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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1985

Ian McLoughlin

The unionisation of professional, scientific and technical employees has attracted considerable attention in recent years. Much of the debate has concerned the issue of…

Abstract

The unionisation of professional, scientific and technical employees has attracted considerable attention in recent years. Much of the debate has concerned the issue of whether unionism and professionalism are compatible. During the 1970s, established white‐collar unions and a new breed of “professionals‐only” unions sought to recruit in this area on the assumption that they were. However, the early 1980s saw a decline in the rate of recruitment and a fall in the membership of some “professionals‐only” unions. Subsequently, a period of consolidation and reorganisation has taken place, with the established white‐collar unions leading the way in devising new organisational arrangements. These entailed absorbing some of the “professionals‐only” unions into their ranks. How far, though, is trade union membership regarded as compatible with professional status by individual engineers?

Details

Employee Relations, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

Article
Publication date: 1 July 1990

Tom Batley

The Institution of Professional Engineers New Zealand (IPENZ)commissioned a management training needs analysis of the 6,000 membersin 1988. The objectives were to…

Abstract

The Institution of Professional Engineers New Zealand (IPENZ) commissioned a management training needs analysis of the 6,000 members in 1988. The objectives were to determine the specific management subjects required for further education and training of experienced graduate engineers and their preferred methods of learning. The survey commenced with pilot study interviews with professional engineers leading to a questionnaire sent to a representative sample of IPENZ members throughout New Zealand. The results showed strong agreement about the managerial content of most professional engineering work. They also indicated a large majority who recognised the need for further education in business management subjects. The analysis indicated the most preferred management subjects from a comprehensive list ranked by professional engineers: personal and interpersonal management skills; general management and decision making; individual, group and organisational behaviour; finance and accounting; personnel management; project management. The least required management subjects chosen from the list were quantitative methods and information systems. These management subject preferences are not satisfied by the majority of short management training courses presently offered to professional engineers.

Details

Journal of European Industrial Training, vol. 14 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0590

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 February 2012

Francis W.H. Yik, Joseph H.K. Lai, W.L. Lee, K.T. Chan and C.K. Chau

The purpose of this paper is to narrow the diverse views of the industry stakeholders on two controversial issues, namely the scope of core competence of building services…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to narrow the diverse views of the industry stakeholders on two controversial issues, namely the scope of core competence of building services engineers (BSEs) and the statutory role that they should play, which were encountered in an extensive research study on the building services profession of Hong Kong.

Design/methodology/approach

An expert panel was formed and the Delphi method was applied to resolve the controversies. In the Delphi process, every panel member was provided with complete opinions expressed by all other panel members in each round of the deliberation.

Findings

Sufficient support was found for the proposition that professional BSEs should be competent in handling air‐conditioning, electrical, fire services, and plumbing & drainage works, and that the government authorities should mandate the design and compliance certification of electrical and fire services installations by BSEs.

Research limitations/implications

Although the Delphi method has not been hitherto applied to resolve the controversies addressed in the study, it was proven to be a very effective tool in seeking majority opinions from a group of experts. The same approach may be taken in similar studies in future.

Practical implications

The core competence identified should be made as a minimum requirement for practitioners who wish to practise as professional BSEs. The views and comments given by the expert panel members are informative references to public policy makers.

Originality/value

This was the first ever study conducted in an attempt to identify the core competence and statutory role of BSEs in Hong Kong.

Details

Journal of Facilities Management, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-5967

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 30 December 2011

Olivia Kyriakidou

The purpose of this paper is to build and enrich theory around professional identity construction by investigating the development of professional identity under…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to build and enrich theory around professional identity construction by investigating the development of professional identity under conditions of marginalized gender identity. Professional identity is defined by Ibarra and by Schein as one ' s professional self-concept based on attributes, beliefs, values, motives, and experiences. Professional identity construction under conditions of marginalization presents an interesting puzzle. Professional roles are defined as prestigious and provide the role holder with autonomy and, often, a degree of privilege. However, minority professionals are often accorded little prestige and/or privilege because their identities are perceived as inferior.

Design/methodology/approach

The research studies narratives by 33 prominent women engineers with careers in management who discuss what it means to be both women and engineers holding high management positions in their organizations.

Findings

The research demonstrates that the process of identity construction for women engineers differs in significant ways from that of their male counterparts. The process is centered in redefinition that allows women professionals to construct possible selves and establish positive professional identities: redefinition of occupational rhetorics, disadvantage, and the self.

Research limitations/implications

This study of professional identity construction under conditions of disadvantaged gender identity contributes a new perspective for theorists researching professional identity construction. The results reveal that the development of professional identity for minority women may involve the processes and tasks of redefinition. The tasks in redefinition include redefining disadvantage, redefining the profession, and redefining the self. Moreover, the use of narrative calls for organizational researchers to consider theories in sociology, history, policy, and psychology in the attempts to answer careers questions.

Practical implications

The implications of this research are significant for human resource management practices in the construction and engineering field.

