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Book part
Publication date: 15 July 2021

Cengiz Mesut Tosun

Turkey has witnessed the mass migration movement of Syrian citizens fleeing the Syrian civil war. These people have been defined as ‘foreigners under temporary…

Abstract

Turkey has witnessed the mass migration movement of Syrian citizens fleeing the Syrian civil war. These people have been defined as ‘foreigners under temporary protection’. However, the UN Convention does not include temporary protection or similar definitions in relation to migrants, refugees, and asylums and accepts them as migrant workers. In our country, people under temporary protection, whose majority is composed of Syrians work in informal jobs. The most important document aiming at granting legal rights to people who are found in a country without any legal position or who is identified as an irregular worker, not as an employee and migrant worker, is the International Convention for the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Their Families. Turkey has become a party to this document. The UN Convention gives immigrant workers and family members a wide range of protective rights, such as work, settlement, education, and trade union rights. In this chapter, the positions of foreigners in temporary protection who are trying to make a living by collecting recyclable materials such as mostly paper, etc., which is defined as a part of the street economy, will be discussed in terms of the provisions of the UN Convention.

Details

A New Social Street Economy: An Effect of The COVID-19 Pandemic
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80117-124-3

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 31 December 2010

Gil S. Epstein and Yosef Mealem

In this chapter, we consider the interaction between local workers and migrants in the production process of a firm. Both local workers and migrants can invest effort in…

Abstract

In this chapter, we consider the interaction between local workers and migrants in the production process of a firm. Both local workers and migrants can invest effort in assimilation activities to increase the assimilation of the migrants into the firm and so increase their interaction and production activities. We consider the effect the relative size (in the firm) of each group and the cost of activities has on the assimilation process of the migrants.

Details

Migration and Culture
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-153-5

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Article
Publication date: 3 October 2022

Fatemeh Khozaei, Claus-Christian Carbon and Nordin Abd Razak

Afghan migrants are at an increased risk of mental disorders due to various political, economic and security-associated stressors. COVID-19 has brought extra concerns for…

Abstract

Purpose

Afghan migrants are at an increased risk of mental disorders due to various political, economic and security-associated stressors. COVID-19 has brought extra concerns for this group of migrants around the world. Few studies have examined how the perception of the host society and perceived stress are associated with the mental health of migrants during the COVD-19 pandemic. This study aims to examine the role of perceived justice, freedom and the burden of COVID-19 on experienced stress and depression among Afghan migrants in Iran.

Design/methodology/approach

N = 497 participants representing the Afghan migrant community between 15 and 80 years old participated in the study. The target population was recruited from Afghan migrants residing in Kerman city in Iran, the capital of one of the provinces with the highest number of Afghan migrants in Iran. The participants answered questions on depression, positive mental health and a series of stressors such as perceived justice, freedom and the burden of COVID-19. Data was collected in November and December 2021 during the third wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Iran.

Findings

The authors found a significant effect of the burden of the COVID-19 pandemic on migrants’ perceived stress and depression. On the other hand, perceptions of justice and freedom in the host country can significantly reduce stress and depression. The results show that stress mediates the effect of justice, freedom and the burden of COVID-19 on depression. In addition, positive mental health moderates the impact of stress on depression.

Originality/value

The current study is one of the pioneering studies that examines the determinants of Afghan migrants’ mental disorders during the COVID-19 pandemic in Iran.

Details

International Journal of Migration, Health and Social Care, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-9894

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 September 2017

Xiao Zhang and Jianglong Zhang

In recent years, the conflict between migrant workers and urban social development has become increasingly serious, which has seriously affected the development of the…

Abstract

In recent years, the conflict between migrant workers and urban social development has become increasingly serious, which has seriously affected the development of the city. Based on this, taking the urban integration of migrant workers as the core, starting from social capital, it was proposed that housing space, employment and public service were the mian reasons for the difficulty of migrant workers' urban integration. Taking the spatial planning of Shenzhen as an example, the spatial distribution of migrant workers in Shenzhen, the impact of three times urban plannings on the agglomeration of farmers, as well as the planning of affordable housing and its existing problems were studied. The space for migrant workers to integrate into cities was constructed. Through the construction of urbanization, urban and rural development can be integrated. This study has a certain theoretical guiding significance for the integration of migrant workers and urban planning, and can indirectly promote the rapid development of the city..

Details

Open House International, vol. 42 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0168-2601

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 June 2015

Manmeet Kaur, Sukhbir Singh, Madhu Gupta, Pankaj Bahuguna and Soma Rani

People often migrate from rural to urban areas within a country or from less developed to more developed countries for better life opportunities but may remain outside the…

Abstract

Purpose

People often migrate from rural to urban areas within a country or from less developed to more developed countries for better life opportunities but may remain outside the range of health services. The purpose of this paper was to find out the socio-economic and health system factors that may affect the utilization of health services by the migrants.

