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Article
Publication date: 10 February 2021

Omar Hernández-Rodríguez, Gloriana González and Wanda Villafañe-Cepeda

The authors developed a lesson study innovation for bridging pre-service teachers' experiences in an early methods course and clinical experiences focusing on the…

Abstract

Purpose

The authors developed a lesson study innovation for bridging pre-service teachers' experiences in an early methods course and clinical experiences focusing on the development of technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK). The authors analyze one planning meeting by a lesson study team comprised of four pre-service teachers and one cooperating teacher. The purpose of this research was to determine the nature of documentation during the online planning meeting and how the cooperating teacher facilitated the documentation process.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors used Gueudet and Trouche's (2009) documentation framework to determine the way the lesson study team in our study used all the resources available to plan a lesson. They analyzed the video recordings of the meeting to examine the interplay between material, didactical and mathematical components during the discussions. The material components included the Teacher Desmos Activity Builder and the eTextbook. The didactical components included assessment, scaffolding, multiple representations and problem-solving activities. The mathematical components pertained to systems of linear equations and inequalities with two variables.

Findings

The authors’ findings show that the cooperating teacher performed an invariant set of actions for improving the research lesson and, also, gave recommendations about how to implement the lesson. In facilitating the planning discussions, the cooperating teacher made explicit the relationship between material, didactical and mathematical components. The authors’ work has implications for supporting the preparation of facilitators of online planning sessions during lesson study.

Research limitations/implications

The authors did not have access to the planning meeting where the PSTs created the draft of the research lesson. In addition, they are reporting the observations of only one online meeting.

Originality/value

The authors’ work has implications for supporting the preparation of facilitators of online planning sessions during lesson study.

Details

International Journal for Lesson & Learning Studies, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-8253

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Book part
Publication date: 29 November 2019

Julie Norton, Nina Helgevold and Raymond Bjuland

This chapter explores the benefits of joint lesson planning for student-teachers in two higher educational settings, one in Norway and the other in the UK. Lesson study is…

Abstract

This chapter explores the benefits of joint lesson planning for student-teachers in two higher educational settings, one in Norway and the other in the UK. Lesson study is used as a vehicle for collaborative planning and teacher professional learning during field-practice in both contexts, but the models of lesson study implemented differ slightly to fit the respective initial teacher education (ITE) programmes. In both settings, however, student-teachers, mentor teachers and university tutors work in pairs or small groups to plan, teach and evaluate a research lesson together. The case studies reported in this chapter show the challenges which student-teachers face, but, at the same time, also reveal the potential of lesson study to open a dialogic space where they can share ideas with more experienced colleagues, gain greater awareness of the teaching and learning process and so become more effectively inducted into this community of practice. The chapter also explores the role of the ‘knowledgeable other(s)’, the issue of asymmetrical relationships in lesson study groups within the context of ITE and how this might impact on the learning of the different group members. Collaborative planning in lesson study groups in ITE is found to bridge the gap between what student-teachers learn during teacher training courses and what actually takes place in schools in the respective socio-cultural contexts discussed here.

Details

Lesson Study in Initial Teacher Education: Principles and Practices
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-797-9

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Article
Publication date: 12 March 2018

Aslina Saad and Christian Dawson

This paper presents a recommendation on how one requirement elicitation technique supports the other techniques in defining system requirement for a case-based system. A…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper presents a recommendation on how one requirement elicitation technique supports the other techniques in defining system requirement for a case-based system. A case-based lesson planning system aims to assist teachers in constructing quality lesson plans through its cycle which begins with case retrieval. To retrieve relevant lesson plans, appropriate inputs should be used and the intended output needs to be identified via suitable requirement elicitation techniques. The use of a single technique might result in inadequate requirement specification, thus affecting the quality of the output requirements as well as quality of the final information system.

Design/methodology/approach

Requirement elicitation was carried out in three phases: phase I involved document review, phase II was an interview and phase III used a survey. Respondents of the study comprised experienced teachers as well as new teachers. This research used both qualitative and quantitative approaches to answer the research questions, which involved semi-structured interviews, document review and survey to collect the relevant data. Documents were reviewed by analysing lesson plans from three different countries. In addition, a review of lesson plans prepared by teachers and the standard syllabus were carried out. Findings from the document review were used in structured interviews using a teach-back technique, sorting and matrix of attribute-values. A questionnaire was then constructed based on the interviews and document review.

