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Article
Publication date: 25 August 2021

Rizwan Ali, Ramiz Ur Rehman, Madiha Kanwal, Muhammad Akram Naseem and Muhammad Ishfaq Ahmad

This study aims to examine the key determinants of corporate social responsibility (CSR) disclosure of all listed banks that operate their function in an emerging market, Pakistan.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the key determinants of corporate social responsibility (CSR) disclosure of all listed banks that operate their function in an emerging market, Pakistan.

Design/methodology/approach

This study applied the principles of systems-oriented theories such as legitimacy, stakeholder and agency theory. The hypothesis is linking the bank’s social disclosure and its determinants are developed. The relevant data was gathered from the bank’s annual reports and Pakistan Stock Exchange from 2008 to 2018. Further, governance attributes and performance measures are used as the predictor variable and the CSR score as the predicted variable. This study applied panel data analysis on the sampled banks to examine the proposed hypothesis for empirical estimation.

Findings

This study’s inclusive results confirm that the hypothesized determinants of board size, foreign directors on board and female directors on board positively impact the CSR disclosure potential. Board size significantly explains the CSR disclosure in all bank samples. The determined performance measures, profitability and liquidity show a significant positive relationship with CSR disclosure except for few exceptions.

Research limitations/implications

This study’s results lack generalizability due to its unique setting; future researchers can extend the research scope in national–international settings and a regional context.

Practical implications

This study enriches the literature on CSR disclosure determinants and is relevant to practice in an emerging context. It can be helpful from a policy perspective; institutions (bodies) that regulate banks should recognize the governance and performance aspects essential to enhancing CSR disclosure and enhancing the bank’s performance hence value.

Originality/value

This research offers empirical evidence that sheds light on the key governance attributes and performance measures that partially affect CSR disclosure and its extent. In doing so, this study’s findings contribute to the literature significantly, along with regulators, shareholders, deposit holders, individual–institutional investors.

Details

Social Responsibility Journal, vol. 18 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-1117

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 July 2022

Muhammad Ishfaq Ahmad, Muhammad Akram Naseem and Ramiz Ur Rehman

This study aims to investigate the role of dynamic capabilities (DCs) in the financial performance of the small and medium enterprises (SMEs) during COVID-19. Furthermore, it took…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the role of dynamic capabilities (DCs) in the financial performance of the small and medium enterprises (SMEs) during COVID-19. Furthermore, it took chief executive officer gender to moderate the relationship between DCs and financial performance.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used the survey approach to collect the data. Regression analysis was used on 563 responses to test the proposed hypotheses.

Findings

The results showed that DCs have a significant positive effect on the SME’s operating level and revenues. Moreover, it also moderates the DCs and financial performance during COVID-19. The results revealed that firms that used the DCs during COVID-19 not only survive during the COVID-19 tough time but also enjoyed a decent revenue level.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study is the first study to establish the link between DCs and SMEs operating and revenue level during the COVID-19 pandemic in Pakistani settings.

Details

Review of International Business and Strategy, vol. 33 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-6014

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 November 2023

Muhammad Akram Naseem, Enrico Battisti, Antonio Salvi and Muhammad Ishfaq Ahmad

This study examines the relationship between green intellectual capital (GIC) and competitive advantage (CA) and proposes the moderating role of corporate philanthropy types…

Abstract

Purpose

This study examines the relationship between green intellectual capital (GIC) and competitive advantage (CA) and proposes the moderating role of corporate philanthropy types (cash, in-kind and both) during the COVID-19 pandemic. In particular, this study investigates the types of corporate philanthropy, strengthening the link between GIC and CA for Chinese listed firms during a pandemic.

Design/methodology/approach

Cross-sectional data were collected from 248 chief executive officers (CEOs) of Chinese firms listed on the Shanghai Stock Exchange through a structured questionnaire. Regression analysis was employed to test the proposed hypotheses.

