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Conditional cash transfers (CCT) have been adopted in many countries over the last two decades. Although the impacts of these programs have been studied extensively…
Conditional cash transfers (CCT) have been adopted in many countries over the last two decades. Although the impacts of these programs have been studied extensively, understanding of the economic mechanisms through which cash and conditions affect household decisions remains incomplete. In particular, relatively little is known about the effects of these programs on intra-household allocation decisions. This chapter uses evidence from a program in Cambodia, where eligibility varied substantially among siblings in the same household, to illustrate these effects. A simple model of schooling decisions highlights three different effects of a child-specific CCT: an income effect, a substitution effect, and a displacement effect. The model predicts that such a CCT should unambiguously increase enrollment for eligible children, but have an ambiguous effect on ineligible siblings. The ambiguity arises from the interaction of a positive income effect with a negative displacement effect. These predictions are shown to be consistent with evidence from Cambodia, where the CESSP Scholarship Program (CSP) makes modest transfers, conditional on school enrollment for children of middle-school age. Scholarship recipients were more than 20 percentage points more likely to be enrolled in school, and 10 percentage points less likely to work for pay. However, the school enrollment and work of ineligible siblings was largely unaffected by the program. A possible fourth effect, operating through non-pecuniary spillovers of the intervention among siblings, remains largely outside the scope of the analysis, although there is some tentative evidence to suggest that it might also be at work.
This article highlights some of Dronkers and Hox's significant findings about family background and sibling effects on divorce. It proposes that in addition to siblingsâ…
This article highlights some of Dronkers and Hox's significant findings about family background and sibling effects on divorce. It proposes that in addition to siblingsâ common family background and genetic heritage, their interaction over the life course may influence their attitudes toward marriage and divorce. The influence of sibling modeling and interaction over the life course may vary, depending on the gender and birth order of siblings.
The present research aims to focus on sibling effects and birth order on preteen children's perceptions of influence in family purchase decision making. It also aims to…
The present research aims to focus on sibling effects and birth order on preteen children's perceptions of influence in family purchase decision making. It also aims to examine the accuracy of children's perceived influence as compared to their parents. These areas have received little attention from consumer behavior researchers and, although there is research on sibling effects from broader sociological and psychological perspectives, there is very little empirical research from a marketing perspective. This research seeks to begin to fill that gap.
A key methodological contribution of the paper is that data were collected from triads as opposed to the more common dyadic mother/child data. Surveys were used to collect the data. Subjects, which consisted of children and their parents, were recruited through an elementary school in a midâsized city in the southeastern USA. A total of 184 triads were approached to participate and 94 completed the surveys from each member of the triad were received. Data were analyzed using SPSS and four a priori hypotheses were tested. Theoretically the paper draws from research on sibling effects.
The paper finds that preteens in the study perceived they had significant influence on purchase decisions. Key results of interest include the finding that the mere presence of siblings weakened the perception of influence, yet interestingly, results indicate that laterâborn/only children have more influence on certain purchases than firstborns. In addition, results indicate that preteens felt they have more influence on purchases that are intended for their use as opposed to purchases that are for family use. Parents also felt that children have more influence on purchases for the child, but parents did not perceive the levels to be as high as their children did.
If laterâborns and only children have more influence and as such get their way more often, does this affect their ability to be competent adult consumers? Are there more instances of compulsive shopping and other decisionâmaking problems because they have become accustomed to getting what they want? In addition, if children overestimate influence, is it because they are not yet able to fully understand persuasion and the use of influence? From a public policy perspective there have often been concerns raised about children's ability to deal with influence, and if very subtle forms of influence are used, children may not be equipped to recognize these attempts and as a result may be more susceptible to them.
Research examining sibling effects on children's perceived influence is virtually nonâexistent. According to Commuri and Gentry, who conducted a thorough review of research in family decision making, sibling influence has not been systematically examined in consumer research. Research in this area is important as marketers seek to fully understand the impact children have on family purchase decisions, the roles children play in the decisionâmaking process, and the factors affecting children's degree of influence.
Previous research provides evidence of a negative effect of body mass on women's economic outcomes. We extend this research by using a much older sample of individuals…
Previous research provides evidence of a negative effect of body mass on women's economic outcomes. We extend this research by using a much older sample of individuals from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and by using a body mass measure that is lagged by 15 years instead of the traditional 7 years. One of the main contributions of this paper is a replication of previous research findings given our differing samples and measures. We compare OLS estimates with sibling fixed effects estimates and find that obesity is associated with an 18% reduction in women's wages, a 25% reduction in women's family income, and a 16% reduction in women's probability of marriage. These effects are robust â they persist much longer than previously understood and they persist across the life course, affecting older women as well as younger women.
