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Book part
Publication date: 10 July 2006

Edward J. Sabornie

The contributions of qualitative research to the study of behavioral–emotional disabilities, mild intellectual disabilities, and learning disabilities (the three types of…

Abstract

The contributions of qualitative research to the study of behavioral–emotional disabilities, mild intellectual disabilities, and learning disabilities (the three types of high-incidence disabilities) are relatively recent and far from abundant. This chapter discusses qualitative, or “naturalisticresearch by briefly examining the methodology used in such inquiry, reviewing many of the available studies concerning those with high-incidence disabilities, and providing implications from the existing empirical literature. It is not recommended that qualitative research takes the place of quantitative research in special education, but well-designed and executed naturalistic studies can contribute additional knowledge that is worthwhile to the field.

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Applications of Research Methodology
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-295-5

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Book part
Publication date: 20 June 2017

David Shinar

Abstract

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Traffic Safety and Human Behavior
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-222-4

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2005

David Douglas

To provide a qualitative, in‐depth, naturalistic, empirical inquiry into entrepreneurial decision‐making, through the application of grounded theory methodology.

Abstract

Purpose

To provide a qualitative, in‐depth, naturalistic, empirical inquiry into entrepreneurial decision‐making, through the application of grounded theory methodology.

Design/methodology/approach

Application of original Glaser and Strauss grounded theory methodological approach and subsequent works are situated in the comparatively new context of entrepreneurship and small business management. Gathered data are iteratively analysed to produce emergent conceptual categories and their underpinning properties. Emergent substantive theories of entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial decision making are discussed against existing decision and entrepreneurship theories.

Findings

First, the examination of the appropriateness of applying grounded theory to investigating complex entrepreneurship issues, as analysed through conceptual categories drawn from an empirical study. Second, the theoretical exploration of emergent entrepreneurship bounded practices and associated tasks of decision‐making. Finally, through the revelation of what is inductively achievable, what can be practically learned by researching naturalistic entrepreneurship.

Research limitations/implications

This process of iterative theory building, whilst grounded in a substantive inquiry, holds the capacity to generate further research questions and tentative explanations at broader formal levels. By cross cutting the boundaries of units of analyses – the entrepreneur or associated actors, for example – this results in the maturation of a complex web of human interactivities. From the research reported, questions beyond the substantive case can develop a broader theoretical and practical agenda. For example, issues such as: buying‐in to an established business, the managing of key skills workers in small enterprises, and, entrepreneurial decision‐making in conjunction with other actors’ involvement.

Practical implications

The application of grounded theory emergent research objectives, whilst originating from particular inductive investigations, can become foundations for better understanding broader entrepreneurship questions and practice‐based researched endeavours.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the identified need for developing the stock of qualitatively bounded research within entrepreneurship and small business inquiry. It develops understanding of both the theoretical and practical nature of entrepreneurship, the managing of an enterprise and the synonymous task of making decisions.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 11 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

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Article
Publication date: 28 November 2019

James Rupert Fletcher

A growing body of research seeks to include people with dementia as both participants and co-designers. It is also increasingly recognized that dementia research must pay…

Abstract

Purpose

A growing body of research seeks to include people with dementia as both participants and co-designers. It is also increasingly recognized that dementia research must pay greater attention to informal care, provided by family and friends in non-institutional settings, because this is the situation of most people affected by dementia. Accessing these kinds of naturalistic care sites through meaningfully inclusive studies can be challenging for researchers in many fields. The paper aims to discuss this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper describes a methodology designed to facilitate meaningful inclusion and access to hard-to-reach dementia care networks. It describes the implementation of this methodology in the field, the problems that emerged and the lessons learned.

Findings

A two-step sampling approach was used. People with dementia were sampled through organizations unrelated to dementia. Care networks were sampled through ecomapping with people with dementia. The strategy successfully accessed the desired population, but it was labour-intensive and biased the sample in several respects.

Originality/value

It is hoped that this outline will encourage further reflection and discussion regarding methodological approaches to complex sampling and recruitment issues in dementia research.

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Working with Older People, vol. 23 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1366-3666

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Article
Publication date: 23 January 2007

Elena Prigoda and Pamela J. McKenzie

The authors aim to apply a collectivist theoretical framework to the study of human information behaviour and the construction of meaning in a knitting group held in a…

Abstract

Purpose

The authors aim to apply a collectivist theoretical framework to the study of human information behaviour and the construction of meaning in a knitting group held in a branch of a large Canadian (Ontario) public library.

