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Article
Publication date: 13 November 2017

Otuo Serebour Agyemang, Millicent Kyeraa, Abraham Ansong and Siaw Frimpong

This paper aims to examine the role of country-level institutional structures in strengthening the level of investor confidence in Africa while controlling for real GDP growth…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the role of country-level institutional structures in strengthening the level of investor confidence in Africa while controlling for real GDP growth, interest rate spread, inflation and country credit rating.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses panel data for the period 2009-2013. It takes into account the rule of law, political stability, regulatory quality, voice and accountability, control of corruption and property rights as potential institutional drivers of the level of investor confidence. These factors are based on their relative relevance from the extant literature. Correlated panels-corrected standard errors model was used to establish the relationship between the institutional structures and the strength of investor confidence.

Findings

The overall results show that rule of law, voice and accountability, property rights and political stability exhibit significant positive relationship with the strength of investor confidence in African economies. This implies that asking African economies to strengthen these institutional structures will result in enhanced investor confidence in their economies. This suggests that the establishment of these institutional structures is an effective tool to enhance investor confidence in African economies.

Practical implications

In addition to the long-term goal of promoting economic reforms, a corresponding long-term goal of strengthening institutional structures in African economies should be taken into consideration. Instead of waiting for their economic reforms to take effect, governments in African countries can, to some degree, attract investors into their economies by establishing credible institutional structures.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the knowledge on how country-level institutional structures influence the level of investor confidence in the context of Africa.

Details

International Journal of Law and Management, vol. 59 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-243X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 May 2017

Otuo Serebour Agyemang and Abraham Ansong

This paper aims to examine the influence of corporate social responsibility on financial performance of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Ghana by using access to…

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the influence of corporate social responsibility on financial performance of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Ghana by using access to capital and firm reputation as mediating variables.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors collected primary data from 423 SMEs within the Accra Metropolis. Partial least squares estimation technique was used to analyze the data.

Findings

The authors documented evidence for a mechanism through which corporate social responsibility results in financial performance of firms: SMEs with improved corporate social responsibility practices are better positioned to achieve enhanced reputation, which translates into improved financial performance. Even though this study did not document a significant relationship between corporate social responsibility and access to finance by Ghanaian SMEs, the authors contend that looking at the positive relationship between them, SMEs can minimize their capital constraints by embarking on CSR practices, which can eventually translate into financial performance.

Practical implications

The authors recommend that for SMEs to enhance their reputation and increase their access to capital, which will eventually result in enhanced financial performance, corporate social responsibility practices should be a major part of their operations.

Originality/value

It contributes to our knowledge on how CSR practices lead to financial performance of SMEs in developing countries. In addition, this is the first of its kind to establish the relationship between CSR practices and financial performance of SMEs in Ghana by using access to capital and firm reputation as mediating factors.

Details

Journal of Global Responsibility, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2041-2568

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 September 2019

Otuo Serebour Agyemang, Mavis Osei-Effah, Samuel Kwaku Agyei and John Gartchie Gatsi

This paper aims to examine how country-level corporate governance structures influence the level of protection of minority shareholders’ rights in the context of Africa.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine how country-level corporate governance structures influence the level of protection of minority shareholders’ rights in the context of Africa.

Design/methodology/approach

Data are collected from the world competitiveness report for the period 2010-2015. To examine the validity of the study’s hypotheses empirically, the authors use ordinary least squares with correlated panel-corrected standards error (PCSE).

Findings

This paper offers additional empirical evidence on the level of protection of minority shareholders’ rights in Africa. It highlights that country-level corporate governance structures such as efficacy of corporate boards, strength of investor confidence, regulations of securities exchanges and the operation of the Big 4 accounting firms have significant positive impacts on the level of protection of minority shareholders’ rights.

Research limitations/implications

This paper fails to include all African countries because of non-availability of a report for some African countries. Thus, the findings on the level of protection of minority shareholders’ rights in a country are applicable to the countries used in this study.

