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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2011

Joris Drayer

Many sports properties have had great success entering into sponsorship deals with secondary ticketing companies. However, additional benefits are possible with a…

Abstract

Many sports properties have had great success entering into sponsorship deals with secondary ticketing companies. However, additional benefits are possible with a reshaping of the structure of primary and secondary ticketing markets. Specifically, fully integrating both primary and secondary markets can help sports properties reduce ticket fraud, monitor fan behaviour, significantly increase revenue in both markets and improve the overall fan experience. This paper details each of these benefits and provides suggestions for programme development and administration.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2014

Taesoo Ahn, Young Ik Suh, Jin Kyun Lee and Paul M Pedersen

The purpose of this study was to examine purchasing intentions in online sports ticketing websites. Based on previous research related to business-to-consumer (B2C…

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to examine purchasing intentions in online sports ticketing websites. Based on previous research related to business-to-consumer (B2C) e-commerce, this study developed a conceptual model to test the effect of perceived risk, trust and the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) on purchase intentions in online secondary ticket websites. College students (N = 251) from the northeastern region of the United States were chosen as the sample. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was used to investigate the proposed relationships among four major components (i.e. perceived risk, trust, TAM and behavioural intention). The results showed that there were positive effects of key TAM constructs (i.e. perceived usefulness and ease of use) and trust on purchasing intention, but perceived risk was not a significant indicator of purchase intention.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 16 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 10 July 2017

Khalid Ballouli, Jason Reese and Brandon Brown

Although current literature offers support for understanding sport consumer behavior from psychological and sociological perspectives, there is a lack of research that…

Abstract

Purpose

Although current literature offers support for understanding sport consumer behavior from psychological and sociological perspectives, there is a lack of research that examines the effect of one’s emotional response to team outcomes on subsequent economic decisions. The purpose of this paper is to bridge this gap by studying how emotional responses to sport events moderate a typical endowment bias in the secondary ticket market.

Design/methodology/approach

This research comprised a 3×2×2 between-participants design with emotional state (positive, negative, and neutral), role (seller, buyer), and fan identification (high, low) as the three factors. Prospect theory and social identity theory guided hypothesis development whereby it was proposed that, depending on the affective response of study participants to positive, negative, or neutral publicity concerning the team, team identification would impact the transaction function (buyers vs sellers) on price values for tickets to a future event.

Findings

Findings revealed an interaction effect of emotions and team identification on the endowment effect to the extent that bargaining gaps between sellers and buyers increased or decreased depending on mood states and levels of identification with the team.

Originality/value

This study adds to the literature on emotions and the key role they play in effecting pricing decisions and consumer behavior, especially given fan identification is such a significant area of study with numerous implications for sport business and management.

Details

Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-678X

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Article
Publication date: 29 October 2019

Alessandro Moretti

The purpose of this paper is to argue that the use of legally and ethically dubious methods in ethnography can sometimes be justified in the pursuit of new knowledge. The…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to argue that the use of legally and ethically dubious methods in ethnography can sometimes be justified in the pursuit of new knowledge. The paper offers reflections on the risks that participatory methods of enquiry can bring upon both researcher and research participants, particularly in terms of the physical and reputational risks that researchers must face when adopting ethnographic methods in unwelcoming research environments.

Design/methodology/approach

Ethnographic methods, specifically participant observation (PO), were adopted to penetrate a gang of criminal ticket touts in the UK through a gatekeeper who provided access to knowledge and experience.

Findings

Pushing the legal and ethical boundaries of research is not only justifiable, but sometimes necessary in the discovery of new, socially valuable and otherwise unobtainable knowledge. Ethnographic research and PO are the only methods through which it is possible to gauge an understanding and appreciation, and thus present a valid depiction, of deviant and hard to access groups. As such, the use of these methods can sometimes be justified, within certain parameters.

Originality/value

This research adopts ethnographic methods in the under-researched and topical area of black market ticket touting in the UK. Ethnography alone, through an “internal” understanding of the participants’ viewpoints, can reveal that much of what is discussed in the media and in Parliament is inaccurate. The paper builds on the existing literature on touting and on conducting illegal research, and offers reflections on why these methods can sometimes be justified.

Details

Journal of Organizational Ethnography, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-6749

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2008

David C Wyld

This article examines the applications of RFID technology in the world of sport. It provides the reader with an overview of RFID and its uses in business. The article…

Abstract

This article examines the applications of RFID technology in the world of sport. It provides the reader with an overview of RFID and its uses in business. The article looks at how RFID can be employed in the games themselves, in sports venues and in sports memorabilia as a means of enhancing the value, enjoyment and security of sports. The author concludes by discussing the importance of this technology for sports marketing and research.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 8 May 2017

Nicholas Watanabe and Brian Soebbing

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of team performance, price dispersion – having multiple ticket prices for a single event, and market characteristics on…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of team performance, price dispersion – having multiple ticket prices for a single event, and market characteristics on fan attendance. By considering the context of the Chinese Super League (CSL), this study considers multiple strategies for enhancing the demand for sport in relation to factors on- and off-the-field of play.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses economic demand theory to examine consumer interest in sporting events in relation to pricing. Through employing econometric modeling, regression analysis is used to estimate results from match-level data encompassing multiple seasons.

Findings

The findings estimated from the linear regressions indicate that using multi-tiered pricing for sporting events does not significantly enhance demand in this context. Furthermore, it is found that consumers are responsive to matches against rival teams and strong opponents.

Research limitations/implications

The results run counter to prior literature on price dispersion, indicating that attendance demand may not always be influenced by the number of price points.

