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Book part
Publication date: 11 May 2007

C.C. Wolhuter

This paper presents a state-of-the-field review of progress toward the ideal of Education for All in the Sub-Saharan Africa region. First, the significance of Education for All in…

Abstract

This paper presents a state-of-the-field review of progress toward the ideal of Education for All in the Sub-Saharan Africa region. First, the significance of Education for All in Sub-Saharan Africa is clarified. Then, the beginnings of formal education in Sub-Saharan Africa (i.e., nineteenth century missionary education) are discussed, followed by colonial education. This is followed by an overview of post-independence strategies and initiatives aimed at the expansion of education. The Outline of a Plan for African Educational Development, drafted by a meeting of Ministers of Education of African states (MINEDAF) immediately after independence, 1961, is discussed, followed by the resolutions taken at the seven MINEDAF conferences held since 1961 till the present day. The resulting strategies and initiatives aimed at bringing education to all are discussed and evaluated. The impact of structural adjustment programs signed in recent years by most governments of African countries with the World Bank is also addressed. In conclusion, the present state of education in Sub-Saharan Africa and the prospects and challenges of Education for All are summarized.

Details

Education for All
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1441-6

Article
Publication date: 1 October 2004

A.H. Subratty, P. Beeharry and M. Chan Sun

Using a questionnaire, assesses the hygienic practices of a group of 50 street food vendors in Mauritius. The findings showed that generally, food vendors were quite aware of…

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Abstract

Using a questionnaire, assesses the hygienic practices of a group of 50 street food vendors in Mauritius. The findings showed that generally, food vendors were quite aware of hygienic conditions, which have to be respected while handling and preparing foods. However, it was found that the majority of them were not implementing their knowledge into practice and still perceived that their products were of relatively low risk to the consumers. It was also found that for more than half of the vending households, street food vending was the main income provider. Despite the role of health inspectors in promoting awareness of the risks which poor hygiene practices may lead to, findings from the present study highlight the need for further health education of food vendors.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 34 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 September 2019

Gabriela Mazzon Valente, Lize Stangarlin-Fiori, Lais de Oliveira Seiscentos, Viviane Valle de Souza and Caroline Opolski Medeiros

This paper aims to evaluate the profile of food truck consumers at gourmet events, identifying their food preferences and opinions about the provision of safe food by this segment.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to evaluate the profile of food truck consumers at gourmet events, identifying their food preferences and opinions about the provision of safe food by this segment.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 750 food truck customers in the city of Curitiba, Brazil, participated in the study. The survey investigated the socio-economic profile of the consumers, the frequency of their food consumption, the criteria for their choice of food trucks, their mean spending value, the method of payment used and the opinion of consumers about food cost and food truck hygiene conditions.

Findings

Most consumers were female (62.7 per cent), students (31.3 per cent) and with an average age of 29 ± 10 years. Many customers preferred the consumption of salty foods (84.0 per cent), mainly burgers and kabobs. The consumers reported spending between $6.32 and $9.03 during the events, and men spent more money than women (p = 0.000). Both thought that good conditions of hygiene (81.9 per cent), food presentation (46.9 per cent) and service (48.0 per cent) were more important than the product price (19.3 per cent). Consumers thought that the food trucks had an adequate structure (73.5 per cent) and the food handlers (74.4 per cent) had good conditions of hygiene, ensuring the safety of the food sold.

Research limitations/implications

On account of the convenience sampling in an urban environment, the data cannot be generalized to the entire population of the municipality and to other regions.

Originality/value

There are few studies with food trucks consumers in Brazil, to this writing the largest sample ever used for this type of research in this country. The results were designed to be used by professionals working in the area.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 50 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 28 March 2023

Abdul Haseeb Chaudhary, Michael Jay Polonsky and Nicholas McClaren

Plastic pollution is a widespread problem around the world. However, the problem is more severe and ever increasing in developing countries. The literature suggests that the…