Using data from the British National Childhood Development Study, this paper examines the qualityâquantity trade-off in fertility in multiple measures of child achievement. The results exhibit three characteristics: (1) Family-size effects appear very early in child development â as early as age two; (2) the effects are found in a broad array of achievement measures: labor market, cognitive, physical, and social; and (3) by age 16, the effects of family size stop growing (and what little evidence there is of change after that is not consistently in one direction). The paper argues that these results are inconsistent with preference-based explanations of the trade-off and point to some family-resource constraint. However, the relevant constraint appears more likely to be temporal than financial.
This study examines the extent to which educational outcomes are transmitted from mothers to daughters in rural China. An analysis of the 2010 China Family Panel Survey…
This study examines the extent to which educational outcomes are transmitted from mothers to daughters in rural China. An analysis of the 2010 China Family Panel Survey reveals that: (i) how far daughters go in their education is strongly associated with their mothersâ education; (ii) the association between mothersâ and daughtersâ educational outcomes in rural China was found to be stronger than the corresponding relationships between mothers and sons, fathers and daughters, and fathers and sons, especially at higher levels of education; and (iii) while having more brothers and being born later worsens daughtersâ educational outcomes, mothersâ higher education effectively mitigates these negative effects. These findings add to a growing body of literature and empirical evidence that challenges conventional social mobility research paradigms that neglect mothersâ roles. More importantly, the distinction between motherâdaughter relationship and that between fathers and daughters and mothers and sons highlights the fact that education is likely transmitted intergenerationally via mechanisms that differ depending on the gendered parentâchild pairs.
Thailandâs modernization and shift to a wage labor economy has led to increases in childrenâs educational attainment. This research, in two rural northern Thai villages…
Thailandâs modernization and shift to a wage labor economy has led to increases in childrenâs educational attainment. This research, in two rural northern Thai villages, explores globalizing labor markets, traditional familial roles, and parental bias of educational investment by childrenâs gender and birth position, using a human behavioral ecology (HBE) framework. Survival models suggest that northern Thailandâs matrilineal tendencies may be increasing, not decreasing, with globalization: daughters bearing long-term expectations of support and remittance are more heavily invested in than sons, from whom matrilines expect and receive less. Birth position strongly affects educational attainment, reflecting differential familial helper and provider roles.
As immigrants live, learn, and earn in the US, the earnings of comparably educated immigrants converge regardless of their country or admission status. Indeed, controlling…
As immigrants live, learn, and earn in the US, the earnings of comparably educated immigrants converge regardless of their country or admission status. Indeed, controlling for initial human capital levels, there is an inverse relationship between immigrant entry earnings and earnings growth. Immigrants initially lacking transferable skills have lower initial earnings but a higher propensity to invest in human capital than natives or high-skill-transferability immigrants. Policies that bring in immigrants lacking immediately transferable skills, such as family-based admission policies, may provide an infusion of undervalued flexible human capital that facilitates innovation and entrepreneurship. Low-skill-transferability immigration may foster the development of immigrant employment that is distinct from native-born employment and possibly reduce employment competition with natives. Those who enter without immediately transferable skills are more likely to be permanent and permanence confers a variety of societal benefits. Because human capital that is not valued in the host-country's labor market is still useful for learning new skills, immigrants who initially lack transferable skills provide the host country an undervalued, highly malleable resource that may promote a vibrant economy in the long run.
Social mobility research starts conventionally from the children's generation and looks at group-specific individual life chances. However, an immediate interpretation of…
Social mobility research starts conventionally from the children's generation and looks at group-specific individual life chances. However, an immediate interpretation of these results as measures of social reproduction is often misleading. This paper demonstrates the usefulness of a related but alternative approach which looks at intergenerational links from the perspective of the parentsâ generation. It asks about the consequences of social inequality in this generation for the following generation(s). This includes questions of how the parental origin context is formed, whether there are any children at all and when they were born as well as the aspect of these children's relative chances of attaining particular social positions. As an empirical example, the paper describes patterns of educational reproduction in (West) Germany during the mid- and late 20th century. Simulations allow assessing the relative importance of various partial processes of social reproduction. A large proportion of the observed levels of educational reproduction can be attributed to family-related processes such as union formation. Drawing together analyses from various areas, the paper combines questions of social mobility research with a demographic perspective and broadens the analytical basis of inequality research for systematic comparative research.
The purpose of this paper is to examine the reasons that children migrate without a parent.
The purpose of this paper is to examine the reasons that children migrate without a parent.
The economic components of the answer to this question are considered by examining the correlates of outâmigration for children under 15 whose mothers reside in Bihar and Uttar Pradesh, India.
In this data 1 million children appear to have migrated away from home. On average 3 per cent of living children aged 5â14 in the communities are away from home, but the fraction of outâmigrant children ranges between 0 and 29 per cent. The data are found to be consistent with a classical view of migration: children on average appear to migrate out of competitive, rural child labor markets for net financial gain.
The costs of migration are important. Children are less likely to migrate from more remote locations. Children are less likely to migrate from locations where child wages are higher. Overall, patterns of child migration away from their mothers look similar to what other researchers have observed in adult populations in different social and economic contexts.
The paper considers the determinants of child migration