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Article

Peihong Xie, Xin Li and Xuemei Xie

This paper aims to systematically examine the key notion of integration of non-market and market strategies in the increasingly popular study of corporate non-market

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to systematically examine the key notion of integration of non-market and market strategies in the increasingly popular study of corporate non-market strategies.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper is based on a brief literature review of the non-market strategy (NMS) research that shows the existing literature does not offer a clear and systematic account of the key notion of integration. It suggests any systematic account of integration should address at least three interrelated questions, i.e. why, what and how to integrate non-market and market strategies?

Findings

For the why question, the authors use a formal model to demonstrate that the essence of the most important type of integration synergy lies in the positive spillover or externality from non-market to market strategies. For the what question, the authors identify the contents of integration at three levels, i.e. the level of non-market environment analysis, the level of NMS choice, and the level of non-market dynamic interactions. For the how question, the authors argue that the combination of non-market and market strategies should be seamless in terms of horizontal, vertical and intentional coordination. Overall, the authors argue, only when the right contents are combined and seamlessly coordinated will there be high synergies from integration of non-market and market strategies.

Practical implications

Managers are advised to give non-market strategies full attention. Managers charged with non-market tasks should explore how to seamlessly coordinate non-market and market strategies in order to gain maximal synergies.

Originality/value

This paper is the first to examine the key notion of integration in a systematic manner. It is the first to propose a three-question solution to systematic understanding of the notion and the first to propose the seamless coordination concept and its associated three aspects of seamless coordination.

Details

Nankai Business Review International, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8749

Keywords

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Article

Abdullah Sanusi and Julia Connell

The purpose of this paper is to examine the non-market strategies adopted by government-contracted small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in order to address the challenges…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the non-market strategies adopted by government-contracted small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in order to address the challenges they faced in the business of procurement. Although SMEs are important contributors to employment and the national economy, they demonstrated different levels of effectiveness depending on the management strategies they adopted.

Design/methodology/approach

Using case study methodology, data were gathered by conducting interviews with the owners/managers of Indonesian SMEs. Findings were analysed using the (ia)3 framework developed to assist the understanding of non-market environments.

Findings

Findings indicated that a key characteristic of the Indonesian non-market environment was the influence of the government and Indonesian society. This led to differing degrees of dissatisfaction among SME owners and managers who reported that they had to work within a number of constraints for business survival, while simultaneously learning how to “play the games” demanded by the business and regulatory environment.

Research limitations/implications

Limitations relate to the number of empirical cases represented and the geographical area covered. Further research is recommended in order to provide the opportunity for research generalisation.

Practical implications

These findings illustrate the need for transparency and integrity in the procurement process in relation to Indonesian SMEs. It is proposed that SMEs in similar sectors may benefit from forming strategic alliances/industry clusters to support future knowledge sharing and promote their collective voice.

Originality/value

To date, studies on non-market strategies have largely focused on developed countries and large firms. Consequently, this paper goes some way towards bridging the gap in the non-market environment in developing countries concerning SMEs and potential strategies for adoption.

Details

Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Administration, vol. 10 no. 2/3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-4323

Keywords

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Article

Xinming Deng, Zhilong Tian, Shuai Fan and Muhammad Abrar

The purpose of this paper is to explore the prediction of competitive response based on the characteristics of market and non‐market actions comprehensively, and develop a…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the prediction of competitive response based on the characteristics of market and non‐market actions comprehensively, and develop a four‐stage decision‐making model of firm's competitive action, which is significant for Chinese practicing managers when formulating and implementing the strategies, and further predicting competitors' strategic choices.

Design/methodology/approach

The research adopted the method of structured content analysis and carried out the survey in Chinese home appliance industry, mainly covering the largest firms, including TCL, Hisense, Changhong, Konka, Haier, and Skyworth. The method of multiple regression analysis was employed to test the hypotheses.

Findings

The results show that in order to comprehensively forecast competitor's responding behaviors, the firms could not only limit their perspective to market field but also pay attention to non‐market. Additionally, in the process of dynamic interaction, the attacking or responding action is not independent and it is related significantly to another three type decisions, which are market and non‐market, strategic and tactic, and collective and individual. Further, the study asserts that, in market field, tactic activity is more likely to trigger competitor's response than strategic one, while in non‐market, the situation is just the opposite. Meanwhile, the study figured out that individual market attack is easier to trigger individual market and non‐market response, as well as collective market response. While for non‐market action, whatever it is individual or collective, both would be easy to provoke competitor's collective response.

