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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1992

Shigeru Inui and Atsuo Shibuya

Seam pucker is one of the most important aspects of garment quality in the sewing process. Recently, automatic sewing systems have been developed and seam pucker or other…

Abstract

Seam pucker is one of the most important aspects of garment quality in the sewing process. Recently, automatic sewing systems have been developed and seam pucker or other defects would have to be automatically inspected in these systems. Two systems of automatic, contactless measurement of seam pucker have been developed. One of the measurement systems, with which surface shape of seam pucker was measured, is based on laser technology. Intensity of reflected ultrasonic wave is measured using another measurement system. The laser measurement system has been applied to moderate or severe seam pucker and the ultrasonic wave system has been applied to the accurate evaluation of very small seam pucker. The result of the evaluation by machine has to match the result of subjective evaluation by humans. To verify this, samples of seam pucker were evaluated using five judges. With the measurement data of surface shape of these samples, the power spectra of the wave form of seam pucker are calculated. Analyses and correlates the relationship between objective measurement and subjective evaluation by discriminant analysis, with the result of subjective evaluation and the power spectra of the samples. Having obtained these relationships, the degree of seam pucker can be measured objectively by both systems.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 4 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

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Article
Publication date: 11 July 2019

Betteke Van Ruler

The purpose of this paper is to analyze what the concept of agility means for communication evaluation and measurement and to challenge assumptions of goal-oriented and

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze what the concept of agility means for communication evaluation and measurement and to challenge assumptions of goal-oriented and organization-centric approaches to evaluation and measurement.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper is a development debate based on a literature review, regarding agility, evaluation theory, communication evaluation approaches and what agility means for communication measurement.

Findings

Agility teaches that what works is more important than what was agreed upon in advance, so it is with more emphasis on needs rather than objectives. Regarding evaluation, the findings show that in today’s communication evaluation theory, evaluation is equated with summative evaluation of smart designed and fixed objectives. In agility, evaluation is always formative, to foster development and improvement within an ongoing activity. Consequently smart objectives are no longer valid as fixed benchmarks and ex ante and ex post evaluations do not exist; instead evaluation is an on-going and forward looking activity during action. Regarding measurement, the basic focus in agility on user needs implies that qualitative methods are more obvious than quantitative. The classic Weberian idea of “Verstehen” is helpful to understand how to focus on needs rather than objectives. This paper finally explores the merits of action research and sense-making methodology as applicable measurements in which “Verstehen” is the basis.

Research limitations/implications

Agility is a very radical concept. The practical and theoretical implications of agile evaluation and measurement mean a total change for practice as well as for communication measurement and evaluation theory building.

Originality/value

The value of this paper is that it is the first to include agility into communication evaluation and measurement and that it, consequently, moves beyond organization-centric concepts of evaluation and measurement by bringing the often overlooked user needs into the game.

Details

Journal of Communication Management, vol. 23 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-254X

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2004

Scott Nicholson

This conceptual piece presents a framework to aid libraries in gaining a more thorough and holistic understanding of their users and services. Through a presentation of…

Abstract

This conceptual piece presents a framework to aid libraries in gaining a more thorough and holistic understanding of their users and services. Through a presentation of the history of library evaluation, a multidimensional matrix of measures is developed that demonstrates the relationship between the topics and perspectives of measurement. These measurements are then combined through evaluation criteria, and then different participants in the library system view those criteria for decision making. By implementing this framework for holistic measurement and cumulative evaluation, library evaluators can gain a more holistic knowledge of the library system and library administrators can be better informed for their decision‐making processes.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 60 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

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Article
Publication date: 6 February 2017

Ansgar Zerfass, Dejan Verčič and Sophia Charlotte Volk

The purpose of this paper is to examine the status quo of communication evaluation and measurement practices in communication departments of companies, non-profits, and

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the status quo of communication evaluation and measurement practices in communication departments of companies, non-profits, and other organizations across Europe.

Design/methodology/approach

The study argues that the challenge to conduct reliable measurement is threefold: first, communication professionals have to understand and develop skills how to conduct evaluation; second, they have to evaluate whether communication activities have reached those goals in practice; and finally, they have to use those insights to advance and manage their future activities. These aspects are elaborated in the literature review. A quantitative survey of 1,601 professionals from 40 European countries was conducted to research prerequisites, implementation and benefits of communication measurement and compare practices across types of organizations.