Design/methodology/approach

Five villages and three slums were randomly selected from 23 villages and 18 slums of Chandigarh, a northwest Indian city. Using stratified random sampling, 145 migrants and 63 native women, who were pregnant or had delivered a baby from April 1, 2009 to March 31, 2012 were interviewed using semi-structured interview schedule. χ2 was used for testing statistical significance of the differences, and logistic regression was utilized to evaluate the “independent effect” of migration on Maternal and Child Health (MCH) service utilization.

Findings

The level of education was higher among migrants than the natives but their income was less than that of natives. Majority of the migrant women had registered themselves for antenatal care (ANC) in the first trimester of pregnancy (55 percent) compared to the natives (21 percent), but only few had availed more than three ANC check-ups (18 percent) as compared to the natives (44 percent). Knowledge about danger signs of childhood diarrhea and pneumonia was low among migrants compared to the natives (p < 0.0001). Health workers interacted less often with migrants (29 percent) than the natives (67 percent). After controlling the effect of socio-economic and -demographic variables, utilization of MCH care services were significantly higher among natives than the migrants. Inadequate community support among migrants led to the lower utilization of MCH care.

Research limitations/implications

Present study reflects early ANC registration among migrants but the number of ANC visits much less than the natives. This could be further be investigated using qualitative methods.

Practical implications

Specific strategies are required to address the health needs of migrants such as formation of community-based support groups. Health services and health workers need to be oriented to support migrants to the special needs of migrants.

Social implications

Reduction in inequality in accessing health between natives and migrants can be addressed with social support.

Originality/value

The study supports the fact that migration is one of the social determinants of health. Lack of community support to migrants is the major barrier in accessing the health services.

Details

International Journal of Migration, Health and Social Care, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-9894

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 September 2022

Amanpreet Kaur, Vikas Kumar and Prabhjot Kaur

COVID-19 pandemic has shattered the economic systems all around the world while creating numerous problems which were faced by all, especially international migrants. The…

Abstract

Purpose

COVID-19 pandemic has shattered the economic systems all around the world while creating numerous problems which were faced by all, especially international migrants. The present study offers a qualitative and quantitative perspective on the distress of international migrants and their repatriation intention during the pandemic period.

Design/methodology/approach

In-depth semi-structured interviews of 30 respondents belonging to five host nations, Australia, the USA, the UK, New Zealand and Canada, revealed diverse issues. Based on qualitative study findings and past literature, 22 purposeful statements about six constructs – financial issues, social issues, mobility constraints, psychological problems, healthcare issues, and repatriation intentions – were developed. These statements were measured on a seven-point Likert scale and shared online with international migrants from India residing in the host nations. Data collected from 496 international migrants from October 2020 to July 2021 were used to analyze the influence of various determinants on the repatriation intentions by partial least square-structural equation modeling using SmartPLS software.

Findings

The analysis results revealed that the role of financial, social, mobility, psychological and healthcare issues was significant in strengthening the repatriation intentions of the migrants. There is a need to create job opportunities, retrain laid-off workers and formulate migrant inclusive policies.

Originality/value

Although some studies have highlighted a few problems faced by international migrants, their impact on repatriation intentions has not been studied yet. The present study fills this gap and analyzes the repatriation intention of international migrants in light of different problems they faced during the pandemic.

Peer review

The peer review history for this article is available at: https://publons.com/publon/10.1108/IJSE-04-2022-0233.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 September 2022

Qilan Li, Zhiya Zuo, Yang Zhang and Xi Wang

Since the opening of China (aka, reform and opening-up), a great number of rural residents have migrated to large cities in the past 40 years. Such a one-way population…

Abstract

Purpose

Since the opening of China (aka, reform and opening-up), a great number of rural residents have migrated to large cities in the past 40 years. Such a one-way population inflow to urban areas introduces nontrivial social conflicts between urban natives and migrant workers. This study aims to investigate the most discussed topics about migrant workers on Sina Weibo along with the corresponding sentiment divergence.

Design/methodology/approach

An exploratory-descriptive-explanatory research methodology is employed. The study explores the main topics on migrant workers discussed in social media via manual annotation. Subsequently, guided LDA, a semi-supervised topic modeling approach, is applied to describe the overall topical landscape. Finally, the authors verify their theoretical predictions with respect to the sentiment divergence pattern for each topic, using regression analysis.

Findings

The study identifies three most discussed topics on migrant workers, namely wage default, employment support and urban/rural development. The regression analysis reveals different diffusion patterns contingent on the nature of each topic. In particular, this study finds a positive association between urban/rural development and the sentiment divergence, while wage default exhibits an opposite relationship with sentiment divergence.

Originality/value

The authors combine unique characteristics of social media with well-established theories of social identity and framing, which are applied more to off-line contexts, to study a unique phenomenon of migrant workers in China. From a practical perspective, the results provide implications for the governance of urbanization-related social conflicts.

