Search results

1 – 10 of over 11000
To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 10 September 2018

John H. Bickford

History-based trade books have an important and expanding role in various curricula. Contemporary education initiatives urge English and language arts educators to spend…

Abstract

Purpose

History-based trade books have an important and expanding role in various curricula. Contemporary education initiatives urge English and language arts educators to spend half their time on non-fiction and history and social studies teachers to include diverse sources starting in the early grades. Diverse professional organizations annually make financial commitments to promote new trade books. Research indicates misrepresentations abound in history-based trade books, yet few empirical studies have been completed. The purpose of this paper is to research examine the historical representation of Abraham Lincoln, arguably the most consequential nineteenth-century American.

Design/methodology/approach

Data samples included trade books intended for early grades and middle grades students. These grade ranges were selected because these students have the least prior knowledge and are perhaps most dependent on the text. Qualitative content analysis research methods were employed.

Findings

Misrepresentations emerged regarding Lincoln’s poverty, actions, motivations for actions, and implications of his actions as seemingly necessary historical content was minimized, vaguely included, or omitted. Findings are juxtaposed across and between selected grade ranges.

Practical implications

Discussion focused on the significance of findings for teachers and researchers. Teachers are guided to supplement trade books with primary sources to position students to distinguish historical misrepresentations.

Originality/value

This research builds on previous scholarship on Lincoln-based trade books by expanding grade range, data samples and research questions.

Details

Social Studies Research and Practice, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1933-5415

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 8 March 2020

Scott Christopher Woods, Jennifer Grace Cromley and Donald Gene Hackmann

This study explored implementation of the middle school concept (MSC) in Illinois middle-level schools, examining relationships between MSC implementation and schools'…

Abstract

Purpose

This study explored implementation of the middle school concept (MSC) in Illinois middle-level schools, examining relationships between MSC implementation and schools' relative wealth, racial/ethnic composition, and achievement levels.

Design/methodology/approach

This quantitative study utilized a sample of 137 Illinois middle-level schools, defined as containing any combination of grades 5–9, including at least two consecutive grade levels and grade 7. Principals completed an online survey, identifying levels of implementation of advisory, teaming with common planning time (CPT), and a composite of both advisory and teaming with CPT.

Findings

Schools with high advisory implementation had significantly higher rates of Latinx enrollments. Schools with lower operating expenditures per pupil were significantly less likely to implement advisory or advisory and teaming. Teaming had a significant relationship with composite PARCC test scores, but there was no significant effect for advisory and no significant interaction of advisory and teaming together.

Practical implications

MSC is more expensive to implement, and affluent districts may have the financial means to absorb these costs. Although teaming facilitated improved state test scores, advisory programming did not result in significantly improved scores.

Social implications

Lack of access to MSC programming in less affluent communities presents an equity issue for low-income students and students of color.

Originality/value

This study contributes to research examining underlying issues of race and poverty and their effects on academic achievement and the effectiveness of the MSC.

Details

Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 58 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-8234

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 3 December 2020

John H. Bickford and Toluwalase V. Solomon

This paper explores the representation of consequential women in history within children's and young adult biographies.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper explores the representation of consequential women in history within children's and young adult biographies.

Design/methodology/approach

The data pool was established by developing a list of women's names extracted from common textbooks and state social studies curricula. Early-grade (K-4th) and middle-grade (5th-8th) in-print books were selected for juxtaposition because these students have the least prior knowledge and are perhaps most dependent on the text. Two researchers independently engaged in qualitative content analysis research methods, which included open and axial coding.

Findings

Early- and middle-grade biographies aptly established the historical significance of, but largely failed to contextualize, each figure's experiences, accomplishments and contemporaneous tensions. The women were presented as consequential, though their advocacies were not situated within the larger context.

Research limitations/implications

Limitations included a dearth of women featured in both state standards and biographies, limited audience (early and middle grades) and exclusion of out-of-print books. Comparable inquiries into narrative nonfiction, expository texts and historical fiction, which have different emphases than biographies, are areas for future research.