Findings

Although robust knowledge of empirical research methods and their application for measuring communication effects is indispensable, many practitioners lack the necessary expertise to conduct reliable evaluation and measurement. Communication departments seldom measure communication effects on stakeholders and organizational goals. Many remain focused on media and channels. Last but not least, organizations do not fully exploit the potential of measurement data for strategically planning future communication activities.

Practical implications

The findings highlight the need to reconsider current education and training in communication research methods and their application in corporate practice. Knowledge about conducting applied research is as important as asking meaningful questions and using insights for management decisions in a corporate environment. Evaluation methods are often discussed, but individual skills and the organizational use of insights are important as well. This might be tackled through additional training in social science research techniques, sophisticated valuation methods, and decision making.

Originality/value

The large-scale study shows that communication measurement practices are still in a nascent stage. Joint efforts of academics and professional associations have not really changed the situation until now. The three dimensions used in this research (skills, practices, and utilization) can be used to assess the measurement readiness of individual organizations, to conduct further research in other regions, and to identify future challenges for advancing the field.

Details

Corporate Communications: An International Journal, vol. 22 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-3289

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Article
Publication date: 25 July 2019

Howard Nothhaft and Hanna Stensson

The purpose of this paper is to explain the “evaluation deadlock” or “stasis” diagnosed by many authors. The explanation relies on a thought experiment.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explain the “evaluation deadlock” or “stasis” diagnosed by many authors. The explanation relies on a thought experiment.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is conceptual and builds on a thought experiment inspired by qualitative research such as interviews with communication consultants in Sweden. It makes use of principal–agent theory and Akerlof’s theory of lemon markets.

Findings

A plausible explanation for the evaluation stasis requires consideration of practitioners’ self-interest as businesspeople. The deadlock is explained by an anomaly in practitioner populations and passive or active but covert resistance. If the long-time neglect of measurement and evaluation has led to expectation inflation and overpromising, even well-performing actors might shy away from rigorous measurement and evaluation practices in their own mandates, since they fear being measured against promotional, not realistic standards. At the same time, on the level of industry discourse, these practitioners would still advocate for measurement and evaluation in principle, so as to avoid the suspicion of underperformance.

Research limitations/implications

The paper suggests an explanation for further empirical investigation. It does not attempt to demonstrate anything else than that the suggestion is plausible and that it warrants further investigation.

Practical implications

The scientific community engaged in the measurement and evaluation debate appears puzzled by the discrepancy between practitioners’ words and actions. The authors hope that the paper contributes to a more realistic and thus more constructive dialogue between practitioners and academics in the measurement and evaluation debate.

Originality/value

Inspired by Alvesson and Spicer’s concept of functional stupidity, the paper argues that attempts to explain the evaluation stasis have been marked by circumspection and narrowness. At present, explanations for the evaluation stasis tend to focus on lack of knowledge or inadequate systems or frameworks. The paper offers a more comprehensive explanation.

Details

Journal of Communication Management, vol. 23 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-254X

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Article
Publication date: 8 April 2014

Junxiao Liu, Peter E.D. Love, Jim Smith, Michael Regan and Monty Sutrisna

This paper reviews the normative literature of performance measurement within the context of Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs). The purpose of this paper is to examine…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper reviews the normative literature of performance measurement within the context of Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs). The purpose of this paper is to examine the effectiveness of current ex post evaluations of PPPs and identify a feasible direction to comprehensively and effectively measure the performance of PPP infrastructure projects.

Design/methodology/approach

An in-depth literature review is conducted in this paper. The focus of the review is associated with the general performance measurement and performance measurements of PPPs.

Findings

This paper identifies that conventional ex post evaluation is not robust enough to measure the performance of PPP projects. Based on the characteristics of PPPs, the life-cycle (process-based) evaluation under performance measurement system is a promising approach to comprehensive and effective PPP performance measurement.

Practical implications

The outcomes of this paper can be used as a theoretical base for the development of PPP performance measurement framework.

Originality/value

Performance measurement is essential to business success, whether it is at the organisation or project level. Limitations on public funds have encouraged more and more governments across the world to use PPPs to procure economic and social infrastructure projects. Similar to traditional procurement, ex post evaluation is being widely used in PPP projects. However, PPPs are more complicated than other traditional procurement approaches. Exploration of literature suggests that limited research has been undertaken to examine if conventional ex post evaluation is sufficient to measure the performance of PPPs. This paper will bridge this significant knowledge gap.