Findings

The findings of this initial study, as part of a larger research investigation, would help in knowledge modelling and representation. This will contribute to effective case retrieval via good design of the system input and output. The study identifies important elements of a lesson plan according to their ranking. Keywords that were used by teachers as input for retrieval were identified together with the expected output.

Research limitations/implications

The main goal of requirement elicitation is to specify complete and detailed requirements of the proposed system. There are two main types of requirement: functional and non-functional requirements. This paper only focuses on functional requirements – specifically case retrieval with appropriate input and output.

Practical implications

Various requirement engineering (RE) techniques can be applied in different phases of requirement elicitation. Suitable technique should be chosen at different phases of RE, as it is important for triangulation purposes. Incomplete RE will affect the modelling part of system development, and, thus, affect the design and implementation of an information system.

Social implications

Software engineer or anybody involved in system development should plan accordingly for the RE process. They should be creative and reasonable in selecting suitable RE techniques to be applied.

Originality/value

This study aims to gain understanding of the various aspects of lesson planning. Crucial knowledge in lesson planning that was gathered from the elicitation phase is modelled to have a good understanding of the problems and constraints among teachers. The findings of this initial study, as part of a larger research investigation, would help in knowledge modelling and representation. This will contribute to effective case retrieval via a good design of the system input and output.

Details

Journal of Systems and Information Technology, vol. 20 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1328-7265

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Article
Publication date: 4 October 2019

Miechie Miechie, Yuen Sze Michelle Tan and Douglas J. Adler

The purpose of this paper is to report on the approaches teacher candidates (TCs) took to craft the object of learning and the critical aspects when applying variation…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to report on the approaches teacher candidates (TCs) took to craft the object of learning and the critical aspects when applying variation theory, in planning science lessons. It addresses the difficulty TCs often face in determining what students could learn when crafting the objects of learning and the critical aspects.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 27 science TCs from an initial teacher education (ITE) were introduced to variation theory and collaborated in groups of four to five to plan lessons. Data included recordings of the lesson planning session and fieldnotes, TCs’ lesson plans and individual semi-structured interviews. Phenomenography as a methodology was employed to capture the variation in the TCs’ approaches in crafting the objects of learning and the critical aspects, resulting in categories of description that illustrated the complexity of the lesson planning process the TCs engaged with.

Findings

Arranged in hierarchical order, the three categories of description include TCs: analysing content knowledge in order to promote conceptual learning; reflecting on personal experiences and beliefs about teaching and learning; and drawing on external resources to develop knowledge about students.

Practical implications

The ways the TCs engaged with lesson planning constituted valuable resources to build their capacity to differentiate between superficial content engagement and deep conceptual learning.

Originality/value

The study reports on the potential of framing ITE discourse using variation theory to support TCs’ engaging with science teaching that is more conceptual-based, while increasing their sensitivity to students’ common conceptions that constrained the learning of canonical science.

Details

International Journal for Lesson and Learning Studies, vol. 8 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-8253

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Article
Publication date: 12 October 2015

Penny Lamb

The purpose of this paper is to explore a model of Lesson Study owned entirely by pre-service teachers (PSTs), conveying its potential to facilitate mutual spaces of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore a model of Lesson Study owned entirely by pre-service teachers (PSTs), conveying its potential to facilitate mutual spaces of learning between peers beyond formal hierarchical relationships with expert teachers. Fuller’s (1969) conceptual framework of teacher development informed the study, consisting of self, task and impact “phases of concern”.

Design/methodology/approach

Participants were secondary physical education PSTs (n=17), completing a university-led postgraduate certificate in education course. Action research methodology was adopted during school placements, when PSTs engaged in Lesson Study with peers. Data obtained through a group discussion board, individual questionnaires and interviews, were subjected to inductive analysis, with key patterns compared to locate themes.

Findings

All PSTs felt Lesson Study contributed positively to their training, reinforcing perceived benefits of cycles of action for planning, observing a lesson, reviewing and adapting the plan before re-teaching the revised plan. Findings reveal increased confidence in reducing self and task concerns through four emergent themes: acquiring content and pedagogical knowledge; developing the planning process; understanding individual learners’ needs; and embedding reflective practice. Mutually supportive peer-learning environments created pedagogic space beyond formal mentoring processes, augmenting learning to teach and the understanding of learners’ needs.

Research limitations/implications

Endorsement of Lesson Study by PSTs as a method of engaging in a positive peer-learning climate suggests the workability of this model.

Originality/value

Findings contribute to existing literature exploring the effectiveness and impact of Lesson Study within initial teacher education.

