NEDs in SMEs; both papers were by Mileham and used data obtained from a survey concerned with the role of NEDs carried out with Institute of Management members. This research made a useful contribution, but had a number of limitations. More recently, the increased interest in the role of NEDs in SMEs has sparked further research, but there is still a need for an overall picture of NED and mentor involvement in UK SMEs. The research in this paper addresses this need by presenting the results from a survey sent to 5,279 UK SMEs selected from the Yellow Pages Business Database. The questionnaire was designed to provide a general overview of NED and mentor involvement in SMEs and to allow the following questions to be answered: How many SMEs have NEDs, and are there any firm size patterns? Are there firm age patterns? Are there firm sector patterns? Does firm size influence the formality of NED procedures? What does the managing director believe NEDs add? Are firms with NEDs more successful than those without a NED? Does the profile of the managing director matter? Does a firm’s size influence NED involvement? How do firms acquire NEDs? Why do some SMEs not have NEDs? The paper presents these findings and explores the implications for SMEs and policy advisors.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

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Article
Publication date: 18 August 2020

Abimbola Olukemi Windapo, Oluseye Olugboyega and Sunday Odediran

This study aims to investigate the impacts of procurement strategies on the growing proportion of construction small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and whether the…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the impacts of procurement strategies on the growing proportion of construction small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and whether the size of the construction company moderates the effect.

Design/methodology/approach

This study adopted a quantitative research approach and a cross-sectional questionnaire survey in achieving its objectives. The survey requires the respondent to identify both the most successful and most outstanding project that the respondent was involved in between 2010 and 2016.

Findings

The study found that only traditional and management-oriented procurement strategies ensure the achievement of all growth plans for construction SMEs in South Africa; and that medium-sized construction enterprises achieve social growth such as community empowerment, managerial skills and advancement on the cidb Register of Contractors.

Practical implications

The findings of the study imply that policymakers should base their decisions regarding macroeconomic issues and growth plans for construction SMEs on the internal and external factors such as differences in the sizes of construction SMEs and differences in the suitability of procurement strategies affecting the growth of construction SMEs.

Originality/value

In past studies, the diversity amongst SMEs is often overlooked and SMEs are erroneously assumed to share similar objectives, possess equal capabilities and face challenges of the same magnitude. The original contribution of this study is shown in the investigation of the moderating effect of SMEs’ diversity (in terms of company size) on their growth proportion as influenced by procurement strategies.

Details

Journal of Financial Management of Property and Construction , vol. 25 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1366-4387

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 19 February 2021

Oluwasola Oni

In many developing and developed countries, small/medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are a very important part of the economy and are commonly referred to as the lifeblood of…

Abstract

In many developing and developed countries, small/medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are a very important part of the economy and are commonly referred to as the lifeblood of the economy. SMEs in Nigeria have contributed around 48% of the national gross domestic product (GDP) in recent times and account for about 17.4 million jobs. Considering how much they contribute to national economies, it is expedient to seek ways in which they can derive value from innovative technologies to further strengthen their position. Web 2.0 technologies and associated social media applications such as social network sites, microblogging, weblogs and similar technologies are known to improve communication and collaboration among employees and customers. SMEs typically have a small budget for branding, advertising and corporate communication. Consequently, social media provides a ready and inexpensive tool that can be used to communicate with customers and for internal communication and collaboration. Several studies in the area of diffusion of innovations to SMEs argue that they do not usually use adopted technologies to its full potential and as such do not add as much value to the business. Extant research on corporate communication using social media focuses on large organizations’ adoption and use of the technology with little focus on SMEs. This contribution aims to fill this gap by considering how SMEs in Nigeria adopt and use social media to improve corporate communication.

Details

Strategic Corporate Communication in the Digital Age
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-264-5

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 March 2010

Qingxin Lan and Songxu Wu

The purpose of this paper is to develop a reliable and valid understanding of entrepreneurship and examine the relationships between small and medium‐sized Chinese…

2105

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a reliable and valid understanding of entrepreneurship and examine the relationships between small and medium‐sized Chinese manufacturing enterprises, the intensity of their entrepreneurial orientation and the degree of their internationalization. In addition, it examines whether entrepreneurial orientation would affect enterprises' internationalization strategies and their success.

