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Black Mixed-Race Men
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-531-9

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Article
Publication date: 10 June 2021

Robert Harrison, Risto Moisio, James Gentry and Suraj Commuri

Despite years of research into consumer socialization, little research examines men’s roles in consumer socialization processes. The purpose of this paper is to attend to…

Abstract

Purpose

Despite years of research into consumer socialization, little research examines men’s roles in consumer socialization processes. The purpose of this paper is to attend to this gap and to investigate consumer socialization processes in single-father households.

Design/methodology/approach

To study consumer socialization processes, this paper develops its insights using grounded theory, deploying qualitative data to develop theory. The data include long interviews with both fathers and their children used to understand the processes of consumer socialization.

Findings

This paper finds six socialization processes: entrustment, entrainment, education, emprise, estrangement and elevation. These processes emerge based on different types of household resource gaps or aspects of men’s gender identity.

Research limitations/implications

The main implications are to study the roles played by cultural context and family type in socialization processes. Studies could examine whether the processes uncovered here occur in other family settings, as well as whether they vary based on children’s age and gender.

Practical implications

Household brands, products and services could target resource-scarce households using appeals that portray offerings as a means to develop children’s responsibilities, independence and involvement in household management. Marketers could also use advertising appeals that depict playful product usage and learning situations or more broadly position brands as identity brands making them more appealing to men who are striving to be better fathers.

Originality/value

This paper uniquely identifies a number of previously uncovered consumer socialization processes, as well as factors that influence them.

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European Journal of Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 25 May 2021

Colin Williams and Ardiana Gashi

Despite a widespread assertion that wages are lower in the informal than formal economy, there have been few empirical evaluations of whether this is the case and even…

Abstract

Purpose

Despite a widespread assertion that wages are lower in the informal than formal economy, there have been few empirical evaluations of whether this is the case and even fewer studies of the gender variations in wage rates in the formal and informal economies. Consequently, whether there are wage benefits to formal employment for men and women is unknown. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the wage differential between formal and informal employment for men and women.

Design/methodology/approach

To evaluate the wage differential between the formal and informal economy for men and women, data are reported from a 2017 survey involving 8,533 household interviews conducted in Kosovo.

Findings

Using decomposition analysis and after controlling for other determinants of wage differentials, the finding is that the net hourly earnings of men in formal employment are 26% higher than men in informal employment and 14% higher for women in formal employment compared with women in informal employment.

Practical implications

Given the size of the wage differential, the costs for employers will need to significantly increase in terms of the penalties and risks of detection if informal employment is to be prevented, along with more formal employment opportunities using active labour market policies for vulnerable groups, perhaps targeted at men (who constitute 82.8% of those in informal employment).

Originality/value

This is one of the first studies to evaluate the differentials in wage rates in the formal and economy from a gender perspective.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 29 March 2021

Nina Åkestam, Sara Rosengren, Micael Dahlén, Karina T. Liljedal and Hanna Berg

This paper aims to investigate cross-gender effects of gender stereotypes in advertising. More specifically, it proposes that the negative effects found in studies of…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate cross-gender effects of gender stereotypes in advertising. More specifically, it proposes that the negative effects found in studies of women’s reactions to stereotyped female portrayals should hold across gender portrayal and target audience gender.

Design/methodology/approach

In two experimental studies, the effects of stereotyped portrayals (vs non-stereotyped portrayals) across gender are compared.

Findings

The results show that advertising portrayals of women and men have a presumed negative influence on others, leading to higher levels of ad reactance, which has a negative impact on brand-related effects across model and participant gender, and for gender stereotypes in terms of physical characteristics and roles.

Research limitations/implications

Whereas previous studies have focused on reactions of women to female stereotypes, the current paper suggests that women and men alike react negatively to stereotyped portrayals of other genders.

Practical implications

The results indicate that marketers can benefit from adapting a more mindful approach to the portrayals of gender used in advertising.

Originality/value

The addition of a cross-gender perspective to the literature on gender stereotypes in advertising is a key contribution to this literature.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 55 no. 13
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2021

Jean Boisvert and Nicholas Jeremy Ashill

The purpose of this study is to assess the extent to which gender impacts the evaluation of vertical line extensions of luxury brands in a cross-national context. The…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to assess the extent to which gender impacts the evaluation of vertical line extensions of luxury brands in a cross-national context. The topic of brand/line extensions has been investigated in the mainstream branding literature. On the other hand, the topic has received less attention in the luxury literature. At the same time, while research has examined brand/line extensions from an international perspective, the impact of gender on consumer purchase intentions of luxury downward line extensions in different countries has remained unexplored.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on an ANOVA design (2 extension types × 2 genders × 2 countries). The independent variables were ordered as follows: gender (male/female), vertical line extensions (upscale/downward) and country of living (France/USA). The purchase intention of the extension was chosen as the dependent variable.

