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Article
Publication date: 8 February 2011

Andrew J. Cobley, Lindsay Edgar, Martin Goosey, Rod Kellner and Timothy J. Mason

Previous studies have proven that, under optimised ultrasonic conditions, a range of materials used in electronic manufacturing can be sonochemically surface modified using benign…

Abstract

Purpose

Previous studies have proven that, under optimised ultrasonic conditions, a range of materials used in electronic manufacturing can be sonochemically surface modified using benign solutions at low temperature. The purpose of this paper is to focus on a specific process, namely, the desmearing of through holes in printed circuit boards (PCB). The objective was to determine whether the introduction of low frequency ultrasound (20 kHz) to the “etch” stage of a standard “swell and etch” desmear system could enable reduced temperature processing and the use of less chemistry in the permanganate solution.

Design/methodology/approach

The study was divided into three main stages. In the first “screening” phase, the effect of ultrasound in the etch solution was studied by measuring the weight loss after desmear on a PCB laminate material (Isola 370HR). Factors such as etch temperature and concentration of permanganate (including permanganate‐free) were varied. In stage 2, confirmatory runs were carried out on the most promising conditions from the screening work and through holes in a four‐layer multi‐layer board (MLB) were assessed for smear removal using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Finally, a four‐layer MLB was desmeared through the most promising ultrasonic process and then metallized at a PCB manufacturer. Thermal shock testing was subsequently carried out and sections from the board assessed for inter‐connection defects (ICDs).

Findings

The initial screening study indicated that, whenever ultrasound was used in the etch stage of the desmear process, significantly higher weight loss was achieved compared to a standard “silent” process. This effect was most pronounced when permanganate was removed from the etch solution and, in this situation, weight loss could be an order of magnitude higher than the silent equivalent. Further testing on through holes suggested that smear‐free inner‐layers could only be guaranteed if permanganate was present in the etch solution but that ultrasound again improved smear removal. Final testing under semi‐production conditions confirmed that, if ultrasound was employed in the etch part of the desmear process, then a reduction in processing temperature from 85°C to 60°C could be achieved and the permanganate concentration halved (65 to 33 g/L) whilst still achieving ICD‐free boards.

Originality/value

The paper indicates the feasibility of using ultrasound to reduce temperatures and chemical concentrations used in the permanganate etch solution, whilst still producing through holes with no ICDs.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 37 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 July 1997

Chi‐nien Chung

In this paper, I demonstrate an alternative explanation to the development of the American electricity industry. I propose a social embeddedness approach (Granovetter, 1985, 1992…

Abstract

In this paper, I demonstrate an alternative explanation to the development of the American electricity industry. I propose a social embeddedness approach (Granovetter, 1985, 1992) to interpret why the American electricity industry appears the way it does today, and start by addressing the following questions: Why is the generating dynamo located in well‐connected central stations rather than in isolated stations? Why does not every manufacturing firm, hospital, school, or even household operate its own generating equipment? Why do we use incandescent lamps rather than arc lamps or gas lamps for lighting? At the end of the nineteenth century, the first era of the electricity industry, all these technical as well as organizational forms were indeed possible alternatives. The centralized systems we see today comprise integrated, urban, central station firms which produce and sell electricity to users within a monopolized territory. Yet there were visions of a more decentralized electricity industry. For instance, a geographically decentralized system might have dispersed small systems based around an isolated or neighborhood generating dynamo; or a functionally decentralized system which included firms solely generating and transmitting the power, and selling the power to locally‐owned distribution firms (McGuire, Granovetter, and Schwartz, forthcoming). Similarly, the incandescent lamp was not the only illuminating device available at that time. The arc lamp was more suitable for large‐space lighting than incandescent lamps; and the second‐generation gas lamp ‐ Welsbach mantle lamp ‐ was much cheaper than the incandescent electric light and nearly as good in quality (Passer, 1953:196–197).