Practical implications

This paper emphasizes on the relevance of country-level corporate governance structures to ensuring a reasonable level of protection of minority shareholders’ rights.

Originality/value

This paper partially fills the gap regarding the absence of an empirical cross-country study on how country-level corporate governance structures influence the level of protection of minority shareholders’ rights.

Details

Accounting Research Journal, vol. 32 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1030-9616

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 23 May 2019

Otuo Serebour Agyemang, Christopher Gbettey, John Gartchie Gatsi and Innocent Senyo Kwasi Acquah

The purpose of this study is to examine the link between country-level corporate governance and foreign direct investment in African economies for the period 2009-2015.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the link between country-level corporate governance and foreign direct investment in African economies for the period 2009-2015.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use annual panel data of 40 African economies over the period of the study and use the system generalized method of moments (GMM) to establish the relationship between country-level corporate governance and foreign direct investment.

Findings

The authors find that African economies characterized by firms with high ethical values tend to attract a great deal of foreign direct investment. In addition, they highlight that when an economy is associated with effective corporate boards, it tends to attract much foreign direct investment. Further, this study reveals that the level of minority shareholders’ interests’ protection in an economy has a significant positive relationship with foreign direct investment. Finally, they document a negative relationship between effectiveness of regulation of securities and exchanges and foreign direct investment.

Practical implications

It is advised that sound and implementable corporate governance structures devoid of political interferences should be put in place in African economies, if the aim of using foreign direct investment to mitigate poverty by 2015 as part of the Millennium Development Goals is to be attained.

Originality/value

Empiricists have devoted considerable effort to estimate the factors that influence the level of foreign direct investment into African economies without taking into consideration the corporate governance structures in these economies. However, this paper seeks to examine the relationship between country-level corporate governance structures and foreign direct investment in African economies.

Details

Corporate Governance: The International Journal of Business in Society, vol. 19 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-0701

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 August 2016

Otuo Serebour Agyemang and Abraham Ansong

This paper aims to examine the role personal values play in investment decision-making processes among Ghanaian shareholders.

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the role personal values play in investment decision-making processes among Ghanaian shareholders.

Design/methodology/approach

In consequence of the recent emergence of the issue of corporate governance practices in Ghana, and the kind of the research objective of this paper, a mix of qualitative and quantitative methods was used. These methods were used in two stages. The first stage was qualitative, which purposively selected 20 individual shareholders to solicit their perspectives on how personal values influence investment decisions. Their responses were used to construct the content of this enquiry. The second stage, which was quantitative, used stratified sampling technique to select 503 individual shareholders to confirm the responses obtained from stage one of the enquiry.

Findings

The findings of the study reveal that individual shareholders in Ghana hold value priorities and that honesty, a comfortable life and family security play a significant role in their lives and their investment decision-making processes, and the kind of companies they choose to invest in. Also, to Ghanaian individual shareholders, there is a clear distinction between a comfortable life and a prosperous life in the sense that they are not incentivized more by the latter but by the former in their investment decisions.

Practical implications

The results can inform corporate directors and managers what values are considered in investment decisions, and that it is not purely financial. With these results, they can be informed that while some financial values are important, it is just to live a comfortable life and not a prosperous life. This may influence these directors and managers to have a more long-run focus and to have more of a corporate social responsibility (CSR) focus by putting implementable measures in place to tackle corporate responsibility issues and to take up a responsibility for their CSR feat. Also, the results can be used for public policy in that if regulators find out that more CSR-type information is important to investors, they might require additional CSR-type disclosures in financial statements.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the knowledge on the stakeholder perspective of corporate governance that individual shareholders’ personal values have influence on their investment decisions and the choice of companies they invest in.

Article
Publication date: 1 August 2016

Otuo Serebour Agyemang, Abraham Ansong and Millicent Kyeraa

This paper aims to examine the perception of individual Ghanaian shareholders on corporate social responsibility (CSR).