Originality/value

The research findings extend the existing competitive interaction theory to non‐market field. When forecasting competitor's choice of the competitive action, the firms could not only limit their perspective to market field but also pay attention to non‐market, attaching importance to certain situation of competitor's taking such non‐market action as corporate philanthropy, etc. to launch an attack or a response for gaining competitive advantage.

Details

Nankai Business Review International, vol. 1 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8749

Keywords

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Book part

Armando Castro

Strategic management scholars have acknowledged the existence of a dark side of strategy, but have failed to consider how companies engage and adapt “dark and immoral”…

Abstract

Strategic management scholars have acknowledged the existence of a dark side of strategy, but have failed to consider how companies engage and adapt “dark and immoral” non-market strategies to gain competitive advantage and to maintain corrupt alliances. In this chapter, I analyze the use of corruption as a non-market strategy by construction companies’ suppliers of the Oil and Gas Company Petrobras from 2002 to 2014. The author use verifiable court decisions and analyze the set of rules created by a corrupt cartel to enact their corrupt strategies. The author extend the management literature by showing how a corrupt group of firms adopt a series of strategies not only for their short-term competitive advantage but also to maintain their internal cohesion. Finally, the author develop a model that explains the maintenance of long-term corrupt relationships.

Details

Adapting to Environmental Challenges: New Research in Strategy and International Business
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-477-7

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Book part

Jocelyn Leitzinger, Brayden G King and Forrest Briscoe

While there are a number of theoretical traditions that study the interactions of business and society, research in these spaces has failed to sufficiently engage across…

Abstract

While there are a number of theoretical traditions that study the interactions of business and society, research in these spaces has failed to sufficiently engage across these traditions. This volume aims to bridge these domains, creating a conversation among scholars working at the nexus of stakeholder theory, non-market strategy, and social movement theory. In this introductory chapter to the volume, we review the historical context of these three theoretical areas and explore how they connect in current research. We follow this discussion with our recommendations for common themes that might further integrate these subfields. Finally, we conclude the chapter with a description of each paper in the volume, highlighting how each contributes to our understanding of the dynamics of business and society, as well as the integration of our three focal subfields.

Details

Social Movements, Stakeholders and Non-Market Strategy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78754-349-2

Keywords

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Article

Mine Ozer and Lívia Markóczy

Drawing on the strategic choice and resource dependence perspectives, the purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between corporate political strategy and…

Abstract

Purpose

Drawing on the strategic choice and resource dependence perspectives, the purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between corporate political strategy and innovation in the manufacturing industry in the USA.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper proposes two competing views on the relationship between corporate political strategy and innovation building on strategic choice and resource dependence perspectives.

Findings

The results show support for the resource dependence perspective, suggesting that corporate political strategy is complementary to innovation. The paper also tests for the moderating effects of firm characteristics such as firm size and financial resources, and industry characteristics such as industry concentration and growth on this relationship. The findings indicate that firms that invest heavily in innovation strategies may also want to consider investing in corporate political strategy to create favorable conditions for innovation.

Originality/value

The paper suggests that corporate political strategy can be viewed as alternative or complementary to innovation strategy. Firm characteristics such as firm size and financial resources, and industry characteristics such as industry concentration and growth, moderate the relationship between corporate political strategy and innovation.

Details

Journal of Strategy and Management, vol. 3 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-425X

Keywords

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Article

Haritz Gorostidi-Martinez and Xiaokang Zhao

By reviewing the overall concept of corporate political strategy (CPS), the purpose of this paper is to display a contemporary summary of issues of the diverse global…

Abstract

Purpose

By reviewing the overall concept of corporate political strategy (CPS), the purpose of this paper is to display a contemporary summary of issues of the diverse global CPSs. This study additionally aims to provide relevant corporate political behavioral concepts that surround a firm’s political actions when entering specific politico-economic markets as well as future work recommendations. This paper further provides a contemporary bibliographic analysis on CPS.

Design/methodology/approach

Through a systematic ISI Web of KnowledgeTM All Databases literature review on “CPS,” the research was refined in relation to articles from “all year time-span,” “social science,” and “business economic” areas. After relevant papers were retrieved, sorted, and analyzed, a final bibliographic analysis on CPS was performed using HistCite reference graph maker.

