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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1990

S. Graham, A. Hanson, M. Hattam, L. Jennison, M. Jordan, G. Klein, I. Lang, C. Lea, C. Moffat, M. Newlands, P. Streets, D. Tilbrook, D. Wallace, M. Wisnosky and I. Wylie

Pink ring is a ubiquitous problem arising during the manufacture of multilayer PCBs, being the manifestation of local delamination at the inner‐layer oxide interfaces around…

Abstract

Pink ring is a ubiquitous problem arising during the manufacture of multilayer PCBs, being the manifestation of local delamination at the inner‐layer oxide interfaces around drilled holes and subsequent dissolution of the oxide during plating processes. Except in extreme cases, there is no evidence that the occurrence of pink ring identifies any in‐service reliability problem, but it is nevertheless a clear process indicator and is strictly monitored in statistical process control. The UK Printed Circuit Industry has carried out a collaborative research programme aimed at providing an understanding and a quantitative analysis of the pink ring condition. The research has advanced on two fronts: (i) an investigation into the micro‐mechanisms of the delamination and stress relief around drilled holes and subsequent rôles of the desmear and plating chemicals, and (ii) a statistical analysis of boards manufactured in a variety of ways, analysing the quantitative measurements of pink ring in terms of, for example, panel source, drill supplier, drill quality, drilling backing material, drilling chip rate, stack position, and panel entry/exit side.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 16 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Book part
Publication date: 23 August 2021

Eugenie A. Samier

This chapter provides an overview of the postcolonial literatures and their critiques relevant to internationalising curriculum in the educational administration and leadership…

Abstract

This chapter provides an overview of the postcolonial literatures and their critiques relevant to internationalising curriculum in the educational administration and leadership field. The aim is to both examine the problems culturally and institutionally with primarily Anglo-American globalised curriculum that still holds a hegemonic position internationally as well as identify proposals in diversifying the field to reflect context, policy requirements and practices, and cultural values and principles. Discussed also are a number of initiatives that have been taken that provide a foundation for furthering this kind of curricular development, and a set of principles for internationalising the field that indicate the various levels and factors involved.

Details

Internationalisation of Educational Administration and Leadership Curriculum
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-865-9

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Decolonizing Educational Relationships: Practical Approaches for Higher and Teacher Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-529-5

Book part
Publication date: 5 November 2021

Sarah Clement

Biodiversity loss now ranks as one of the most significant global drivers of environmental change. In an increasingly urbanized world, there is enormous potential to address this…

Abstract

Biodiversity loss now ranks as one of the most significant global drivers of environmental change. In an increasingly urbanized world, there is enormous potential to address this problem through conservation, restoration, and creation of new urban ecosystems. This chapter explores how nature-based solutions (NBS) can contribute to addressing the urgent problem of biodiversity loss in a way that goes beyond just greening gray environments. It then explores the alignment (and misalignment) between the ways in which NBS is framed as a nature conservation tool globally and the ways in which biodiversity is considered in urban approaches to NBS. Finally, the chapter explores the ways in which NBS might become an essential part of the solution to biodiversity and ecosystem decline. It discusses how NBS can be effectively leveraged to address the biodiversity crisis in urban areas, through conservation, restoration, and efforts to create thriving places for both people and nature. Although the concept of NBS in urban areas is fairly divorced from its nature conservation origins, reconnecting with those ecological roots is important for creating biodiverse, resilient cities. In so doing, NBS could offer a unified concept for environmental management in urban areas that integrates the ecological benefits of nature conservation with an innovative focus on confronting major societal challenges. Though this is a demanding task, it could provide a fit-for-purpose approach for conserving biodiversity and supporting functional ecosystems in the Anthropocene.

Details

Nature-Based Solutions for More Sustainable Cities – A Framework Approach for Planning and Evaluation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-637-4

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 October 2019

King Man Eric Chong

The purpose of this paper is to analyse and evaluate the implementation of an empathy model of experiential learning in real-life sites, with the help of NGOs, for developing…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyse and evaluate the implementation of an empathy model of experiential learning in real-life sites, with the help of NGOs, for developing students’ active citizenship in two Hong Kong Chinese secondary schools.

Design/methodology/approach

This study employs a case study in which teachers and the researcher engage in planning, implementing and evaluating an experiential learning unit which combines together both classed-based learning activities and experiential learning activities provided by NGOs in real-life settings. Qualitative interview findings are collected from teachers and students.

Findings

Incorporating experiential learning activities in thematic learning units provided by NGOs for the active citizenship of students can facilitate teachers to develop student learning outcomes of empathy and perspective taking derived from authentic experience. In particular, teachers’ reflect on how to facilitate Chinese students’ reflect on disadvantaged people and ethnic minorities. This action research study recommends that students’ conceptual understanding of concepts such as poverty and ethnic minorities should be developed before they participate in NGO’s experiential learning activities, so that the experiential experiences can add something on what they have already learnt.

Originality/value

This study found some useful implications for exploring ways for teacher development by applying an experiential learning model in combination with classroom-based learning for active citizenship. This research study recommends implementing pre-experiential conceptual building activities and post-experiential classroom-based enquiry and reflection activities to help students consolidate their learning experiences through verbal and written reflection, as well as on what actions that they can take.