Findings

The study results show that key differences exist between men and women regarding vertical luxury line extensions. For instance, women in both countries rate a new downward line extension of a luxury brand more positively than men. In contrast, although women evaluate a new upscale line extension of a luxury brand similarly to men in France, women are more positive than men in the USA. Also, US men rate an upscale extension less positively than their French counterparts. Finally, women in both countries rate luxury downward extensions more positively than men.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the literature of luxury brand management by examining how gender types process and respond to upscale and downward luxury line extensions versus purchase intentions in two different countries. This paper is unique as gender types are not often compared in previous research while fundamental distinctions exist, leading to significant differences. Practically, this study also provides key insights for marketing strategy development and adjustment for luxury manufacturers in terms of their target market, more specifically men versus women.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1989

Peter Bluckert

Men are faced with major new challenges in both their work environments and their personal lives. As such, more and more men are looking for places to explore the…

Abstract

Men are faced with major new challenges in both their work environments and their personal lives. As such, more and more men are looking for places to explore the prominent issues in their lives. This article speaks to the experience of four Men's Groups and examines how the groups operated and what came out of them. It reflects on the process of personal change for these men and its implications for leadership development. Certain key ingredients for creating a change environment are identified: support, good listening, challenge, taking risks and making close, genuine connections with each other. It suggests that men can and do change, particularly if they make a strong commitment to their own development and learning. The importance of personal counselling and therapy work to this change process is outlined in some detail.

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Equal Opportunities International, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0261-0159

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2007

Justin Gaffney

The recently published Home Office strategy document, A co‐ordinated prostitution strategy and a summary of responses to Paying the price (Home Office, 2006), focuses on…

Abstract

The recently published Home Office strategy document, A co‐ordinated prostitution strategy and a summary of responses to Paying the price (Home Office, 2006), focuses on the role of men in prostitution. However, this focus is centred on men being the abusers of women and children involved in the sex industry, and vilifies men as the perpetrators that drive the sex market. This article traces the implications of the strategy for men involved in prostitution.

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Safer Communities, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-8043

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2001

Paul G.W. Jansen, Mandy E.G. van der Velde and Inge A. Telting

The present longitudinal study examines the effect of 105 different human resource practices, grouped into four domains (staffing, human resource development, hygiene…

Abstract

The present longitudinal study examines the effect of 105 different human resource practices, grouped into four domains (staffing, human resource development, hygiene factors, supportive climate) on trends in the increase or decrease of the number of men and women working at different hierarchical levels. In addition to the four HR domains, the effect of initial gender ratio at the start of the program was analyzed. Results show that intitial gender ratio had the largest effect on the advancement of men and women. Surprisingly, both women and men benefited from a larger female gender ratio in the highest job levels. If the effect of gender ratio is omitted, it appears that the advancement of men and women in the highest job levels is negatively affected by hygiene practices and not influenced by staffing, development or supportive practices.

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Journal of Management Development, vol. 20 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1989

Michael Simmons

Programmes to create equal opportunities for women have taken placein many organisations. The ensuing need, however, to find ways to enlistmale managers as allies for such…

Abstract

Programmes to create equal opportunities for women have taken place in many organisations. The ensuing need, however, to find ways to enlist male managers as allies for such programmes, has prompted many people to begin to think about the specific training needs of men from a fresh viewpoint. The need for men to understand ways in which they are conditioned to behave is described. Such ways are both less effective and inhibiting for women colleagues. Processes used by the author in training men to recognise and overcome problems are set out.

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Industrial and Commercial Training, vol. 21 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0019-7858

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1986

Michael Simmons

Men occupy the great majority of key leadership positions in the world; in national government, in local government, in business, in trades unions and in local…

Abstract

Men occupy the great majority of key leadership positions in the world; in national government, in local government, in business, in trades unions and in local organisations. Although women have made very considerable advances, men are still chosen in the greatest number for leadership; for example, in business, men still comprise 77 per cent of all managers and 98 per cent of top managers.

Details

Industrial and Commercial Training, vol. 18 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0019-7858

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