Design/methodology/approach

The seven‐step procedure for scale development is used and survey data have been utilized to conduct statistical analysis.

Findings

The paper finds that entrepreneurial orientation is positively related to the degree of internationalization, particularly amongst the small and medium‐sized Chinese manufacturing enterprises. The international experiences of enterprises have significant importance and positively affect the degree of their internationalization. In addition, the degree of their success depends greatly on their attitudes towards risk taking, their ability to diversify internationally and successfully compete with those already established in the market.

Originality/value

A lot of studies have been conducted on entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial orientation. However, few people have ever studied the relation between the degree of entrepreneurial orientation and internationalization. Empirical studies on the correlations between entrepreneurial orientation and firm performance are not abundant in China. Furthermore, very few researches on the correlations between entrepreneurial orientation and internationalization have been conducted. The research presented in this paper is intended to bridge this gap. Through empirical analyses of their relationships, this paper shows how entrepreneurial strategies can stimulate competitive advantages and drive forward the international developments of the Chinese enterprises, particularly the small and medium‐sized.

Details

Journal of Chinese Entrepreneurship, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-1396

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 26 August 2016

Ansgar Zerfass and Luisa Winkler

Small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are seldom the focus of corporate communication research. However, they are the heart of the European economy and, as such, of…

Abstract

Small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are seldom the focus of corporate communication research. However, they are the heart of the European economy and, as such, of utmost importance for communication science and practice. This chapter contributes to the body of knowledge by investigating how corporate communication is practised and by understanding how communication prevails in small and medium firms in Germany. The chapter starts with a clarification of current definitions of such organisations, which are very heterogeneous. Special features of SMEs – like the strong position of founder and their proximity to the company – have to be taken into account when analysing communication structures and activities. Empirical insights based on a survey of 572 respondents show that most SMEs understand corporate communication as dialogue and their governance structure for communication is oriented towards the top management. The most important communication instruments used by SMEs are websites, media relations, personal communication and events/trade fairs. Findings are presented and linked to an overarching perspective of strategic communication.

Details

The Management Game of Communication
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-716-8

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 March 2009

Tulus Tambunan

The Indonesian government has been trying to support the development of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in the country, as these enterprises are expected to play a…

4256

Abstract

Purpose

The Indonesian government has been trying to support the development of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in the country, as these enterprises are expected to play a crucial role not only for employment creation but also for GDP formation and export development. The paper aims to address the following three questions. First, are networks important for the development of SME clusters, especially for those involved in export activities? Second, in what type of clusters are networks well developed? Third, what is the role of government; does it also play as an important network for SME cluster development?

Design/methodology/approach

This paper is based on an ongoing research on the importance of networks in the development of export‐oriented SME clusters in Indonesia. Although the paper also discusses other important issues related to the development of SMEs in the country, i.e. constraints facing the enterprises and women entrepreneurs, the paper focuses on the importance of networks.

Findings

First, SMEs are of overwhelming importance to Indonesia because they account for more than 90 percent of all firms outside of the agricultural sector. Second, the main constraints faced by small entrepreneurs are, lack of finance and difficulties in marketing. Third, the representation of women entrepreneurs in Indonesia is still relatively low which can be attributed to various factors, e.g. low level of education and lack of training opportunities that make Indonesian women severely disadvantaged in both the economy and society. Finally, although in general Indonesia is not well represented with small and medium industrial clusters that feed into global commodity chains, some clusters have gradually become export‐oriented. Among many factors, well developed networks especially with traders, trading houses, and foreign tourists are indeed an important factor for their increasingly export activities. Even these agents have played more important role than supports from government for their successful export.

Originality/value

The paper examines the importance of networks for the export‐oriented SME clusters in Indonesia.

Details

Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6204

Keywords

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