Findings

The findings reveal that all types of GIC positively influence a firm's CA. Furthermore, all three types of philanthropy – cash, in-kind and both – moderate the relationship between GIC and CA. However, the intensity of moderation was higher in the case of in-kind philanthropy than in the other two types.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first empirical study to examine the relationship between GIC (considering its three components: human, structural and relational capital) and CA in China. The study finds different types of philanthropy as moderating variables to better explain the relationship between GIC and CA. Further, it contributes to a new line of research that aims to study philanthropic aspects connected to the GIC debate.

Details

Journal of Intellectual Capital, vol. 25 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1469-1930

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 30 August 2023

Muhammad Akram Naseem, Rizwan Ali and Ramiz Ur Rehman

This study aims to investigate the mediating role of corporate social responsibility (CSR) in the link between board independence, board diversity and dividend payouts…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the mediating role of corporate social responsibility (CSR) in the link between board independence, board diversity and dividend payouts underpinning the agency theory perspective. As boards are ultimately responsible for decision-making, it includes CSR, dividend payouts and other strategic decisions.

Design/methodology/approach

Board independence and board diversity (female director, female independent director) are used as explanatory variables, CSR scores as a mediator and dividend payout explained variables. The relevant data were collected from 159 listed firms of the Pakistan Stock Exchange (PSX) from 2013 to 2019, consisting of 1,113 year-firm observations. For empirical estimation, the study used the Tobit regression analysis and Sobel test to check the significance of the mediation to confirm the hypothesis.

Findings

The results confirm that independence and diversity on the board are positively related to dividend payouts. Further, CSR partially mediates the link between independence and diversity on board-dividend payouts, which confirms the argument that firms with involvement in CSR practices are also associated with dividend payouts.

Research limitations/implications

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study is novel to address whether CSR mediates the link of the board’s independence and diversity and dividend payouts in Pakistan’s setting. The results of this study have restricted generalizability due to the specific nature of the sample characteristics; future researchers can extend the research scope.

Practical implications

Theoretically practically, the results imply that CSR spending also enhances the distribution to firms' shareholders, thus becoming attractive to investors. This study enriches the literature on board attributes-dividend policy nexus, which strengthens through CSR practices and is relevant to practice in line with sustainable development in an emerging context.

Originality/value

CSR practices are an understudied but significant factor that links stakeholders' beliefs about firms' decision-making strategies, enhancing dividend announcements. In doing so, this study's findings contribute to the literature, regulators, shareholders and investor at various levels.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal , vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 April 2019

Muhammad Akram Naseem, Jun Lin, Ramiz ur Rehman, Muhammad Ishfaq Ahmad and Rizwan Ali

The purpose of this paper is to empirically capture the impact of a chief executive officer’s (CEO) personal and organizational characteristics on firm performance in the context…

3360

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to empirically capture the impact of a chief executive officer’s (CEO) personal and organizational characteristics on firm performance in the context of a developing country and to explore whether capital structure mediates the relationship between CEO characteristics and firm performance.

Design/methodology/approach

In order to test the hypothesized model, CEO duality, tenure and personal characteristics (age, gender and education) were taken as explanatory variables to study their impact on firm performance. Data were collected from 179 Pakistani companies from 2009–2015. The collected data were processed via panel data regression analysis under fixed effect assumptions.

Findings

Results show that CEO duality has a negative impact on firm performance and that a CEO with a dual role is more inclined toward debt financing. Moreover, a CEO with a longer tenure tends to be opportunistic and prioritize his/her personal interest while making strategic financial decisions, thus creating agency costs for the firm. Furthermore, CEO characteristics like age, gender and education have significant effects on firm financial decisions and firm performance. Finally, the debt and equity ratio partially mediates the link between CEO characteristics and firm performance.