Abstract

Plastic pollution is a widespread problem around the world. However, the problem is more severe and ever increasing in developing countries. The literature suggests that the majority of the work and the solutions that have been proposed to address plastic littering have been undertaken in developed countries. Thus, there is a need to explore the problem in developing countries to better understand the issue and to develop context-specific solutions. We explored the norms perspective using ‘The Focus Theory of Normative Conduct’, individual ethical position and place attachment factors. Interviews were conducted in Pakistan with 16 people who were recently at a beach at which there was a large amount of plastic litter. Results showed that people are influenced by the pro-littering social norms of their friends and neighbours. However, people with strong anti-littering personal norms are not influenced by pro-littering social norms. We also found that people have varying moral position, and their lack of attachment with the public place also influences their littering behaviour. Moreover, people believe that other people litter due to lack of education and awareness, lack of garbage bins and a general level of carelessness. Future research needs to focus on activating an individual's idealist moral position and an individuals' attachment with the place to enhance the activation of anti-littering personal norms which will help reduce littering behaviour. Further still, government needs to set up campaigns at public places to create awareness among people about the impact of littering, and government also needs to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of waste management. Businesses can also play a role by providing waste bins which may be used as a source of promoting their support for reducing litter.

Details

Socially Responsible Plastic
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80455-987-1

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Book part
Publication date: 18 January 2024

Tulsi Pawan Fowdur, Satyadev Rosunee, Robert T. F. Ah King, Pratima Jeetah and Mahendra Gooroochurn

In this chapter, a general introduction on artificial intelligence (AI) is given as well as an overview of the advances of AI in different engineering disciplines, including its…

Abstract

In this chapter, a general introduction on artificial intelligence (AI) is given as well as an overview of the advances of AI in different engineering disciplines, including its effectiveness in driving the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (UN SDGs). This chapter begins with some fundamental definitions and concepts on AI and machine learning (ML) followed by a classification of the different categories of ML algorithms. After that, a general overview of the impact which different engineering disciplines such as Civil, Chemical, Mechanical, Electrical and Telecommunications Engineering have on the UN SDGs is given. The application of AI and ML to enhance the processes in these different engineering disciplines is also briefly explained. This chapter concludes with a brief description of the UN SDGs and how AI can positively impact the attainment of these goals by the target year of 2030.

Details

Artificial Intelligence, Engineering Systems and Sustainable Development
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83753-540-8

Keywords

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 11 May 2007

Abstract

Details

Education for All
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1441-6

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 15 November 2022

Birger Fredriksen

This article examines why Universal Primary Education (UPE) has shifted from being a developing country challenge more broadly in the last half of the 20th century to become…

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Abstract

Purpose

This article examines why Universal Primary Education (UPE) has shifted from being a developing country challenge more broadly in the last half of the 20th century to become largely a sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) challenge today. It discusses a number of national and education sector system-wide challenges that have constrained the implementation of UPE in SSA more so than in other developing regions.

Design/methodology/approach

This article reviews the literature and policy documents on a wide range of developing country issues, and discusses why most SSA countries have faced unparalleled challenges in achieving UPE.

Findings

SSA governments should take the opportunity offered by their post-pandemic “build back better” efforts to fundamentally reset education policies to address the key causes of this major development failure. The overarching objective must be to develop education systems that are more inclusive, equitable and responsive to national development needs by better serving the large population groups, parts of society and economic sectors that currently derive little benefit from public education spending. This article highlights the urgency and challenges associated with achieving this objective.

Originality/value

Although the main responsibility lies with SSA governments, this paper stresses that the global community will be affected in many ways by how effectively this crisis is addressed. Therefore, this effort merits sustained global support including through more catalytic use of aid.

Details

Journal of International Cooperation in Education, vol. 25 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2755-029X

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Article
Publication date: 16 February 2010

Ala'a Hawari and Richard Heeks

Enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems are increasingly being adopted by organisations in developing countries. As in industrialised countries, this adoption seems beset by…

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Abstract

Purpose

Enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems are increasingly being adopted by organisations in developing countries. As in industrialised countries, this adoption seems beset by significant rates of failure, leading to a large waste of investment and other resources. This paper seeks to understand why such ERP failure occurs.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper moves beyond factor lists to make use of an overall “design‐reality gap” model. The model is applied to a case study of ERP failure in a Jordanian manufacturing firm, analysing the situation both before and during ERP implementation through a mix of interviews, observation and document analysis.

