An unambiguous and agreed definition of what a functional food is does not exist. However, broadly speaking, a food is said to be functional if it contains a food component which…
An unambiguous and agreed definition of what a functional food is does not exist. However, broadly speaking, a food is said to be functional if it contains a food component which affects one or more targeted functions of the body in a positive way. Functional foods often fall into the grey area between foods and medicine, but from a regulatory standpoint they are foods and consequently subject to food regulations. According to the food labelling directive, it is not permitted to label a food in such a way that, first, it will attribute the property of preventing, treating and curing human disease, or refer to such properties, and second, that it can mislead the consumer. The first aspect refers to the claims a food product may carry and specifically prohibits health claims – even if scientifically valid. It is argued that a claim on a food is a health claim if the consumer perceives it as such. The second aspect states that a given claim must be validated by sufficient scientific evidence, and far too often associations between food intake and disease risk have been misinterpreted as causal relations.
Trans fatty acids arise as a result of hydrogenation processes inmargarine manufacture, and in nature in the rumen of ruminant animals.Concern that high intake of trans fatty…
Trans fatty acids arise as a result of hydrogenation processes in margarine manufacture, and in nature in the rumen of ruminant animals. Concern that high intake of trans fatty acids may increase the risk of coronary heart disease has been strengthened by recent studies. Further, there is evidence that trans fatty acids may adversely affect foetal and neonatal growth and development. Therefore, a reduced intake of trans fatty acids seems prudent. Certain foods, particularly stick margarines, shortenings and hydrogenated frying fats, contain large amounts of trans fatty acids, and are the main reason for the rather high intake of trans fatty acids in the USA and northern European countries, including Denmark. Therefore, the National Food Agency is presently working on a legal provision to reduce the level of trans fatty acids in these products.
Several studies have shown that microwave cooking, if properlyused, does not change the nutrient content of foods to a larger extentthan conventional heating. In fact, suggests…
Several studies have shown that microwave cooking, if properly used, does not change the nutrient content of foods to a larger extent than conventional heating. In fact, suggests that there is a tendency towards greater retention of many micronutrients with microwaving, probably due to the shorter preparation time. Does not describe non‐thermal effects. The main problem with microwaving is the uneven heating of the food, which has raised concern regarding microbiological safety. Microwaving infant formula and breast milk has become increasingly popular. The content of nutrients and antibacterial factors in milk are maintained unchanged provided the final temperature does not exceed 60°C.
The purpose of this paper is to examine challenges facing bibliographic classification at both the practical and theoretical levels. At the practical level, libraries are increasingly dispensing with classifying books. At the theoretical level, many researchers, managers, and users believe that the activity of “classification” is not worth the effort, as search engines can be improved without the heavy cost of providing metadata.
The basic issue in classification is seen as providing criteria for deciding whether A should be classified as X. Such decisions are considered to be dependent on the purpose and values inherent in the specific classification process. These decisions are not independent of theories and values in the document being classified, but are dependent on an interpretation of the discourses within those documents.
At the practical level, there is a need to provide high‐quality control mechanisms. At the theoretical level, there is a need to establish the basis of each decision, and to change the philosophy of classification from being based on “standardisation” to being based on classifications tailored to different domains and purposes. Evidence‐based practice provides an example of the importance of classifying documents according to research methods.
Solving both the practical (organisational) and the theoretical problems facing classification is necessary if the field is to survive both as a practice and as an academic subject within library and information science. This article presents strategies designed to tackle these challenges.