Details

Internet Research, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1066-2243

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 August 2022

Eddy S. Ng, Diana Rajendran and Wahed Waheduzzaman

Although skilled migrants have a high capacity for integration, many report experiences of exclusion which impacts their ability to contribute fully to the host country…

Abstract

Purpose

Although skilled migrants have a high capacity for integration, many report experiences of exclusion which impacts their ability to contribute fully to the host country. This experience of exclusion, which can diminish their self-efficacy at work, is especially acute for skilled migrants from non-English speaking backgrounds when functioning in a new or exclusionary environment. In this paper, we explore the relationship between workplace inclusion and self-efficacy and identify factors that contribute to perceived inclusion for skilled migrant workers.

Design/methodology/approach

Participants were recruited through social network groups representing migrant workers via LinkedIn. Through snowball sampling, participants were asked to recommend recent (3–5 years) skilled migrants to participate. A total of 210 skilled migrant workers to Australia completed the survey. Structural equation modelling (SEM) is used to test our model on the relationship between inclusion and self-efficacy.

Findings

Migrants' perceptions of inclusion at work are related to their self-efficacy at work. We also find that some dimensions of inclusion are more important than others in enhancing self-efficacy for skilled migrants. Meaningful exchanges with supervisors, a sense of belonging at work and workgroup cohesion (being accepted by co-workers) are more important than senior management support or getting involved in organizational social activities as determinants of perceived inclusion.

Social implications

Although skilled migrants are often assumed to be a self-select group of highly motivated, high achieving workers, many experience poor adjustment and feel excluded after arriving in the host country. Public policies have limited effects in promoting inclusion of skilled migrant workers in organizations. These policies may be supplemented with an inclusive organizational climate to improve migrant worker success. Organizations and employers are thus critical partners in fostering migrant workers' sense of inclusion and supporting the career outcomes of skilled migrant workers in the host country.

Originality/value

This study supports the link between perceived inclusion and self-efficacy among skilled migrant workers. It also sharpens the evidence of organizational-level factors that contribute to perceived inclusion for migrant workers.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 July 2022

Oluyemi T. Adeosun, Kayode E. Owolabi, Idongesit C. Eshiet and Temitope J. Owolabi

The upsurge in global youth migration remains a major concern for policymakers, politicians and academia at large. Given the emerging interests in youth migration and…

Abstract

Purpose

The upsurge in global youth migration remains a major concern for policymakers, politicians and academia at large. Given the emerging interests in youth migration and informal jobs in cities around the world, this study aims to establish the barriers limiting the transition of migrant youths, in informal settings, into formal jobs and the consequent impact on their livelihood.

Design/methodology/approach

Leveraging the push-pull approach of the functionalist migration school, this study uses a primary research design. A structured questionnaire was administered among 150 migrant youths who were selected across informal settings in Lagos, using a convenient sampling technique. Then, a structured face-to-face interview was later conducted among 40 selected migrant youths.

Findings

There is a skill mismatch between the competence of the youths and the requirements of firms in the formal sector, and the migrant youths are largely disenfranchised from opportunities that flow within certain networks. Another critical constraint includes language barrier, ethnicity and religious biases by certain employers. Most migrant youths are economically better off compared to where they came from, even though they are yet to exit the poverty trap.

Originality/value

This study critically examined the challenges faced by the migrant youth population in Lagos, Nigeria, in their bid to transition from informal employment to formal employment.

Details

Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6204

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 31 March 2015

Sonia Pereira, Erik Snel and Margrietha ‘t Hart

To identify the trajectories of occupational mobility among non-EU immigrant workers in Europe and to test empirical data against neoclassical human capital theory that…

Abstract

Purpose

To identify the trajectories of occupational mobility among non-EU immigrant workers in Europe and to test empirical data against neoclassical human capital theory that predicts upward occupational mobility and labor market segmentation theories proposing immigrant confinement to secondary segments.

Methodology/approach

Data from survey and semi-structured interviews (2,859 and 357, respectively) with immigrants from Brazil, Ukraine, and Morocco in the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, Portugal, and Norway. Multinomial regression analysis to test the likelihood of moving downward, upward, or stability and identify explanatory factors, complemented with qualitative evidence.

Findings

We found support for the thesis of segmented labor market theories of limited upward occupational mobility following migration. However, immigrants with longer residence in the destination country have higher chances of upward mobility compared to stability and downward mobility, giving also support for the neoclassical human capital theory. Frail legal status impacts negatively on upward mobility chances and men more often experience upward mobility after migration than women.

Research limitations/implications

Findings reflect the specific situation of immigrants from three origin countries in four destination areas and cannot be taken as representative. In the multinomial regression we cannot distinguish between cohort effects and duration of stay.

Social implications

Education obtained in the destination country is very important for migrants’ upward occupational mobility, bearing important policy implications with regards to migrants’ integration.

Originality/value of paper

Its focus on trajectories of mobility through migration looking at two important transitions: (1) from last occupation in the origin country to first occupation at destination and (2) from first occupation to current occupation and offers a wide cross-country comparison both in terms of origin and destination countries in Europe.

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