Findings

Results of this research provide a table with a conceptual summary of different CPS types, approaches to political strategy, participation levels, assessment of the political environments, research implications, as well as other related CPS factors.

Research limitations/implications

There is still a lack of empirical research on how specific firm CPSs can help overcome the effect of foreignness within different host countries. This study provides an overview and list of CPSs that companies use when entering a particular politico-economic context as well as inner CPS research streams.

Originality/value

This contemporary conceptual taxonomy on CPS provides researchers as well as practitioners with insights into the global CPS evolution, in addition to a current picture of CPS within different contexts.

Details

Journal of Advances in Management Research, vol. 14 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0972-7981

Keywords

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Article

Mine Ozer, Irem Demirkan and Omer N. Gokalp

This study aims to investigate how corporate lobbying affects the relationship between collaboration networks and innovation.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate how corporate lobbying affects the relationship between collaboration networks and innovation.

Design/methodology/approach

The study incorporates insights from the corporate political strategy perspective into the social network research to examine how firms utilize non‐market mechanisms as a way to manage uncertainty. In particular, using data from 291 US pharmaceutical firms, the authors study the moderating effects of corporate lobbying on the relationship between collaboration networks and firm innovativeness.

Findings

The results show that corporate lobbying moderates the relationship between network centrality, structural holes, and network size, and firm innovativeness.

Originality/value

The study integrates social network and corporate political strategy research in the case of collaboration networks. Integrating social network and corporate political strategy literatures provides us with new insights into what determines success of firm innovativeness. The study shows that in addition to network structures, firms must consider other variables such as government regulation in fostering their innovativeness.

Details

Journal of Strategy and Management, vol. 6 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-425X

Keywords

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Article

Ekin Alakent, Mine Ozer and M. Sinan Goktan

The purpose of this paper is to explore the effect of venture capital (VC) funding as a form of ownership on lobbying strategies of venture-backed companies.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the effect of venture capital (VC) funding as a form of ownership on lobbying strategies of venture-backed companies.

Design/methodology/approach

The sample consists of venture-backed IPO companies between 1999 and 2014. The authors collected IPO data from the Thompson Securities Data Company (SDC) database. The authors collected VC data from SDC VentureXpert database and lobbying data from the Center for Responsive Politics database (opensecrets.org).

Findings

Consistent with the hypotheses, the authors find that VC-backed companies spend less on lobbying compared to non-VC-backed counterparts. However, this relationship is moderated by companies’ R&D intensity. R&D intensive VC-backed companies choose to spend more on lobbying.

Research limitations/implications

The research indicates that although VC backing has a negative impact on lobbying efforts, R&D intensity creates an incentive for VC-backed companies to spend more on lobbying in order to shape public policy to their benefit. The study consists of VC-backed companies that are public. The authors believe that future research can explore political strategies of VC-backed companies during their pre-IPO stage.

Social implications

The authors believe that political strategies are powerful yet underutilized resources that VC-backed companies can rely on to shift industries and invest in innovative products that challenge norms and fight the status quo. Lobbying and other forms of political involvement can help them shape public policy.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, the study makes a unique contribution to the literature by exploring the political strategies of VC-backed companies.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship and Public Policy, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2045-2101

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Article

Peter J. Buckley, OBE and Jean J. Boddewyn

The purpose of this paper is to show that the market-internalization framework can be applied to non-economic institutions because society’s non-market sub-systems …

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to show that the market-internalization framework can be applied to non-economic institutions because society’s non-market sub-systems – political, social and cultural – are subject to failures just like economic markets, and firms can contribute to their repair or replacement by selectively, strategically and responsibly internalizing the market and non-market arenas for these sub-systems’ functions.

Design/methodology/approach

Internalization theory is applied to a new area – that of societal failures.

Findings

Internalization theory can be applied to the joint failures of economic and non-economic institutions, and this helps explain the growing “political role” of multinational enterprises in economies in transition as well as the phenomenon of increasing multinational firm activity in underdeveloped economies.

Research limitations/implications

The limits and implications of internalization are drawn in terms of theory development, legitimacy and managerial strategies.

Originality/value

This paper is the first to analyze the selective internalization of societal failures by the multinational enterprises. It extends internalization theory and examines the contested notion of “public goods”.

Details

The Multinational Business Review, vol. 23 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1525-383X

Keywords

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