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The purpose of this paper is to focus on the performance analysis of Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) – Chitosan composite dye transfer inhibitor (DTI) for household laundry…
The purpose of this paper is to focus on the performance analysis of Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) – Chitosan composite dye transfer inhibitor (DTI) for household laundry. The developed composite DTI is tested against different commercial dyes and detergent powders normally used in the household laundry for its performance.
The DTI article is tested for its performance against five commercial dyes and five commercial detergent compositions. The dye re-deposition behaviour of the control fabric was measured in terms of the colour difference (ΔE) values. The influence of PVP on the washing efficiency of detergent was evaluated against tea, coffee and juice stains.
The results showed that there is an excellent performance of the developed product noted in terms of DTI performance against reactive, basic and sulfur dyes. The DTI product showed a significantly (p<0.05) less performance against acid and direct dyes. There is no significant differences noted in the stain removal efficiency of the detergent in the presence of PVP in the wash liquor (p>0.05).
The usage of DTI polymer in the household laundry has no significant influence on the detergents performance in terms of stain removing efficiency. The DTI polymer’s function in the wash liquor depends up on the type of polymer used, as they are sensitive to the type of detergent compositions used and the type of dyes bleeds in the wash liquor.
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of preparation process and amounts of starting materials on the morphology of chitosan‐silica (CS‐silica) hybrid…
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of preparation process and amounts of starting materials on the morphology of chitosan‐silica (CS‐silica) hybrid hollow nanospheres.
A simple method coupling sol‐gel process and in situ self‐assembly was used to prepare CS‐silica nanospheres from the solution containing chitosan‐poly (acrylic acid) (CS‐PAA) nanoparticles, tetraethoxyorthosilicate (TEOS) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). The morphology of CS‐silica hybrid hollow nanospheres was studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The chemical structures of CS‐PAA nanoparticles and CS‐silica nanospheres were characterised by FT‐IR spectra.
The size and morphology of CS‐silica nanospheres was largely dependent on the starting amounts of TEOS, PVP and ammonia. Moreover, the reaction time can also affect the structures of the hybrid nanospheres.
The dispersibility of CS‐silica nanospheres was not good enough and the conglutination was inevitable to some extent.
The coupling of sol‐gel technology and in situ self‐assembly opened a new gateway for preparing other organic/inorganic composite nanoparticles. This kind of material could be used as a slow release agent for biocides in coatings/paints.
The hybrid CS‐silica nanospheres showed obvious hollow structures. The morphology of nanospheres can be efficaciously controlled via adjusting the starting amounts of PVP, TEOS and ammonia, and the stirring time. The obtained CS‐silica hybrid nanospheres will have potential applications in such as drug delivery and controlled release.
The effects of ultrasonication on the epoxy resin and its emulsion were investigated to find out the changes in the Mη and molecular structure of epoxy, as well as its…
The effects of ultrasonication on the epoxy resin and its emulsion were investigated to find out the changes in the Mη and molecular structure of epoxy, as well as its room temperature storage stability, centrifugal stability, particle size and its distribution and particle morphology more importantly with the influence of different ultrasonic irradiation time, power and temperature.
The emulsion was prepared using an emulsifier with epoxy resin and by using phase inversion after subjecting to ultrasound irradiation with a power of 200 W at 50°C for 60 min. The changes in the epoxy resin and its emulsion induced by ultrasound were characterized by Ubbelohde viscometer, FT-IR, 13C-NMR, high-speed desktop centrifuge, laser particle size analyzer and transmission electron microscope.
The molecular weight of the epoxy resin was initially decreased and then stabilized by the increasing of ultrasonic irradiation time. The mole rate of the epoxy groups in epoxy molecular were decreased by about 14 per cent, resulting from ultrasonic irradiation. The particle size of the emulsion was decreased, while the particle size distribution became uniform in a certain time. The narrow distribution, stable and uniform of waterborne epoxy resin emulsion with more than 60 days room temperature storage period, 80 per cent of the supernatant volume, about 220 nm average particle size was gained with a power of 200 W at 50°C for 60 min.
To overcome the problems commonly encountered with an epoxy emulsion, for example, short storage period and wider particle size, which limit its practical application, the effects of ultrasonic irradiation on the epoxy resin and its emulsion, were investigated. As the stability of emulsion was improved with the introduction of ultrasonic irradiation, the application of epoxy emulsion was improved.
The room temperature storage stability and centrifugal stability of the emulsion were decreased by the mechanical method, and thus, the benefit of an in-depth understanding of the influence of ultrasonic treatment on epoxy resin and its emulsion could further promote the development of water-based coatings.