Originality/value

While there is growing interest in professional identity construction (e.g. Clarke et al.), little is known about how marginalization may influence the development of professional identity of minority professionals, such as women managers in engineering.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 31 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 12 September 2019

Geetha Rani Prakasam, Mukesh Mukesh and Gopinathan R.

Enrolling in an academic discipline or selecting the college major choice is a dynamic process. Very few studies examine this aspect in India. This paper makes a humble…

2281

Abstract

Purpose

Enrolling in an academic discipline or selecting the college major choice is a dynamic process. Very few studies examine this aspect in India. This paper makes a humble attempt to fill this gap using NSSO 71st round data on social consumption on education. The purpose of this paper is to use multinomial regression model to study the different factors that influence course choice in higher education. The different factors (given the availability of information) considered relate to ability, gender, cost of higher education, socio-economic and geographical location. The results indicate that gender polarization is apparent between humanities and engineering. The predicated probabilities bring out the dichotomy between the choice of courses and levels of living expressed through consumption expenditures in terms of professional and non-professional courses. Predicted probabilities of course choices bring in a clear distinction between south and west regions preferring engineering and other professional courses, whereas north, east and NES prefer humanities.

Design/methodology/approach

The present paper follows the same approach as that of Turner and Bowen (1999). The Multinomial regression is specified as P ( M i = j ) = ( exp ( β j × X i ) / j 1 5 exp ( β j × X i ) ) , where P (Mi=j) denotes the probability of choosing outcome j, the particular course/major choice that categorizes different disciplines. This response variable is specified with five categories: such as medicine, engineering, other professional courses, science and humanities. The authors’ primary interest is to determine the factors governing an individual’s decision to choose a particular subject field as compared to humanities. In other words, to make the system identifiable in the MLR, humanities is treated as a reference category. The vector Xi includes the set of explanatory variables and βj refers to the corresponding coefficients for each of the outcome j. From an aggregate perspective, the distribution of course choices is an important input to the skill (technical skills) composition of future workforce. In that sense, except humanities, the rest of the courses are technical-intensive courses; hence, humanities is treated as a reference category.

Findings

The results indicate that gender polarization is apparent between humanities and engineering. The predicated probabilities bring out the dichotomy between the choice of courses and levels of living expressed through consumption expenditures in terms of professional and non-professional courses. Predicted probabilities of course choices bring in a clear distinction between south and west regions preferring engineering and other professional courses, whereas north, east and NES prefer humanities.

Research limitations/implications

Predicted probabilities of course choices bring in a clear distinction between south and west regions preferring engineering and other professional courses, whereas north, east and NES prefer humanities. This course and regional imbalance need to be worked with multi-pronged strategies of providing both access to education and employment opportunities in other states. But the predicted probabilities of medicine and science remain similar across the board. Very few research studies on the determinants of field choice in higher education prevail in India. Research studies on returns to education by field or course choices hardly exist in India. These evidences are particularly important to know which course choices can support student loans, which can be the future area of work.

Practical implications

The research evidence is particularly important to know which course choices can support student loans, which can be the future area of work, as well as how to address the gender bias in the course choices.

Social implications

The paper has social implications in terms of giving insights into the course choices of students. These findings bring in implications for practice in their ability to predict the demand for course choices and their share of demand, not only in the labor market but also across regions. India has 36 states/UTs and each state/UT has a huge population size and large geographical areas. The choice of course has state-specific influence because of nature of state economy, society, culture and inherent education systems. Further, within the states, rural and urban variation has also a serious influence on the choice of courses.

Originality/value

The present study is a value addition on three counts. First, the choice of courses includes the recent trends in the preference over market-oriented/technical courses such as medicine, engineering and other professional courses (chartered accountancy and similar courses, courses from Industrial Training Institute, recognized vocational training institute, etc.). The choice of market-oriented courses has been examined in relation to the choice of conventional subjects. Second, the socio-economic background of students plays a significant role in the choice of courses. Third, the present paper uses the latest data on Social Consumption on Education.

Details

Journal of Asian Business and Economic Studies, vol. 26 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2515-964X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 January 1979

In order to succeed in an action under the Equal Pay Act 1970, should the woman and the man be employed by the same employer on like work at the same time or would the…

Abstract

In order to succeed in an action under the Equal Pay Act 1970, should the woman and the man be employed by the same employer on like work at the same time or would the woman still be covered by the Act if she were employed on like work in succession to the man? This is the question which had to be solved in Macarthys Ltd v. Smith. Unfortunately it was not. Their Lordships interpreted the relevant section in different ways and since Article 119 of the Treaty of Rome was also subject to different interpretations, the case has been referred to the European Court of Justice.

Details

Managerial Law, vol. 22 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

Article
Publication date: 9 June 2022

Lily Pharris and Begona Perez-Mira

The purpose of this transcendental phenomenological qualitative research study is to understand the essence of what it is like to be an information systems professional

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this transcendental phenomenological qualitative research study is to understand the essence of what it is like to be an information systems professional working in the USA while managing and defending against social engineering attacks on an organization. The findings add to the information system (IS) body of literature by uncovering commonly shared attitudes, motivations, experiences and beliefs held by IS professionals who are responsible for protecting their company from social engineering attacks.