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the perception of individual Ghanaian shareholders on corporate social responsibility (CSR).

Design/methodology/approach

In consequence of the largely unexplored nature of the issue of CSR, the authors use a qualitative analysis to offer the painstaking understanding needed about this issue. Individual Ghanaian shareholders who have absolute control over what companies they desire to invest were selected as the participants.

Findings

The findings show that individual shareholders believe there is the need for corporate directors and managers to take into consideration the interests of all corporate stakeholders-workers, customers, shareholders, suppliers, the local community and the environment- in fashioning out their CSR policies. It also shows the relevance individual shareholders attach to each of those CSRs within each corporate stakeholder group. For instance, the individual shareholders think that it is most relevant for firms to put implementable measures in place to reduce or minimise harm to the environment. Also, with respect to workers, firms are the first and foremost to ensure a hale and hearty and secured work environment. Further, with respect to customers, firms have to offer standard or quality products and services to them. More so, in regards to suppliers, corporate directors and managers have to offer them reasonable prices for their products. Finally, on the part of the local community, firms have to effectively assist them.

Practical implications

The practical approach to problems and affairs of individual Ghanaian shareholders is indicated by how much importance they attach to each corporate responsibility matter, and also they appreciate that a firm cannot thrive or survive for long if it refuses or totally abandons the needs of other corporate stakeholder categories. It will thus be of relevance to firms to take executable steps to deal with the needs of other corporate stakeholder groups brought up by the individual shareholders. As a matter of fact, the vivid descriptions of each of the matters concerning CSR of the individual shareholders present an important policy guideline for corporate directors and corporate managers to establish good-natured relationship between their firms and other corporate stakeholder groups.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the knowledge on CSR by establishing that even though individual shareholders are interested in personal economic benefits, they want their firms to be socially responsible to meet the interests of other corporate stakeholder groups.

Details

Social Responsibility Journal, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-1117

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 February 2015

Otuo Serebour Agyemang, Emmanuel Aboagye and Joyce Frimpong

– The purpose of this paper is to examine the rights of shareholders, particularly those of minority shareholders in the management of firms in Ghana.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the rights of shareholders, particularly those of minority shareholders in the management of firms in Ghana.

Design/methodology/approach

As a result of the largely unexplored nature of this issue in Ghana, a qualitative analysis was conducted to offer a painstaking understanding needed. The case study design is in particular relevant for exploring such phenomenon, as it evolves through the experiences of several key players.

Findings

Data indicate that minority shareholders’ influence is, in most cases, nil in every aspect of their firms. Whilst majority shareholders have an absolute right to appoint or influence the appointment of top officials of the firms, minority shareholders’ role in the selection is limited. In addition, in regards to control of corporate decision-making processes, unlike the majority shareholders, the minority shareholders do not have any influence on them. Further, in terms of relevant information, whilst the majority shareholders have absolute access to them anytime they desire, the minority shareholders only rely on annual general meetings to get hold of them, thus limiting their access to corporate information. The revelations unambiguously grant the majority shareholders of the firms absolute control rights whilst undermining the rights of the minority shareholders. This paper was concluded by itemizing the implications of our findings for management, regulators and governments.

Originality/value

It is believed that this is among the handful of studies that have been conducted using developing or emergent economy data to empirically analyse how minority shareholders wield their rights in emergent economies and to add to the mounting pool of scattered cross-country evidence.

Article
Publication date: 2 February 2015

Otuo Serebour Agyemang and Monia Castellini

The purpose of this study is to examine corporate governance practices in an emerging economy. It focusses on how ownership control and board control systems operate in corporate…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine corporate governance practices in an emerging economy. It focusses on how ownership control and board control systems operate in corporate organisations in an emergent economy, assuming that these systems are essential for enhancing good corporate governance practices in emerging countries.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper builds on descriptive multiple-case study with multiple units of analysis to divulge how ownership control and board control systems function to ensuring effective corporate governance in publicly listed corporate organisations in Ghana. A criterion-based sampling technique is used to select the companies. Thereafter, three techniques of data collection are used to gather data from the companies: archival records, semi-structured interviews and observation.