Practical implications

The findings help to develop an understanding of how team performance and pricing are important parts of meeting organizational goals in sport. From this, strategies can be formed to help stakeholders and managers in improving organizational performance.

Originality/value

This research is one of the first to consider the CSL, where both single and multiple price points exist for sporting events. Thus, it helps to build both theoretical and empirical knowledge in regards to the importance of pricing systems.

Details

Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-678X

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Article
Publication date: 14 August 2017

Paul A. Willie

This paper aims to recommend opportunities for professional sport leagues in the USA and Canada to apply the art and science of revenue management in order to minimize…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to recommend opportunities for professional sport leagues in the USA and Canada to apply the art and science of revenue management in order to minimize potential losses and maximize profits.

Design/methodology/approach

The evolution of current key revenue management concepts is presented from their initial stages to their current level of implementation. In addition, the literature regarding the strongest business models is reviewed and examined in the context of current successes and challenges across the major sport leagues in North America.

Findings

Five revenue streams in sports organizations are identified and analysed. Five key elements for revenues are highlighted as strategic tools used to maximize effectiveness in achieving revenue management goals. A series of recommendations is made to best use revenue management including careful negotiation of television contracts, the use of dynamic pricing models, maximization of partnerships and sponsorships, acceptance of new approaches to food and beverage and accessibility of sport merchandise to customers.

Practical implications

At the regional, national and international levels, sports organizations should review their current business practices to identify areas to improve their revenue management in light of the recommendations in this paper.

Originality/value

Although the use of the concept of revenue management in sectors of tourism has evolved since early 1970s, its application in professional sports is relatively new. Therefore, this paper provides value to professional sports organizations to optimize their profitability.

Details

Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-4217

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Article
Publication date: 12 September 2016

Adrien Bouchet, Michael Troilo and Brian R. Walkup

The purpose of this paper is to examine the extent to which dynamic pricing is utilized in North American professional sports. While industries such as airlines and travel…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the extent to which dynamic pricing is utilized in North American professional sports. While industries such as airlines and travel services have employed dynamic pricing for decades, professional sports is only now starting to adopt it.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors survey and interview high ranking executives and managers in North American sports organizations. A total of 72 managers and executives from the four major North American professional sports leagues as well as other sport properties were surveyed. Descriptive statistics and a basic regression provide insight into perceptions v. actual practice among sports organizations.

Findings

While most sports organizations perceive high usage of dynamic pricing within their organization, current procedures lag. Nearly 70 percent of respondents believe that their organizations frequently or always apply business analytics to dynamic pricing, but only 30 percent update their prices daily. Fully 50 percent of organizations do not automate decision-making processes, which is a hallmark of dynamic pricing. The perception of constant use of analytics in dynamic pricing intensifies as job title increases.

Originality/value

As one of the initial surveys looking at the usage of dynamic pricing in North American professional sports, this study provides a glimpse into both the perception and the reality. It suggests that there is still ample room for improvement.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 42 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

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Article
Publication date: 6 May 2021

Harriman Samuel Saragih

This paper aims to explore textual patterns in ten years of electronic word-of-mouth communications amongst social media (SM) users of the Java Jazz Festival.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore textual patterns in ten years of electronic word-of-mouth communications amongst social media (SM) users of the Java Jazz Festival.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses a data-scraping technique to gather user-generated content from Twitter. Word-cloud and word-frequency analysis, along with descriptive coding and pattern matching, are used to categorise the initial findings. Trends and differences in terms of the number of tweets over a ten-year period were examined using analysis of variance and seasonality analysis.

Findings

From more than 1.3 million Twitter tweets between 2008 and 2018, this study identified six initial themes. Quantitative analysis revealed that the number of tweets differed significantly in the four quarters of the ten-year period.

Research limitations/implications

The results of this study contrast with the claim that digital media communication generally occurs before a festival begins and are least during the festival. Nevertheless, this study supports the notion that SM interaction results in positive consequences, drives conversations amongst users and increases engagement.

Practical implications

This study offers five practical implications for music festival organisers and related entities.

Originality/value

To the best of the author’s knowledge, this study is the first to provide a systematic and practical data mining and interpretation approach from Twitter within a ten-year period in the Asia Pacific context, through the case of the Java Jazz Festival.

研究目的 – 本论文旨在分析十年来Java爵士音乐节的社交媒体用户发布的文字模式,从而探索其网络口碑效应。

研究设计/方法/途径

本论文使用网络爬虫技术,从Titter上面搜集用户产生的文本数据。本论文采用文字云和词频分析法,以及描述性编码和模型匹配等方式,来对初步结果进行归类。本论文使用ANOVA和季节性分析的方法对tweets十年中的变化和趋势进行分析检验。

研究结果

本论文通过对在2008年至2018年的超过130万tweets进行分析,初步指出了六大主题。定量分析结果表明十年内四个季节中的tweets数量相差甚大。

研究理论启示

本论文结果总体上与传统上认为的电子媒体沟通发生在节庆之前或者至少在节庆发生中的论断相左。本论文结果支持论断:社交媒体互动产生积极的影响,带动用户之间的对话,以及参与度。

研究原创性/价值

本论文是首篇文章,以Java爵士音乐节为例,针对亚太地区十年间Twitter数据进行系统和实际数据挖掘和解读。

Details

Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Technology, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9880

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Article
Publication date: 25 February 2021

Tim Ströbel, Maximilian Stieler and Pascal Stegmann

Abstract

Details

Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-678X

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