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Ever since the Bolton Committee published its Report in 1979, the small firm sector has been a focus for economic regeneration and employment creation. The potential of this sector was further highlighted by the controversial research findings of Birch. Notwithstanding the rigour and robustness of the work, it was used to strengthen and validate the U.K. government's policy of providing considerable assistance towards encouraging new “start‐ups”.
The marketing literature uses five different experience terms that are supposed to represent different streams of research. Many papers do not provide a definition, most…
The marketing literature uses five different experience terms that are supposed to represent different streams of research. Many papers do not provide a definition, most of the used definitions are unclear, the different experience terms have similar dimensionality and are regularly used interchangeably or have the same meaning. In addition, the existing definitions are not adequately informed from other disciplines that have engaged with experience. This paper aims to build a comprehensive conceptual framework of experience in marketing informed by related disciplines aiming to provide a more holistic definition of the term.
This research follows previously established procedures by conducting a systematic literature review of experience. From the approximately 5,000 sources identified in three disciplines, 267 sources were selected, marketing (148), philosophy (90) and psychology (29). To address definitional issues the analysis focused on enlightening four premises.
This paper posits that the term brand experience can be used in all marketing-related experiences and proposes four premises that may resolve the vagaries associated with the term’s conceptualization. The four premises address the what, who, how and when of brand experience and aim to rectify conceptual issues. Brand experience is introduced as a multi-level phenomenon.
The suggested singular term, brand experience, captures all experiences in marketing. The identified additional elements of brand experience, such as the levels of experience and the revision of emotions within brand experience as a continuum, tempered by repetition, should be considered in future research.
The multi-level conceptualization may provide a greater scope for dynamic approaches to brand experience design thus providing greater opportunities for managers to create sustainable competitive advantages and differentiation from competitors.
This paper completes a systematic literature review of brand experience across marketing, philosophy and psychology which delineates and enlightens the conceptualization of brand experience and presents brand experience in a multi-level conceptualization, opening the possibility for further theoretical, methodological and interdisciplinary promise.
The financial crisis of 2008 resulted in calls for change. Commentators suggested that co-operatives, in particular credit unions, could provide accountability and…
The financial crisis of 2008 resulted in calls for change. Commentators suggested that co-operatives, in particular credit unions, could provide accountability and sustainability through their open governance and mutual status. However, such suggestions assumed that co-operative principles and practice continued to underpin the efficacy of co-operative banking, and that credit unions, one of the most prevalent forms of co-operative banking, could offer a viable financial alternative. Instead, in the case of Cyprus, the financial crisis and the associated aftershocks triggered the nationalisation and demutualisation of credit unions. This prompted the researchers to question both the viability of a co-operative banking future and the extent to which co-operative principles were shaping decision making, governance, accountability and sustainability. The paper aims to discuss these issues.
A case study approach was adopted to explore the degree to which co-operative principles still shaped credit union thinking and stakeholder relationships.
As is the case elsewhere within the co-operative movement, the findings point the fact that governance is weaken by the low membership participation and that the principles are no longer universally applied. Credit unions, if not co-operative banking, may not offer the financial assurances that commentators have called for. Moreover, the guiding principles may no longer be embedded within the fabric of the movement.
Findings are important for practitioners/supervisory body as they highlight possible impacts on co-operative’ future and especially on their governance model and level of autonomy and independence in case of state intervention.
The research undertaken is original as it is the first time credit unions in Cyprus were examined for adherence to co-operative principles.
This article has been withdrawn as it was published elsewhere and accidentally duplicated. The original article can be seen here: 10.1108/EUM0000000001875. When citing the article, please cite: Robert Paton, Douglas Brownlie, (1991), “STRATEGY FORMULATION IN SMALL ENTERPRISES: A DEVELOPMENTAL APPROACH”, European Business Review, Vol. 91 Iss: 2.
A simple but effective approach to the analysis of marketopportunities is outlined. It is argued that for small enterprises thelink between business development and…
A simple but effective approach to the analysis of market opportunities is outlined. It is argued that for small enterprises the link between business development and management development is clear and direct: the consequence being that useful techniques have to be explored and discovered in a partnership with managers, not prescribed on the basis of what other larger firms might do. A process is described that has been tested with the managers of numerous small enterprises as they struggled to come to terms with the implications for their business of the liberalisation of the European market in 1992.
MBA programmes, especially those not provided by the recognised premier league business schools, are often criticised as being “all things to all men”. They are…
MBA programmes, especially those not provided by the recognised premier league business schools, are often criticised as being “all things to all men”. They are essentially product driven and “sold” to the potential client. When organisations think about developing people to fulfil organisational goals and roles, there is a tendency to assume that MBAs offer personal development, not necessarily business or organisational benefits. This article examines the MBA supplier buyer divide from a business and people development perspective. The “product” driven approach, as it relates to the needs of the client, be they corporate or individual, is examined. An alternative business focused model is suggested. A practical case is provided to illustrate design, partnership and implementational issues.