Findings

By linking the gathered data to the paper’s theoretical propositions, the study highlights that all the companies are characterised by the presence of large shareholders, and, in consequence, they tend to exert extensive control over the activities of the companies through their involvement in the decision-making processes. However, whilst the presence of large shareholders has the tendency to solve the agency problem, it poses challenges in regards to minority shareholders’ interests in these corporate organisations. The study also reveals that boards of directors tend to exercise control over corporate organisations when majority shareholders stop interfering in their dealings. This implies that when major shareholders fully partake in corporate decision-making processes of companies, boards of directors seem to be sheer advisory bodies to management.

Research limitations/implications

This is a paper to shed light on corporate governance practices in four large publicly listed corporate organisations on the Ghana Stock Exchange, so the observable facts do not apply to other emergent economies. In addition, the sample does not represent all corporate organisations in Ghana; thus, the empirical observations cannot be generalised to other organisations that have not been included in this study. However, the empirical results can be applied to other similar corporations in Ghana and other emergent economies in an analytical sense. With the application of inductive reasoning, the results can be applied to provide important appreciation in an effort to understand the structure of corporate governance practices in organisations in developing countries.

Practical implications

A comparative analysis of the empirical observations from this study and the recommended guidelines of corporate governance of Ghana has been carried out, and aspects in which organisations need to reform and improve to fully comply with the guidelines are highlighted: director independence, director evaluation, introduction of new directors and board education. This could possibly be the foundation upon which corporate governance structures in these organisations can be restructured and further enhanced.

Originality/value

The majority of the studies of corporate governance in emergent economies have used quantitative techniques to examine the relationship between corporate governance mechanisms and firm performance. However, this study takes a different approach to examine corporate governance practice in an emergent economy by using a comprehensive and defensible qualitative analysis to examine relations between ownership structure and shareholder control, and board of directors and board control. In addition, it highlights how ownership and board control systems interact in corporate organisations in emergent economies.

Details

Corporate Governance, vol. 15 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-0701

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 November 2015

Otuo Serebour Agyemang, Giulia Fantini and Joyce Frimpong

– The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between country-level governance and ethical behaviour of firms in African countries in the period 2009-2012.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between country-level governance and ethical behaviour of firms in African countries in the period 2009-2012.

Design/methodology/approach

It uses a broad set of country-level governance ratings by the World Bank and data on ethical behaviour of firms by the World Economic Forum’s report on Global Competitiveness. Full data of a total of 39 African economies out of the 54 (including two disputed) economies over the sample period were obtained for this analysis.

Findings

The authors find a statistically significant and positive relationship between country-level rule of law, regulatory quality, control of corruption and democracy, and firm ethical behaviour of firms in African economies. This implies that improvement in country-level rule of law, regulatory quality, control of corruption and democracy tends to be associated with sound ethical behaviour of firms in African economies. However, the authors did not find any statistically significant relationship between country-level accountability, political stability, outsider model of governance and ethical behaviour of firms.

Practical implications

As a continent that is yet to fully discover its potential, the practice of good governance is particularly germane, as this may not only help ensure sound ethical standards of corporations, but may also aid the continent to attract foreign investors, which will beneficially impact economic growth and development of African economies. In this respect, efforts by governments across the continent to ensuring good governance are laudable. One possible way is to ensure an effective and transparent enforcement of laws to stimulate compliance in a specifically clear-cut manner by crafting costs for non-compliance (for instance, legal costs, investigation cost, imprisonment, dent to image and fines).

Originality/value

This paper reinforces the belief that the existence of country-level good governance could provide and enhance cohesive and internally consistent ethical standards of companies.

Details

International Journal of Law and Management, vol. 57 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-243X

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Annals in Social Responsibility, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-3515

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