Research limitations/implications

The findings of this study have limited generalizability due to the specific nature of the sample characteristics.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors knowledge, this study is the first to explore the impact of CEO characteristics on capital structure and firm performance. This work is also the first to explore the mediating role of capital structure in the relationship between CEO characteristics and firm performance by using Pakistani data.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 58 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 30 September 2021

Gul Afshan, Muhammad Kashif, Firdous Khanum, Mansoor Ahmed Khuhro and Umair Akram

Based on the conservation of resources theory, this study aims to investigate high involvement work practices (HIWP) as an antecedent to burnout with a mediating role of perceived…

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Abstract

Purpose

Based on the conservation of resources theory, this study aims to investigate high involvement work practices (HIWP) as an antecedent to burnout with a mediating role of perceived work–family (WF) imbalance. Moreover, this study examines whether humble leadership moderates the relationship between HIWP and WF imbalance.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a time-lagged survey approach, data are collected from 200 employees working in the Indian services sector organizations.

Findings

The findings demonstrate that HIWP has a direct negative effect on burnout and an indirect effect via WF imbalance. Also, humble leadership moderates the relationship between HIWP and WF imbalance.

Originality/value

By studying the pessimistic view of HIWP in the Indian context, this study contributes to the scant studies available on its effect on burnout in collectivistic societies. Furthermore, humble leadership's moderating role in the relationship between HIWP and WF imbalance is unique to this study.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 40 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 January 2020

Tooba Akram and Saadia Irfan

This case captures the experience of the newly hired investigation officer (IO) at the SECP, who crafts a front running case focused on the ethical transgressions by equity trader…

Abstract

Purpose

This case captures the experience of the newly hired investigation officer (IO) at the SECP, who crafts a front running case focused on the ethical transgressions by equity trader and KATS operator, at a famous brokerage house named Mir Ali Chaudhary Securities (MAC) Securities and three traders at DICE in Pakistan. The case outlines the whole series of investigation event that took place, from the IO identifying the smoke to all the pieces of puzzle together to form collectively evidence of front running. The case outlines and probes students to think at each stage of investigation as to how to answer the general claims that insider trading should be legalized. All these questions are viewed from the perspective of Pakistan’s regulatory environment.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use a descriptive case study methodology approach.

Findings

The investigation trial held Sidney and Aslam guilty, sentencing them to imprisonment and making them pay fine to the Securities Exchange Commission of Pakistan (SECP) worth Rs 5m and Rs 1m, respectively. Likewise, the three equity traders at DICE were sentenced to imprisonment and charged a fine of Rs. 1m each.

Originality/value

On March 21, 2018, Mr Sidney, the equity trader, Mr Aslam, a KATS operator at MAC Securities and three equity traders at DICE Securities (Pvt.) Ltd were convicted under Securities Act (2015) and Court of law. Sidney and Aslam were alleged of tipping off advance confidential information of their clients’ order to the three equity traders at DICE, whereas the three traders at DICE were alleged of trading shares based on the tipped information in their trading account before the MAC clients’ orders were filled.

Details

Journal of Financial Crime, vol. 27 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-0790

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 29 May 2019

Muhammad Sajid Khattak and Usman Mustafa

The complexity of projects has become a serious issue and obstacle in their successful completion. In order to overcome these complexities, it has become imperative to identify…

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Abstract

Purpose

The complexity of projects has become a serious issue and obstacle in their successful completion. In order to overcome these complexities, it has become imperative to identify the relevant management competencies of project managers. The purpose of this paper is to address the problem of cost, time and scope in engineering infrastructure projects due to their complexities through management competencies.

Design/methodology/approach

In the first phase of the study, 32 experts were interviewed through semi-structured pre-tested questionnaire. In this phase, essential elements of complexities were identified initially. This was followed by finding required dimensions of competencies to counter these complexities and to acquire improved performance. In the final stage, required levels of competencies for specific elements of complexity were identified. In the second phase, 85 “project managers” were also approached to get feedback about their recently completed public sector engineering infrastructure projects in Pakistan.

Findings

The study identified additional dimensions, i.e. honesty, enthusiasm and dedication, in the case of competencies and adverse law and order situation, political instability, land issues, energy crisis and weak authorization of project managers in the case of complexities. Leadership, management skill, communication skill, effectiveness and result orientation were identified as top quality traits required. The study concluded that there is a significant impact of management competencies and complexities on project performance.