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 17 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Abstract

Details

Leadership
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-785-0

Book part
Publication date: 24 July 2014

Malia Willey

After an overview of the literature on challenges facing library instructors and their coordinators, the chapter describes how the communities of practice model relates to…

Abstract

After an overview of the literature on challenges facing library instructors and their coordinators, the chapter describes how the communities of practice model relates to professional development in librarianship, specifically in the area of instructional development. A case study of a community of practice fostered by an instruction coordinator at an academic library is detailed. Academic librarians may encounter several challenges when entering the classroom as library instructors, and instruction coordinators seek to address these and other challenges as they build library instruction programs. By developing a community of practice, instruction coordinators can enable library instructors to learn together. The case study describes how the Instruction Coordinator cultivates library instructor development for members of the Teaching and Learning Team at Loyola University New Orleans’ Monroe Library through a community of practice model. The practical implications for this chapter are that instruction coordinators can establish instructional development opportunities that allow library instructors to enhance their teaching abilities and ultimately further library instruction programs. Communities of practice are well known in several fields and have been discussed in the library literature. This chapter provides additional value to researchers and practitioners through the discussion and application of the concept in the context of library instruction at academic institutions. The case study provides specific examples of how instruction coordinators at other academic libraries can apply the community of practice model and instructional development opportunities to a library instruction program in order to build and sustain a learning culture that supports library instructor development.

Details

Advances in Librarianship
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-469-5

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 November 2023

John H. Bickford

This content analysis examines the historical representation of Margaret Sanger within trade books. From the framework of the historiography, this paper unpacks how common…

Abstract

Purpose

This content analysis examines the historical representation of Margaret Sanger within trade books. From the framework of the historiography, this paper unpacks how common curricular resources depict an American icon with a complicated past.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, the author conducted a content analysis of biographies and expository compilations featuring Sanger. The entire data pool were sampled and analyzed.

Findings

The trade books, particularly the biographies, historically represented Sanger in most categories. Sanger's international direct action and eugenics were two misrepresented areas. Expository compilations, with more limited space than biographies, contained more omissions and minimized or vague depictions of key areas. Findings did not appear dependent upon date of publication.

Originality/value

This study explores an icon of America's free speech battles and birth control rights at a time when culture wars are shaping current events. No researchers have previously explored Sanger's historical representation within trade books.

Details

Social Studies Research and Practice, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1933-5415

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 August 1928

THE Blackpool Conference has been duly held; Lord Elgin has handed his office to his successor, Dr. Lindsay; and a presidential address, full of sound commonsense and useful…

Abstract

THE Blackpool Conference has been duly held; Lord Elgin has handed his office to his successor, Dr. Lindsay; and a presidential address, full of sound commonsense and useful thought, has been delivered which has been ignored in its essentials by the popular press and inflated in respect of a jest which preceded it. As for the general results of the discussions, they are difficult to assess. Certainly useful work was done. On the “local” side the meeting was completely successful. The nights were illuminated by the wonderful autumn light‐show in which Blackpool surpasses England; in the receptions, amusements and facilities afforded no conference assembly has been entertained more royally.

Details

New Library World, vol. 31 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4803

Book part
Publication date: 27 June 2016

Tracy L. Gonzalez-Padron, G. Tomas M. Hult and O. C. Ferrell

Further understanding of how stakeholder marketing explains firm performance through greater customer satisfaction, innovation, and reputation of a firm.

Abstract

Purpose

Further understanding of how stakeholder marketing explains firm performance through greater customer satisfaction, innovation, and reputation of a firm.

Methodology/approach

Grounded in stakeholder theory, the study provides a conceptualization of stakeholder orientation based on cultural values that is distinctive from stakeholder responsiveness and examines the relationship of stakeholder responsiveness to firm performance. The study determines the mediating role of marketing outcomes on the impact of stakeholder responsiveness on firm performance. Multiple regression analysis tests hypotheses using a data set consisting of qualitative data obtained from corporate documents and quantitative data from respected secondary sources.

Findings

Our findings provide support for stakeholder marketing creating a strong relationship to organizational outcomes. There exists a positive relationship between stakeholder responsiveness and firm performance through customer satisfaction, innovation, and reputation.

Research implications

Our definition implies that stakeholder responsiveness is acting in the best interests of the stakeholder as a responsible business. This study shows that stakeholder marketing may not always represent socially responsible marketing. Further research could explore how and why firms may not respond ethically and responsibly to stakeholders.

Practical implications

We further the discussion whether stakeholder marketing equates to sustainability. Marketers can build on expertise of managing customer relationship and generating customer value to develop a stakeholder marketing approach that addresses the economic, social, and environmental concerns of multiple stakeholders.

