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Article
Publication date: 24 September 2021

Linda Montanari, Robert Teltzrow, Sara Van Malderen, Roberto Ranieri, José Antonio Martín Peláez, Liesbeth Vandam, Jane Mounteney, Alessandro Pirona, Fadi Meroueh, Isabelle Giraudon, João Matias, Katerina Skarupova, Luis Royuela and Julien Morel d’Arleux

This paper aims to describe the impact of the COVID-19 containment measures on the provision of drug treatment and harm reduction services in European prisons in15 countries…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to describe the impact of the COVID-19 containment measures on the provision of drug treatment and harm reduction services in European prisons in15 countries during the early phase of the pandemic (March –June 2020).

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is based on a mixed method research approach that triangulates different data sources, including the results of an on-line survey, the outcome of a focus group and four national case studies.

Findings

The emergence of COVID-19 led to a disruption in prison drug markets and resulted in a number of challenges for the drug services provision inside prison. Challenges for health services included the need to maintain the provision of drug-related interventions inside prison, while introducing a range of COVID-19 containment measures. To reduce contacts between people, many countries introduced measures for early release, resulted in around a 10% reduction of the prison population in Europe. Concerns were expressed around reduction of drug-related interventions, including group activities, services by external agencies, interventions in preparation for release and continuity of care.

Practical implications

Innovations aimed at improving drug service provision included telemedicine, better partnership between security and health staff and an approach to drug treatment more individualised. Future developments must be closely monitored.

Originality/value

The paper provides a unique and timely overview of the main issues, challenges and initial adaptations implemented for drug services in European prisons in response to the COVID-19 pandemic.

Details

International Journal of Prisoner Health, vol. 17 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-9200

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 1992

W. Delbare, L. Vandam, J. Vandewege, J. Verbeke and M. Fitzgibbon

The paper describes a new electro‐optical board technology, based on the discrete wiring principle. Isolated copper wires are embedded in the circuit board to realise the…

Abstract

The paper describes a new electro‐optical board technology, based on the discrete wiring principle. Isolated copper wires are embedded in the circuit board to realise the electrical interconnections. Glass optical fibres are embedded to obtain optical interconnections. The technology allows for crossovers and for electrical and optical interconnections on one layer of interconnection. As the technology can be applied on the level of package or multichip module, circuit board and backpanel, it has the ability to offer a complete solution for chip to chip electrical and optical interconnections. The paper will describe the basic manufacturing technology of the boards. The benefits of the technology from a system designer's viewpoint will be addressed. The problem of coupling light in and out of the embedded optical fibres will be discussed and the realisation of a first on‐board optical link via embedded optical fibres will be described.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 18 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Article
Publication date: 24 July 2023

Daniela Reichl, Bruno Heindl, Anette Lea Distler and Sabine Steins-Loeber

Prisoners with substance use disorder (SUD) are at risk of mental health problems. Given the common co-occurring of psychopathic traits with SUDs, probably because of underlying…

Abstract

Purpose

Prisoners with substance use disorder (SUD) are at risk of mental health problems. Given the common co-occurring of psychopathic traits with SUDs, probably because of underlying impulsive traits (Ellingson et al., 2018), this study aims to examine the relation between psychopathy (impulsive antisociality and fearless dominance) and the functioning of incarcerated individuals with SUD. The authors investigated whether impulsivity (motor, nonplanning and attentional) can account for the relationship between one psychopathy facet (impulsive antisociality) and craving and mental health problems.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors assessed self-reported impulsivity, psychopathy, craving and mental health problems in 121 male incarcerated individuals with SUD and calculated cross-sectional linear regression analyses and mediation models.

Findings

Impulsive antisociality was positively related to all impulsivity facets, craving and mental health problems. Attentional impulsivity mediated the relationship of impulsive antisociality with craving and mental health problems. Fearless dominance was related to lower attentional and nonplanning impulsivity, craving and mental health problems.

Research limitations/implications

Future studies should investigate these relations in longitudinal studies and evaluate tailored approaches, for example, mindfulness interventions.

Practical implications

Interventions to reduce craving and improve mental health might be important for those who display self-centered, antisocial behavior but are less relevant for those with fearless, dominant interpersonal behavior. Addressing attentional impulsivity may be of special interest in this regard.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study was the first to investigate the mediating role of different impulsivity facets for the association of impulsive antisociality with craving and with mental health problems in incarcerated individuals with SUD.