Details

International Journal for Lesson and Learning Studies, vol. 4 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-8253

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Article
Publication date: 25 November 2019

Sarah Seleznyov

Japanese lesson study (LS) is a professional development approach in which teachers collaboratively plan a lesson, observe it being taught and then discuss what they have…

Abstract

Purpose

Japanese lesson study (LS) is a professional development approach in which teachers collaboratively plan a lesson, observe it being taught and then discuss what they have learnt. LS’s global spread is increasing but studies have identified several challenges to its implementation: the lack of structures and systems to accommodate LS (especially time); the focus on demonstrating short-term impact; a lack of teacher research skills; a dearth of access to quality learning and research material; the absence of available koshis; and accountability pressures. The purpose of this paper is to examine the “translation” of Japanese LS through a case study of one English secondary school.

Design/methodology/approach

This study is a case study of a single school which has been using LS as an approach to professional development for five years. A documentary analysis of the school’s LS Handbook sought to understand the school’s approach to LS as articulated by senior leadership. Six observations of the schools LS processes were then carried out including planning, research lessons and post-lesson discussions. Finally, one senior leader who had led LS implementation and five teachers who had been working in the school during the implementation stage were interviewed. The findings are analysed against Seleznyov’s (2018) seven critical components of Japanese LS.

Findings

Several key deviations from Japanese LS are identified including: a lack of whole school theme studied over time; little kyozai kenkyu and no written lesson planning; teachers deviating from the role of observers in research lessons; no facilitator and little use of discussion protocols; no koshi; and struggles to ensure mobilisation of knowledge between LS groups. Several of these represent gaps between the school’s LS policy and practices. The findings show that LS practices have become diluted over time and that giving teachers choices seems to have led to teachers not adhering to important aspects of the LS policy.

Research limitations/implications

One of the limitations of the research is its focus on the perceptions of a small group of teachers who were likely to be more passionate about LS than others, and perhaps a deeper understanding of the challenges to implementation might be enabled by interviewing a wider range of engaged teachers, especially those who are perceived as “resisting” full engagement. Further research might also explore whether the implementation challenges faced by this school are replicated in other English schools and in other countries using LS as an approach to professional development.

Practical implications

Several implications for English school leaders seeking to implement LS are discussed, including the need to articulate the rationale for the protocols that shape LS, especially for staff new to the school and to check that important protocols are adhered to over time.

Originality/value

Whilst several studies of LS in the UK have explored its impact on teachers and pupils, and the challenges and successes of introducing LS into a UK context, this study provides a different perspective. It explores the challenges of using LS over time as a consistent approach to professional development in a school and seeks to understand how both resistance and dilution can affect its impact on practice.

Details

International Journal for Lesson and Learning Studies, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-8253

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Article
Publication date: 10 April 2017

João Pedro da Ponte

The purpose of this paper is to review the research concerning the use of lesson studies in the education of secondary school prospective mathematics teachers. It…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to review the research concerning the use of lesson studies in the education of secondary school prospective mathematics teachers. It discusses the adaptations made on the designs, the aims and outcomes established, the processes used, and the needed improvements in the experiences reported so far.

Design/methodology/approach

The scientific studies reviewed were identified in a Google search, using the key words “lesson study”, “mathematics”, and “secondary.” The identified material was recorded in a database and the themes for the analysis cover the planning, execution, and reflection phases of a formative process.

Findings

The paper identifies the several pending issues regarding the use of lesson studies in prospective teacher education such as defining the aims, establishing the relationships among participants, scaling, and adapting lesson studies for the particular purpose of educating future teachers.

Research limitations/implications

At a practical level, this review suggests that lesson studies in pre-service teacher education must have a clear formative aim. It also shows that many formats are possible and must be chosen according to the specific conditions. In addition, it suggests the need for research regarding the definition of the aims, the working relationships established among participants, the problem of scale, and the problem of adaptation or simplification.

Originality/value

The paper identifies the key issues in the design of lesson studies in initial teacher education. It argues that besides signaling the positive outcomes, more critical (or self-critical) investigations are needed, e.g. using external researchers as “critical friends”, which address their difficulties, limitations, and drawbacks in a more thorough way.

Details

International Journal for Lesson and Learning Studies, vol. 6 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-8253

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Article
Publication date: 16 May 2008

Marilyn P. Rice, Daphne Johnson, Bobby Ezell and Michelle Pierczynski‐Ward

Planning is a critical step in the process toward quality instruction and should also include consideration for what technology is appropriate for the lesson. Teacher…

Abstract

Purpose

Planning is a critical step in the process toward quality instruction and should also include consideration for what technology is appropriate for the lesson. Teacher educators must assist preservice teachers in learning this critical planning step of the instructional cycle. The purpose of this article is to present a step‐by‐step procedure to be used by preservice teachers when determining the appropriate use of technology in instruction.