Originality/value

We further the discussion whether stakeholder marketing equates to sustainability. Marketers can build on expertise of managing customer relationship and generating customer value to develop a stakeholder marketing approach that addresses the economic, social, and environmental concerns of multiple stakeholders.

Details

Marketing in and for a Sustainable Society
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-282-8

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 1933

NOW removed to Chaucer House, Malet Place, London, W.O., the Library Association is in its permanent home adjoining University College and the new National Central Library. Some…

Abstract

NOW removed to Chaucer House, Malet Place, London, W.O., the Library Association is in its permanent home adjoining University College and the new National Central Library. Some strenuous work has yet to be done by the secretary and his staff before the ceremonial opening, but when Chaucer House is completed it should not only facilitate and permit the growth of the work of the Library Association; it should also form a meeting place of great value. We refer not only to meetings of a formal character, although room for these, for council and committee meetings and for examinations will, for the first time in our record, be adequate; we refer rather to the clubbable meetings that have hitherto been rather difficult. For many years librarians have advocated a professional club, where meals might be taken, friends might meet, and some of the social amenities generally be possible. There seems to be an opportunity here; but, clearly, no such club idea can be realized unless there is a definite desire for it, and, what is more, practical use made of it. If the London members dropped in regularly some catering scheme could be arranged which the provincial members could take advantage of too whenever they visited London. Can this be done? Other professions have managed it. It is merely sense to recognise that the provision of refreshments and other necessaries can only be made if there is a regular demand for them which will at least pay their cost.

Details

New Library World, vol. 35 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4803

Article
Publication date: 18 October 2019

Ashlee Curtis, Keith R. McVilly, Andrew Day, William R. Lindsay, John L. Taylor and Todd E. Hogue

Fire setters who have an intellectual disability (ID) are often identified as posing a particular danger to the community although relatively little is known about their…

Abstract

Purpose

Fire setters who have an intellectual disability (ID) are often identified as posing a particular danger to the community although relatively little is known about their characteristics, treatment and support needs. The paper aims to discuss this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

This study describes the characteristics of 134 residents of low, medium and high security ID facilities in the UK who have either an index offence of arson, a violent index offence or a sexual index offence.

Findings

Index arson offenders who had an ID had multiple prior convictions, a history of violent offending and a high likelihood of having a comorbid mental disorder. There were many shared characteristics across the three groups.

Practical implications

The current study suggests that offenders who have ID who set fires have treatment needs that are similar to those of violent and sex offenders. It follows that fire setters who have an ID may also benefit from participating in more established offending behaviour treatment programs, such as cognitive behaviour therapy programs, developed for other types of offender.

Originality/value

This study is one of the few which has investigated the characteristics and treatment needs of persons who have an ID who set fires. In particular, it is one of the first to compare the characteristics and treatment needs for persons with ID who set fires, to those who have committed violent and sexual offences.

Details

Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour, vol. 10 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-8824

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 August 1936

SEPTEMBER this year will be unique in the history of the librarian in England in that for the first time in nearly sixty years the annual conference of the Library Association has…

Abstract

SEPTEMBER this year will be unique in the history of the librarian in England in that for the first time in nearly sixty years the annual conference of the Library Association has already become a memory only. There are those who profess to believe that the conference should be restored to the autumn months. It may be suggested on the other hand that the attendance at Margate lent no assistance to that point of view; indeed, the Margate conference was one of the most pleasant, one of the most successful, of which we have record. Nevertheless, if it can be proved that any large body of librarians was unable to be present owing to the change of month, it appears to us that the matter should be considered sympathetically. Although no one holds any longer the view that one week's attendance at a conference will teach more than many months' study in hermit‐like seclusion—the words and sentiments are those of James Duff Brown—because to‐day there is much more intimate communication between librarians than there was when that sentiment was expressed, there is enormous value, and the adjective is not an exaggeration, in one large meeting of librarians in body in the year. It is an event to which every young librarian looks forward as the privilege to be his when he reaches a high enough position in the service; attendance is a privilege that no librarian anywhere would forego. And this, in spite of the fact that there is usually a grumble because the day is so full of meetings that there is very little chance of such recreation as a seaside, or indeed any other, place visited, usually provides for the delegates.

Details

New Library World, vol. 39 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4803

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