Design/methodology/approach

The research design was naturalistic and consisted of active participant observation of five knitting group sessions and semi‐structured interviews with 12 group members. Field notes were taken, and both observations and interviews were audio taped and transcribed. Field notes and transcripts were coded qualitatively.

Findings

Information practices and contextual factors are mutually constitutive. The location of the circle in a public library, the physical characteristics of the act of knitting, and the social meanings of the activities taking place within the group, including the significance of gender and caring, are integrally linked to HIB in this setting. Findings are described verbally and illustrated through a model.

Research limitations/implications

This study applies collectivist understandings to enrich concepts such as the “information ground” that have previously been studied largely from constructivist perspectives. As a small‐scale naturalistic study, results are context‐specific and must be applied tentatively.

Practical implications

This study provides an example of how programs in public libraries can provide opportunities for information behaviour and the construction of meaning for members of the community.

Originality/value

This study contributes a collectivist approach to research on everyday‐life information seeking and on the library as a place.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 63 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 2 January 2020

Haotian Cao, Zhenghao Zhang, Xiaolin Song, Hong Wang, Mingjun Li, Song Zhao and Jianqiang Wang

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of driver demographic characteristics on the driving safety involving cell phone usages.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of driver demographic characteristics on the driving safety involving cell phone usages.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 1,432 crashes and 19,714 baselines were collected for the Strategic Highway Research Program 2 naturalistic driving research. The authors used a case-control approach to estimate the prevalence and the population attributable risk percentage. The mixed logistic regression model is used to evaluate the correlation between different driver demographic characteristics (age, driving experience or their combination) and the crash risk regarding cell phone engagements, as well as the correlation among the likelihood of the cell phone engagement during the driving, multiple driver demographic characteristics (gender, age and driving experience) and environment conditions.

Findings

Senior drivers face an extremely high crash risk when distracted by cell phone during driving, but they are not involved in crashes at a large scale. On the contrary, cell phone usages account for a far larger percentage of total crashes for young drivers. Similarly, experienced drivers and experienced-middle-aged drivers seem less likely to be impacted by the cell phone while driving, and cell phone engagements are attributed to a lower percentage of total crashes for them. Furthermore, experienced, senior or male drivers are less likely to engage in cell phone-related secondary tasks while driving.

Originality/value

The results provide support to guide countermeasures and vehicle design.

Details

Journal of Intelligent and Connected Vehicles, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2399-9802

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Article
Publication date: 22 November 2011

Hedy Jiaying Huang and Keith Hooper

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the funding criteria adopted by funding organisations (FOs) in New Zealand.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the funding criteria adopted by funding organisations (FOs) in New Zealand.

Design/methodology/approach

The naturalistic inquiry paradigm is applied and qualitative interview data were collected using semi‐structured interviews.

Findings

The most important finding is that there is a strong pattern emerging as to how the selected FOs determine the allocation of their funds. Outcomes and key people are important criteria for these FOs, while financial information is regarded as less relevant. On balance, the New Zealand funders involved in this study seem to adopt a creative approach to allocating their funds. To explain the lack of performance and financial measurements, it may be that, unlike their for‐profit counterparts, not‐for‐profit (NFP) organisations' managers are not constrained by returns to shareholders, earnings per share and the bottom line. Thus, many of the New Zealand funders' allocations rely on an instinctive feel for the projects proposed and the character of the applicants proposing them.

Research limitations/implications

A limitation of the research is that it was restricted to Auckland and Wellington and only to those FOs which were willing to participate. It is not possible to generalise the results and apply the findings derived based on seven FOs to all the funders in New Zealand. This research is an exploratory study; further research would be appropriate across Australasia to include larger centres such as Sydney and Melbourne where there are many more FOs.

Practical implications

Funders are in favour of a more creative and soft approach to their philanthropic giving. It is hoped that this research will raise an awareness of a strong tendency of FOs to adopt a creative approach to grant‐making rather than the more scientific approach involving financial analysis.

Social implications

The outcomes and key people are important to this grant‐making process, while much financial information is less relevant.

Originality/value

The paper recommends that FOs should pay more attention to financial analysis while preserving the flexibility of a creative approach. Moreover, grant seekers will have a much clearer idea about what sort of information most grant makers actually utilise in their grant decision‐making processes. The additional contribution of this research project is to enrich the existing literature on philanthropic funding in New Zealand.