Practical implications

Discussion focused on the significance of findings for teachers and researchers. Early- and middle-grade teachers are guided to contextualize the selected historical figures using primary and secondary source supplements.

Originality/value

No previous scholarship exists on this particular topic. Comparable inquiries examine trade books' depiction of historical significance, not contextualization of continuity and change.

Details

Social Studies Research and Practice, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1933-5415

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 11 September 2017

John H. Bickford and Megan Lindsay

Education initiatives require substantive changes for history, social studies, English, and language arts teachers of any grade level. History and social studies teachers…

Abstract

Purpose

Education initiatives require substantive changes for history, social studies, English, and language arts teachers of any grade level. History and social studies teachers are to integrate multiple texts from diverse perspectives, which increases teachers’ uses of trade books and primary sources; English and language arts teachers are to spend half their allotted time on non-fiction topics, which enhances the position of historical content. The compulsory changes are not accompanied with ready-made curricula. Trade books are a logical starting point for teachers inexperienced with the new expectations, yet, research indicates that historical inaccuracies and misrepresentations frequently emerge. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors’ inquiry explored trade books’ historical representation of Franklin Delano Roosevelt, America’s longest serving president. The data pool was organized by early grades (Kindergarten-4), middle grades (5-8), and high school (9-12) to contrast patterns of representation between and within grade ranges.

Findings

Findings included patterns of representation regarding Roosevelt’s noteworthiness and accomplishments, advantages and assistances, and moral and political mistakes.

Social implications

Classroom suggestions included guiding students to identify historical gaps and interrogate primary sources to fill these gaps.

Originality/value

Similar research has not been conducted on this historical figure.

Details

Social Studies Research and Practice, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1933-5415

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 17 February 2012

Martin Omar Gomez, George A. Marcoulides and Ronald H. Heck

The purpose of this study is to propose and test a model of school culture and examine data from schools in Southern California to identify educationally important aspects…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to propose and test a model of school culture and examine data from schools in Southern California to identify educationally important aspects of teacher‐perceived cultural variables and how these perceptions differentially impact school performance in K‐8 and middle school structures.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected using a sample of 628 teachers from 59 schools (17 K‐8 schools and 42 middle schools) in five different schools districts in Southern California. The proposed model was tested using structural equation modeling techniques.

Findings

The proposed model was determined to fit the data well. The theoretical and practical implications of the model concerning culture and school performance within the framework of educational management and school configuration are discussed.

Originality/value

This paper identifies educationally important aspects of teacher‐perceived cultural variables and how they impact school performance, and also it discusses the theoretical and practical implications of the proposed model.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 26 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 20 May 2019

John H. Bickford, Megan Lindsay and Ryan C. Hendrickson

History-based trade books are an essential classroom option for social studies and English teachers. Professional organizations in history, social studies, English…

Abstract

Purpose

History-based trade books are an essential classroom option for social studies and English teachers. Professional organizations in history, social studies, English, reading and literature promote these engaging, age-appropriate secondary sources. Research suggests that misrepresentations appear often within history-based curricula, yet the majority of empirical studies have been completed on textbooks. The purpose of this paper is to examine the historical representation of Thomas Jefferson within trade books.

Design/methodology/approach

The data sample included trade books targeting various ages to make comparisons within and between grade ranges; the authors selected books published in distinctly different years to examine how Jefferson’s historical representation changed over time. The mixed methods content analysis used both open coding and axial coding.

Findings

Findings included sanitized versions of slavery at Monticello and omissions of his relationship with Sally Hemings. Date of publication, particularly those published after 1999 as new scientific evidence emerged linking Hemings and Jefferson, and intended audience shaped patterns of representation about Jefferson’s privileged social position, authorship of the Declaration of Independence, political philosophy and involvement in the American Revolution, to mention a few. Heroification, a common historical misrepresentation, did not appear.

Research limitations/implications

Limitations included: uneven portions of the data pool as children’s and young adult trade books were not common in early and mid-twentieth century; organization of books by grade range is problematic due to inexact nature of ranking narratives’ complexity; and definitive conclusions cannot emerge from a single study. Future research should consider how trade books represent other historical figures, particularly slave-owning American presidents.