Details

International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, vol. 63 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0401

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Article
Publication date: 5 February 2018

Alexander Buhmann, Fraser Likely and David Geddes

The purpose of this paper is to reflect on the current state of communication evaluation and measurement (E&M) as a vital field connecting academics and practitioners in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to reflect on the current state of communication evaluation and measurement (E&M) as a vital field connecting academics and practitioners in communication management.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors track recent developments in the field, address the ongoing struggle toward E&M standards, and propose six agenda points for the future E&M debate.

Findings

While the authors see an engaged, international interest community making considerable headway in important E&M issues, the conclusion is that several areas require further work: dynamics of standardization; going beyond the effectiveness-based view; internal services evaluation; addressing intervening variables; closer ties to related fields; and dissemination into the wider practice.

Originality/value

The paper gives a pointed reflection of the state of the field and also provides a comprehensive list of current resources for those who aim to further the E&M debate.

Details

Journal of Communication Management, vol. 22 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-254X

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Article
Publication date: 6 August 2019

Nathan David Gilkerson, Rebecca Swenson and Fraser Likely

The purpose of this paper is to propose an explication of the concept of “maturity,” as it applies to communication evaluation and measurement (E&M) practice, along with…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose an explication of the concept of “maturity,” as it applies to communication evaluation and measurement (E&M) practice, along with contextualization of recent maturity model adoption within academic and professional communities.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing from previous work on maturity models within other fields, recent communication scholarship and industry practice, this paper fills a gap in the literature by offering a theoretical conceptualization of communication E&M maturity, including the construct’s core dimensions and sub-dimensions.

Findings

Communication E&M maturity is conceptualized into four essential elements: holistic approach, investment, alignment and culture. The contribution of E&M efforts is represented as the direct support of corporate strategy, and ultimately increased value, from the communications function. Operational elements of maturity include levels of analysis, time, budget, tools, skills, process, integration, motivations, relationships and standards.

Originality/value

In exploring the factors necessary for “mature” E&M programs, and specifically emphasizing the need for a holistic approach, along with sufficient investment and alignment, and conducive cultural factors, the research builds upon existing work examining how communication can serve to inform corporate strategy and create value for an organization. Greater understanding and application of the maturity concept has the potential to advance the field by increasing both accountability and credibility for the work done by the communications function.

Details

Journal of Communication Management, vol. 23 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-254X

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2014

Matthew W. Ragas and Alexander V. Laskin

While investor relations have become an established corporate function, research into how investor relations officers (IROs) practice measurement and evaluation is…

Abstract

Purpose

While investor relations have become an established corporate function, research into how investor relations officers (IROs) practice measurement and evaluation is limited. The purpose of this paper is to examine which approaches and metrics IROs use to gauge their success.

Design/methodology/approach

To address this gap in the literature, this study surveyed (n=384) the corporate membership of the National Investor Relations Institute (NIRI), the world's largest investor relations association, on the topic of measurement and evaluation.

Findings

The results indicate that IROs strongly (80 percent) believe that mixed-methods (i.e. both quantitative and qualitative methods) should be used to measure the success of investor relations. Mixed-methods advocates place significantly more importance on measurement than IROs that prefer quantitative- or qualitative-only approaches.

Research limitations/implications

The results of this survey indicate that IROs typically place the most value on metrics that are qualitative, non-financial and relationship-oriented. These findings suggest that IROs believe they should be evaluated in large part on their competency at relationship management.

Practical implications

From a benchmarking perspective, these findings suggest that IROs looking to align with their peers should use a mix of both quantitative and qualitative evaluation measures that are non-financial and relationship management-focused.

Originality/value

These findings contribute to recent efforts to explicate a general theory of investor relations. While investor relations scholarship has grown in recent years, up until this point, little attention had been paid to measurement and evaluation.

Details

Corporate Communications: An International Journal, vol. 19 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-3289

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2003

Paul Rouse and Martin Putterill

A performance framework is described that distils concepts from the literature about existing frameworks in order to extend capacity to evaluate and appraise performance…

Abstract

A performance framework is described that distils concepts from the literature about existing frameworks in order to extend capacity to evaluate and appraise performance. This open system interpretation recognises dynamic flows between various organizational levels and allows performance to be viewed in a holistic sense. Both macro and micro views are addressed that range from simple feedback control models to broader evaluation perspectives appropriate to stakeholder requirements and organisation purpose. Three basic dimensions of performance are observed using this framework that form a performance triplet, which is described in a series of principles as part of a first step towards a theory of performance measurement.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 41 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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