Details

Asian Education and Development Studies, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-3162

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 May 2024

Sonal Nakar and Richard G. Bagnall

Vocational education and training (VET) in Australia has for some time been driven by an agenda of “reasonable adjustment”, in which practices are modified to ensure equitable…

Abstract

Purpose

Vocational education and training (VET) in Australia has for some time been driven by an agenda of “reasonable adjustment”, in which practices are modified to ensure equitable access and participation by disadvantaged students. However, the growing marketization of VET has instead encouraged the use of more flexible approaches to attract and retain students from diverse backgrounds. They have thus paralleled and confounded reasonable adjustment practices for inclusive development. This study sought to identify the moral dilemmas experienced by VET teachers arising from implementing reasonable adjustment practices.

Design/methodology/approach

This phenomenological research project used in-depth conversational interviews with 19 experienced VET teachers from a diversity of teaching fields to identify moral dilemmas experienced as arising from changes in their workplace contexts.

Findings

One of the identified dilemmas was responding flexibly to heightened student diversity, to which study participants largely responded by prioritising the economic imperative over social inclusion. Well-intended actions thus led to unintentionally damaging outcomes, raising important ethical questions about the relative value of economic and social development outcomes and the role of reasonable adjustment in their attainment. The study also highlights the lack of appropriate VET teacher training in managing ethical conflicts to minimise risks to themselves and their employing organizations.

Originality/value

As a case study of inclusive development policies in practice, this research may be seen as a cautionary tale for inclusive development policies in other countries with similarly strong VET economic and socially inclusive development policies for sustainability. The paper thus opens a dialogue for critical reflection on the current problems in a reasonable development approach in the field of comparative and international education. Those two parallel agendas have presented VET teachers and trainers with ethically challenging situations in which the economic and social development imperatives are experienced as being conflict with each other.

Details

International Journal of Comparative Education and Development, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2396-7404

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 24 June 2004

Barry Down

The state of citizenship education in Australia continues to attract media attention as evidenced by two recent newspaper headlines, Students take apathetic view of democracy and…

Abstract

The state of citizenship education in Australia continues to attract media attention as evidenced by two recent newspaper headlines, Students take apathetic view of democracy and Teach young about democracy. These headlines were reporting on the latest findings of the Australian Council for Educational Research (ACER) on school students understanding of democracy. As a part of a 28‐nation civics survey, the ACER found half of Australian students had no grasp of democracy (ranking them behind countries like Poland, Cyprus and the Slovak Republic); lacked clarity about the Constitution, elections, voting systems or the role of groups like trade unions; were unwilling to engage in politics; and believed politics was relatively unimportant

Details

History of Education Review, vol. 33 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0819-8691

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 2014

Damon Burn and Elaine Beeson

The purpose of this paper is to investigate cost effectiveness, diagnostic rates, surgical percentage and appropriateness for orthopaedic referrals and number of patients able to…

814

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate cost effectiveness, diagnostic rates, surgical percentage and appropriateness for orthopaedic referrals and number of patients able to be seen in orthopaedic triage from GP orthopaedic referrals.

Design/methodology/approach

The study involved triaging paper referrals for orthopaedic outpatients to an interface service, orthotics or continue normal route. Data were collected on outcome of the interface appointment and outcomes for those patients referred to orthopaedics from the appointment.

Findings

The study demonstrated a 27.3 per cent cost saving from the normal orthopaedic route with 86.1 per cent of patients able to be managed by an extended scope physiotherapist (ESP) without requiring orthopaedic assessment. Appropriateness of onward orthopaedic referrals was 80.5 per cent with surgery conversion rate of 75 per cent.

Originality/value

Although triage and ESP positions have been studied before, this is the first known study to look at cost effectiveness across the patient pathway despite this being a large reason for the creation of these positions. Further larger studies are required to build upon this base in terms of demonstrating the cost effectiveness of the value of these positions.

Details

Clinical Governance: An International Journal, vol. 19 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7274

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 28 September 2021

Alex Copping, Noorullah Kuchai, Laura Hattam, Natalia Paszkiewicz, Dima Albadra, Paul Shepherd, Esra Sahin Burat and David Coley

Understanding the supply network of construction materials used to construct shelters in refugee camps, or during the reconstruction of communities, is important as it can reveal…

1900

Abstract

Purpose

Understanding the supply network of construction materials used to construct shelters in refugee camps, or during the reconstruction of communities, is important as it can reveal the intricate links between different stakeholders and the volumes and speeds of material flows to the end-user. Using social network analysis (SNA) enables another dimension to be analysed – the role of commonalities. This is likely to be particularly important when attempting to replace vernacular materials with higher-performing alternatives or when encouraging the use of non-vernacular methods. This paper aims to analyse the supply networks of four different disaster-relief situations.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from interviews with 272 displaced (or formally displaced) families in Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Nepal and Turkey, often in difficult conditions.

Findings

The results show that the form of the supply networks was highly influenced by the nature/cause of the initial displacement, the geographical location, the local availability of materials and the degree of support/advice given by aid agencies and or governments. In addition, it was found that SNA could be used to indicate which strategies might work in a particular context and which might not, thereby potentially speeding up the delivery of novel solutions.

Research limitations/implications

This study represents the first attempt in theorising and empirically investigating supply networks using SNA in a post-disaster reconstruction context. It is suggested that future studies might map the up-stream supply chain to include manufacturers and higher-order, out of country, suppliers. This would provide a complete picture of the origins of all materials and components in the supply network.

Originality/value

This is original research, and it aims to produce new knowledge.

Details

Journal of Humanitarian Logistics and Supply Chain Management, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-6747

Keywords

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 4 February 2019

Abstract

Details

Strategies for Fostering Inclusive Classrooms in Higher Education: International Perspectives on Equity and Inclusion
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-061-1

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