Findings

The research finds sizeable gaps between the assumptions and requirements built into ERP system design, and the actual realities of the client organisation. It is these gaps – and the failure to close them during implementation – that underlie ERP project failure.

Research limitations/implications

This study shows the relevance and applicability of the design‐reality gap model to understanding ERP failure. Further research can be undertaken applying the model to other ERP cases, including case studies of success.

Practical implications

The paper draws conclusions about good practice in ERP implementation relating to both risk identification and risk mitigation, which must be based on closing design‐reality gaps. It offers examples of both specific and generic actions that help to achieve this. But it also notes limitations existing in some developing country contexts that may continue to constrain the effective use of enterprise resource planning systems.

Originality/value

The paper provides a new model for understanding ERP project success and failure, and for practical risk mitigation. The design‐reality gap model aims to be comprehensive but also contingent; sensitive to the specific conditions of any individual client organisation.

Details

Journal of Enterprise Information Management, vol. 23 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0398

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 24 January 2023

Ambareen Beebeejaun

The rise in business activities coupled with free trade liberalisation across countries has entailed an increase in securities transaction as well as insider trading (IT). In…

Abstract

Purpose

The rise in business activities coupled with free trade liberalisation across countries has entailed an increase in securities transaction as well as insider trading (IT). In fact, IT is characterised by the influence and usage of some prior knowledge concerning sensitive information of a corporate body which results in a financial benefit to the insider trader. The practice of IT is not only unethical but also illegal and this statement is witnessed by the mushrooming of laws across the globe categorising IT as an offence. However, the type of punishment varies in different countries depending on various factors. Consequently, the purpose of this paper is to assess the adequacy and efficiency of IT laws in the context of a developing country being Mauritius.

Design/methodology/approach

To achieve the research objective, the Mauritian laws on IT were compared with the corresponding laws of some developed countries like the USA and the UK. As such, a qualitative research method was adopted. In particular, the black letter approach was used to examine the relevant laws of Mauritius, UK and USA on IT. A comparative analysis was conducted concerning IT laws for each country with the view of suggesting recommendations for Mauritian stakeholders to adopt to enhance the existing legal and regulatory framework on IT.

Findings

It was found that Mauritian IT laws are largely inspired from both the US and UK corresponding legislation. However, Mauritian laws need to be strengthened by imposing some more severe penalties in terms of fines and terms of imprisonment like the USA has established. The Mauritian Financial Services Commission as the regulator also needs to play a more active role in disseminating particularities of IT laws, offences and penalties to the civil society at large.

Originality/value

At present, this study will be among the first academic writings on the efficiency of IT laws in Mauritius and also, because existing literature is quite scarce on assessing the adequacy of IT legislation in developing countries, this research aims at filling in the gap in literature. The study is carried out with the aim of combining a large amount of empirical, theoretical and factual information that can be of use to various stakeholders and not only to academics.

Details

Journal of Financial Crime, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-0790

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 26 September 2022

Tulsi Pawan Fowdur and Lavesh Babooram

The purpose of this paper is geared towards the capture and analysis of network traffic using an array ofmachine learning (ML) and deep learning (DL) techniques to classify…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is geared towards the capture and analysis of network traffic using an array ofmachine learning (ML) and deep learning (DL) techniques to classify network traffic into different classes and predict network traffic parameters.

Design/methodology/approach

The classifier models include k-nearest neighbour (KNN), multilayer perceptron (MLP) and support vector machine (SVM), while the regression models studied are multiple linear regression (MLR) as well as MLP. The analytics were performed on both a local server and a servlet hosted on the international business machines cloud. Moreover, the local server could aggregate data from multiple devices on the network and perform collaborative ML to predict network parameters. With optimised hyperparameters, analytical models were incorporated in the cloud hosted Java servlets that operate on a client–server basis where the back-end communicates with Cloudant databases.

Findings

Regarding classification, it was found that KNN performs significantly better than MLP and SVM with a comparative precision gain of approximately 7%, when classifying both Wi-Fi and long term evolution (LTE) traffic.

Originality/value

Collaborative regression models using traffic collected from two devices were experimented and resulted in an increased average accuracy of 0.50% for all variables, with a multivariate MLP model.

Details

International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications, vol. 19 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-7371

Keywords

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