Design/methodology/approach

This is a qualitative, transcendental phenomenological study that was developed to gain a deeper understanding about the essence of what it is like to be an IS professional defending a US business against social engineering attacks. This research design is used when sharing the experiences of study participants is more important than presenting the interpretations of the researcher. To target participants from the industries identified as regularly targeted by social engineers, purposive sampling was used in conjunction with the snowball sampling technique to find additional participants until saturation was reached.

Findings

Ten themes emerged from the data analysis: (1) foster a security culture, (2) prevention means education, (3) layered security means better protection, (4) prepare, defend and move on, (5) wide-ranging responsibilities, (6) laying the pipes, (7) all hands on deck, (8) continuous improvement, (9) attacks will never be eliminated and (10) moving pieces makes it harder. The ten themes, together, reveal the essence of the shared experiences of the participants with the phenomenon.

Originality/value

Understanding how to defend an enterprise from social engineering attacks is an international issue with implications for businesses and IS professionals across the world. The findings revealed that to prevent social engineer attacks, all employees – IS and non-IS professionals alike – must be unified in their desire to protect the organization. This means IS professionals and organizational leadership must establish a strong security culture, not only through layered technology and electronic controls but also through open communication between all departments and continuously engaging, training and reinforcing social engineering education, policies, procedures and practices with all employees.

Details

Information & Computer Security, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4961

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 January 2013

Francis W.H. Yik, Joseph H.K. Lai, K.T. Chan, C.K. Chau and W.L. Lee

As part of a study that aimed at enhancing the future roles and functions of building services (BS) engineers in Hong Kong, a survey was carried out to obtain demographic…

Abstract

Purpose

As part of a study that aimed at enhancing the future roles and functions of building services (BS) engineers in Hong Kong, a survey was carried out to obtain demographic information about BS practitioners as well as their views and opinions on a range of issues which affect professional practices of BS engineers and recognition of their contributions by others. The purpose of this paper is to give a portrait of BS engineers in Hong Kong.

Design/methodology/approach

A series of statistical analyses were conducted based on the responses given by the BS practitioners, which included their qualifications, experience, job field, annual income and the number of trades of BS systems that they are competent in and responsible for.

Findings

The statistics show that: competence gap exists in that BS engineers are required to handle more trades of BS systems than those they are competent in; and the academic and professional qualifications, years of experience and job position are the key influential factors to the annual income of BS engineers but little differences exist in the average annual income of engineers in different job fields.

Originality/value

The competence gap is a concern that needs to be addressed to ensure BS engineers are competent in handling the common trades of BS systems, which is increasingly important for them to perform effectively in integrated professional teams for turning out holistic solutions for sustainable building developments.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. 20 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 December 2018

Sally Hawse and Leigh Norma Wood

The purpose of this paper is to focus on transition of engineering graduates to work. It asks: “What approaches and enabling activities can organisational induction…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to focus on transition of engineering graduates to work. It asks: “What approaches and enabling activities can organisational induction programs use to support successful transition to practice for new-career engineers?”

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is grounded in literature review; it discusses central themes in the literature relating to transition to the workplace for Science Technology Engineering Mathematics (STEM) graduates. These include: skills required for the workplace; challenging factors in the transition to workplace; and, disciplinary socialisation.

Findings

There is a lack of literature that explores the design of workplace induction programs to assist novice engineers transition to professional work. An emerging topic in the literature is educational institution and employing organisation co-production of induction and transition to work programs.

Originality/value

Much of the literature relating to transition to work programs is from higher education rather than from the viewpoint of the workplace. This review contributes to knowledge of transition to work for early-career engineers from the perspective of workplace development programs.

Details

Higher Education, Skills and Work-Based Learning, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-3896

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 July 2012

Edmond P. Byrne

The purpose of this paper is to ascertain the engagement and response of students to the teaching of engineering ethics incorporating a macro ethical framework whereby…

4233

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to ascertain the engagement and response of students to the teaching of engineering ethics incorporating a macro ethical framework whereby sustainability is viewed as context to professional practice. This involves incorporating a broader conception of engineering than is typically applied in conventional teaching of engineering ethics.

Design/methodology/approach

A real life wicked problem case study assignment was developed. Students' understanding and practical application of the concepts were considered. A survey was conducted to gauge students' appreciation of the professional importance and their enjoyment of the subject matter.

Findings

It was found that students appreciate and enjoy a macro ethical sustainability informed approach, but find it more challenging to apply in practice.

Practical implications

The paper demonstrates an approach to the teaching of engineering ethics using a practical example, which can help broaden engineers' self‐perceived role towards one where sustainability is context. It also shows how students can find such an approach to teaching ethics to be both enjoyable and relevant.

Social implications

Engineers educated to perceive the importance of engaging with macro ethical issues as part of professional practice will be significantly better placed to inform public and industry policy towards greater good and engage with other professional and expert groups.

Originality/value

In this paper, an approach to engineering ethics which diverges from the traditional is proposed. This can be of value to those involved in the teaching of engineering ethics, particularly those seeking to incorporate sustainability and other macro ethical issues.

Details

International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1467-6370

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 61000