Design/methodology/approach

Various strategies have been used by teacher educators to facilitate preservice teachers’ learning how to integrate technology. Some of these strategies are the modeling of technology integration by university instructors, the exposure to the use of technology in the classrooms during field experience, and including technology into the curriculum. In spite of these efforts, there is evidence that some teacher educators feel that preservice teachers are still not convinced of the value of integrating technology in their lessons. This article suggests that perhaps preservice teachers are still reluctant about the benefit of integrating technology because they have not been given a process for deciding which form(s) of technology should be used for what kind of instruction.

Findings

Included are charts with detailed descriptions, providing a step‐by‐step process for integrating technology into instruction. These charts demonstrate that the decision about what technology to use in a lesson is first based upon the needs of the learners and the material being taught.

Originality/value

This process demonstrates that technology is transparent: curriculum and the needs of learners drive the choice of technology, instead of technology being used just for technology sake.

Details

Interactive Technology and Smart Education, vol. 5 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-5659

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Article
Publication date: 8 January 2021

Wanty Widjaja, Susie Groves and Zara Ersozlu

The purpose of this paper is to describe the design and delivery of a lesson study unit in mathematics to pre-service primary teachers and to identify the opportunities…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe the design and delivery of a lesson study unit in mathematics to pre-service primary teachers and to identify the opportunities and challenges resulting from the need to deliver the unit wholly online due to the COVID-19 pandemic.

Design/methodology/approach

Cross-case analysis, using a before-and-after design, was used to compare the development and delivery of the unit in 2019 and 2020, with the pivotal event of interest between the before-and-after cases being the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Findings

The content and structure of the unit, as well as its collaborative aspects, remained substantially the same in the before-and-after cases. While there was a low level of engagement with pre-recorded lectures, there was a high level of engagement and participation in the online synchronous seminars, together with a marked increase in overall satisfaction with the unit. Pre-service teachers were unable to teach and observe one another's planned research lessons in school. Instead, after a detailed examination of the task, the lesson plan and student solutions, they observed a pre-recorded video of a research lesson at a local school and participated in a streamed post-lesson discussion. Pre-service teachers regarded this new component as a highlight of the unit and an important connection between the theory and practice of lesson study.

Originality/value

The inclusion of the video-recorded research lesson in 2020 introduced a new level of authenticity for pre-service teachers, allowing them to observe a high quality structured problem solving mathematics lesson taught in a local public school, as part of a local implementation of lesson study-something that is not generally possible. While there is often a view that the benefits of lesson study result mainly from collaborative planning and teaching of the research lesson, this paper highlights the value of involvement for all participants in research lesson observation and post-lesson discussion, as well as the opportunities afforded by the use of “virtual lesson study”.

Details

International Journal for Lesson & Learning Studies, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-8253

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Article
Publication date: 10 July 2017

Charlotte Krog Skott and Hanne Møller

The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, to investigate the learning of individual teachers participating in lesson study collaboration by adapting a participatory…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, to investigate the learning of individual teachers participating in lesson study collaboration by adapting a participatory framework about teacher learning; and second, to investigate the potential of this framework compared with other approaches used in lesson study research.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use collective case studies. By being participant observers the authors provide detailed descriptions of two selected teachers’ lived experiences of lesson study collaboration. In addition to gain first-hand insights, the authors conducted interviews before, between and after two rounds of lesson studies, and recorded the various lesson study activities.

Findings

This paper provides empirical insights into the complexity of teacher learning. By using the participatory framework, the authors identify significant shifts in the participation of each of the two teachers during a two-year lesson study project. By comparing these shifts the authors identify significant conditions for their individual learning.

Research limitations/implications

Although the study is small scale, both the insights into the different ways in which teachers participated and the theoretical insights might be valuable for other lesson study research approaches.

Practical implications

This paper provides valuable insights into conditions that might influence teachers’ participation in lesson study activities, especially in cultures with little experience of lesson study.

Originality/value

This paper fulfils a need to investigate individual teachers’ learning in lesson study collaborations. It also contributes to deeper theoretical understandings of teacher learning which have been called for in recent lesson study research.

Details

International Journal for Lesson and Learning Studies, vol. 6 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-8253

Keywords

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