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Qualitative Research in Accounting & Management, vol. 8 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1176-6093

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1995

Stuart Hannabuss

There is an increasing emphasis on research in library and information studies. This has led to a proliferation of courses on research methods. For people starting research

Abstract

There is an increasing emphasis on research in library and information studies. This has led to a proliferation of courses on research methods. For people starting research, as well as for teachers organising such courses, the experience has been exciting and complex. Not only has it involved the identification and development of eclectic research ideas, but it has also led to a deeper examination of the relationship between theory and practice. Critical too has been the interface between research which leads to financial reward and research conducted for purely academic reasons (and how and where the area lies in between). Political factors have also been at work, from the perceived need new entrants to the profession have of the desirability of a master's degree, demonstrating mastery of at least fundamental researching skills, to the momentum in higher education to provide a wide range of challenging courses which purport to ensure competitive advantage for their graduates in the market‐place.

Details

Aslib Proceedings, vol. 47 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0001-253X

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Article
Publication date: 28 October 2013

Jennifer Emanuel

Usability studies are a form of library evaluation that are often passed off as research. However, at its core, usability is an evaluation method, not a research method…

Abstract

Purpose

Usability studies are a form of library evaluation that are often passed off as research. However, at its core, usability is an evaluation method, not a research method. The goal is to make an argument that usability studies can be a valid form of scholarly research if certain limitations inherent in usability studies are addressed in the research design.

Design/methodology/approach

Through evaluating literature in the social sciences, this paper makes an argument for usability as a research method if certain limitations inherent within usability testing are addressed.

Findings

Usability is not only an evaluation method, but when limitations are addressed; it can be considered an important research tool within libraries.

Originality/value

No other article in the library and information sciences literature talks about methodologies for usability. Most usability articles do not address methodologies utilized in a way that would be considered research in a broader social sciences context. This article bridges the gap from when usability is considered evaluation to when it is considered research within library science.

Details

OCLC Systems & Services: International digital library perspectives, vol. 29 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1065-075X

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Article
Publication date: 13 November 2020

Stylianos Karagiannis and Emmanouil Magkos

This paper aims to highlight the potential of using capture the flag (CTF) challenges, as part of an engaging cybersecurity learning experience for enhancing skills and…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to highlight the potential of using capture the flag (CTF) challenges, as part of an engaging cybersecurity learning experience for enhancing skills and knowledge acquirement of undergraduate students in academic programs.

Design/methodology/approach

The approach involves integrating interactivity, gamification, self-directed and collaborative learning attributes using a CTF hosting platform for cybersecurity education. The proposed methodology includes the deployment of a pre-engagement survey for selecting the appropriate CTF challenges in accordance with the skills and preferences of the participants. During the learning phase, storytelling elements were presented, while a behavior rubric was constructed to observe the participants’ behavior and responses during a five-week lab. Finally, a survey was created for getting feedback from the students and for extracting quantitative results based on the attention, relevance, confidence and satisfaction (ARCS) model of motivational design.

Findings

Students felt more confident about their skills and were highly engaged to the learning process. The outcomes in terms of technical skills and knowledge acquisition were shown to be positive.

Research limitations/implications

As the number of participants was small, the results and information retrieved from applying the ARCS model only have an indicative value; however, specific challenges to overcome are highlighted which are important for the future deployments.

Practical implications

Educators could use the proposed approach for deploying an engaging cybersecurity learning experience in an academic program, emphasizing on providing hands-on practice labs and featuring topics from real-world cybersecurity cases. Using the proposed approach, an educator could also monitor the progress of the participants and get qualitative and quantitative statistics regarding the learning impact for each exercise.

Social implications

Educators could demonstrate modern cybersecurity topics in the classroom, closing further the gap between theory and practice. As a result, students from academia will benefit from the proposed approach by acquiring technical skills, knowledge and experience through hands-on practice in real-world cases.

Originality/value

This paper intends to bridge the existing gap between theory and practice in the topics of cybersecurity by using CTF challenges for learning purposes and not only for testing the participants’ skills. This paper offers important knowledge for enhancing cybersecurity education programs and for educators to use CTF challenges for conducting cybersecurity exercises in academia, extracting meaningful statistics regarding the learning impact.

Details

Information & Computer Security, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4961

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