Practical implications

Practical suggestions, such as how to address misrepresentations using primary sources, are offered.

Originality/value

Thomas Jefferson, undoubtedly an impactful American, is frequently included in elementary, middle level and high school curriculum. The authors examined Jefferson’s historical representation within trade books.

Details

Social Studies Research and Practice, vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1933-5415

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 4 November 2020

Tamara L. Shreiner

Data literacy – the ability to read, analyze, interpret, evaluate and argue with data and data visualizations – is an essential competency in social studies. This study…

Abstract

Purpose

Data literacy – the ability to read, analyze, interpret, evaluate and argue with data and data visualizations – is an essential competency in social studies. This study aims to examine the degree to which US state standards require teachers to teach data literacy in social studies, addressing the questions: to what extent are US social studies teachers required to teach data literacy? If they are required to teach it, are they provided with guidance about competencies to address at each school or grade level and with respect to particular content?

Design/methodology/approach

The study used content analysis, using a variety of priori and emergent codes, to review social studies standards documents from all 50 states and the District of Columbia.

Findings

Findings indicate that although state standards suggest that data visualizations should play a role in social studies instruction, they provide poor guidance for a coherent, progressive and critical approach across grade levels.

Originality/value

Researchers currently know little about if and how teachers address data literacy in social studies education. This study provides a snapshot of guidance teachers across states are given for teaching data literacy, and by extension, the quality of data literacy instruction recommended for students across the USA.

Details

Information and Learning Sciences, vol. 121 no. 11/12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-5348

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 February 1992

Marilyn J. Davidson and Valerie J. Sutherland

Reports research by interview and questionnaire survey designed toidentify major sources of stress among site managers, to examine theirphysical and psychological…

Abstract

Reports research by interview and questionnaire survey designed to identify major sources of stress among site managers, to examine their physical and psychological well‐being, and to identify high risk groups and predictors of stressor outcomes. A high level of anxiety was found, independent of grade; this was predicted by role insecurity, work overload and other extrinsic factors (particularly travel). Identifies lack of management training in this industry as contributing to these stresses. Recommends stress audits and stress management workshops.

Details

Employee Relations, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 29 August 2012

Kathleen Lynne Lane, Erik W. Carter, Eric Common and Adam Jordan

In this chapter, we begin by exploring the lessons learned from studies of teachers’ expectations for student behavior, being with early inquiry conducted following the…

Abstract

In this chapter, we begin by exploring the lessons learned from studies of teachers’ expectations for student behavior, being with early inquiry conducted following the Education for All Handicapped Children Act (P.L. 94-142) of 1975. Next, we explore the expanding knowledge base following reauthorization of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA, 1997), the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEIA, 2004), and No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB, 2001) as the field increasingly emphasized inclusive programming and supporting access to the general education curriculum, called for academic excellence for all students, and focused on systems-level perspectives for teaching behavioral expectations. We summarize lessons learned from these bodies of knowledge, focusing attention on key findings and existing limitations of the studies conducted to date. We conclude with implications for educational research and practice, with attention to how lessons learned regarding teacher expectations for student performance can (a) facilitate inclusive programming for students with disabilities, (b) support school transitions, (c) inform primary prevention efforts and targeted supports, and (d) inform teacher preparation programs.

Details

Classroom Behavior, Contexts, and Interventions
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-972-1

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 January 1992

Virginia Nordstrom

In the 1980s, as the United States encountered international economic and technological challenges, the very ability of the American educational system to produce a…

Abstract

In the 1980s, as the United States encountered international economic and technological challenges, the very ability of the American educational system to produce a competitive labor force, able to learn and solve problems, was questioned. During this past decade, renewed concern about educational quality in the United States motivated over one hundred reports analyzing the shortcomings in our system of education and endorsing reform. All of the principal curriculum areas have been reviewed in this process; moreover, science education has been deemed particularly deficient. Major reports sponsored by the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) recommend both content revision of science courses and methodological changes in the way science is presented throughout the elementary and secondary grades.

Details

Reference Services Review, vol. 20 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0090-7324

1 – 10 of over 11000