Originality/value

The study contributes to a better understanding of how to improve performance in complex engineering infrastructure projects through adopting management competencies. It also empirically illustrates the relations among project management competencies, complexities and project performance. Although the research is grounded on public sector infrastructure projects, its findings may also be helpful for practices in project management of other sectors.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. 26 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 November 2022

Nhat Tan Nguyen, Qingyu Zhang, Shafique Ur Rehman, Muhammad Usman and Dario Natale Palmucci

Organic food consumption decreases the risk of becoming obese or overweight. This study intends to see the influence of customer perceived value, COVID-19 fear, food neophobia…

Abstract

Purpose

Organic food consumption decreases the risk of becoming obese or overweight. This study intends to see the influence of customer perceived value, COVID-19 fear, food neophobia, effort and natural content on the intention to purchase organic food (IPOF) that leads to the actual purchase of organic food (APOF). Moreover, organic food availability is a moderator between IPOF and APOF.

Design/methodology/approach

PLS-SEM is used for hypothesis testing. A purposive sampling technique was followed to gather data from organic food consumers in Lahore, Gujranwala and Islamabad and a total of 479 questionnaires were part of the analysis.

Findings

The outcomes show that customer perceived value, effort and natural content is positively related to IPOF. Despite this, COVID-19 fear and food neophobia are negatively associated with IPOF. IPOF and organic food availability are positively related to APOF. Finally, organic food availability significantly moderated between IPOF and APOF.

Practical implications

This study outcome reveals that companies of organic food can recognize customer perceived value, COVID-19 fear, food neophobia, effort, natural content and organic food availability in their decision-making if they determine the actual purchase of organic food. This study offers a valuable policy to companies of organic food to enhance customer’s behavior in purchasing organic food in Pakistan. Besides, practitioners and academicians can benefit from this study finding.

Originality/value

This initial research integrates customer perceived value, COVID-19 fear, food neophobia, effort, natural content, IPOF and organic food availability to determine APOF in the COVID-19 pandemic. Moreover, consumption value theory is followed to develop the framework.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 125 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 February 2023

Tahir Naseem and Azeem Shahzad

The purpose of this study is to examine the flow and heat transfer performance of titanium oxide/water and copper/water nanofluids with varying nanoparticle morphologies by…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the flow and heat transfer performance of titanium oxide/water and copper/water nanofluids with varying nanoparticle morphologies by considering magnetic, Joule heating and viscous dissipation effects. Furthermore, it studies the irreversibility caused by the flow of a hydromagnetic nanofluid past a radiated stretching sheet by considering different shapes of TiO2 and Cu nanoparticles with water as the base fluid.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, the authors investigated entropy production in an unsteady two-dimensional magneto-hydrodynamic nanofluid regime using water as the base fluid and five unique TiO2 and Cu nanoparticle morphologies. Using appropriate similarity transformations, the controlling nonlinear system of partial differential equations is transformed into a system of ordinary differential equations. The shooting technique with Runge–Kutta method was then used to solve these equations quantitatively. The findings of this study are depicted graphically, and the skin friction corresponding to various nanoparticle geometries and physical parameter variations is tabulated.

Findings

To assess the reliability of the current findings, a tabular representation of the data was compared to that of previously published studies. It is noted that a reduction in thermal energy was detected as a result of the higher levels of Prandtl number (Pr). It is further analysed that the highest heat energy generation of TiO2 nanoparticles was larger than that of Cu nanoparticles. The most important finding was that the sphere-shaped Cu/H2O nanofluid had the lowest velocity and greatest temperature. Also, Cu nanoparticles in the shape of platelets generate the most entropy, while TiO2 nanoparticles in the shape of spheres generate the least.

Originality/value

To the best of the knowledge of the authors, the attempt to investigate the previously unexplored shape effects of TiO2 and Cu nanoparticles on the heat transfer enhancement and inherent irreversibility caused by hydromagnetic nanofluid flow past a radiated stretching sheet with magnetic, Joule heating and viscous dissipation effects. This study fills this gap in the existing literature and encourages scientists, engineers and businesses to do more research in this area. This model can be used to improve heat transfer in systems that use renewable energy, thermal management in industry and the processing of materials.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 33 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

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