Details

International Journal of Prisoner Health, vol. 19 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-9200

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 19 December 2022

Hyejin Park, Blake Linthwaite, Camille Dussault, Alexandros Halavrezos, Sylvie Chalifoux, Jessica Sherman, Lina Del Balso, Jane A. Buxton, Joseph Cox and Nadine Kronfli

People who use drugs (PWUD) have been disproportionately affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aims to examine changes in illicit opioid use and related factors among…

Abstract

Purpose

People who use drugs (PWUD) have been disproportionately affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aims to examine changes in illicit opioid use and related factors among incarcerated PWUD in Quebec, Canada, during the pandemic.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors conducted an observational, cross-sectional study in three Quebec provincial prisons. Participants completed self-administered questionnaires. The primary outcome, “changes in illicit opioid consumption,” was measured using the question “Has your consumption of opioid drugs that were not prescribed to you by a medical professional changed since March 2020?” The association of independent variables and recent changes (past six months) in opioid consumption were examined using mixed-effects Poisson regression models with robust standard errors. Crude and adjusted risk ratios with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated.

Findings

A total of 123 participants (median age 37, 76% White) were included from January 19 to September 15, 2021. The majority (72; 59%) reported decreased illicit opioid consumption since March 2020. Individuals over 40 were 11% less likely (95% CI 14–8 vs 18–39) to report a decrease, while those living with others and with a history of opioid overdose were 30% (95% CI 9–55 vs living alone) and 9% (95% CI 0–18 vs not) more likely to report decreased illicit opioid consumption since March 2020, respectively.

Originality/value

The authors identified possible factors associated with changes in illicit opioid consumption among incarcerated PWUD in Quebec. Irrespective of opioid consumption patterns, increased access to opioid agonist therapy and enhanced discharge planning for incarcerated PWUD are recommended to mitigate the harms from opioids and other drugs.

Details

International Journal of Prisoner Health, vol. 19 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-9200

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 November 2022

Atsushi Katsuda, Yoshiyuki Naito and Toshihiko Ishihara

In Japan, health-care systems have long been supported by physicians' long working hours. To solve this problem, there is an urgent need to improve the working environment for…

Abstract

Purpose

In Japan, health-care systems have long been supported by physicians' long working hours. To solve this problem, there is an urgent need to improve the working environment for physicians while practicing patient-centered medicine and controlling health-care costs. This paper aims to examine the effect of task shifting to nurses and discuss its usefulness from the perspective of health-care value co-creation.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper analyzes task shifting to nurses in acute care hospitals in Japan as a solution for the shortage of anesthesiologists. The authors discuss how the value was created from the perspective of the health-care ecosystem, with conceptual consideration of the value co-creation mechanism through patient-centered practices.

Findings

The study showed that task shifting initiatives in Japan can improve the motivation of nurses through human resource development while maintaining high quality. The study also suggested that task shifting from physicians to nurses may contribute to improving net income and maintaining the health-care system.

Practical implications

The findings are highly reproducible and can be immediately applied to initiatives at other medical institutions in Japan. Furthermore, it is suggested that these findings might provide some perspective on the realignment of fragmented healthcare in the USA.

Originality/value

It was confirmed in practical terms that micro-level initiatives have an impact on the macro level as well. In addition, the academic presentation of the concept has contributed to the deepening of value research.

Details

The TQM Journal, vol. 36 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2731

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 30 October 2020

Julian Strizek, Alexandra Karden and João Matias

The purpose of this paper is to assess the relevance of cryptomarkets, characteristics of purchasers and possibilities for survey research by approaching users directly on…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to assess the relevance of cryptomarkets, characteristics of purchasers and possibilities for survey research by approaching users directly on cryptomarkets.

Design/methodology/approach

Cross-country comparison of the results from the European Web Survey on Drugs (EWSD) and summarizing lessons learned during the data collection was carried out.

Findings

Purchasers of drugs on cryptomarkets are still a rather small segment of all drug purchasers, and most people who use cryptomarkets also use other sources of supply to buy drugs. The percentage of people using cryptomarkets is unevenly distributed across countries and substances. Purchasers on cryptomarkets in most countries are more likely to be men and more likely, on average, to use more substances. Other characteristics such as age or place of residence do not show a consistent pattern across countries. Recruitment of respondents on cryptomarkets calls for specific techniques and procedures. Specific attention should be paid to build trust and guarantee credibility and anonymity.

Research limitations/implications

Interpretation of the quantitative results is limited by nonprobabilistic sampling and different recruitment strategies in different countries.

Practical implications

Users of cryptomarkets show some specific characteristics, providing a challenge for research and prevention agencies to keep up with digital technology. Increasing knowledge about characteristics of users of cryptomarkets may help to create adequate responses for harm reduction measures in different supply settings. However, collecting self-reported data from users on cryptomarkets is limited owing to significant privacy concerns and requires specific skills and strategies.

Originality/value

The EWSD provides a rare opportunity for detailed analyses of consumption patterns and characteristics of active drug users across several European countries. Furthermore, experiences of a new recruitment strategy are discussed.

Book part
Publication date: 5 June 2018

Christy M. Borders, Stacey Jones Bock, Karla Giese, Stephanie Gardiner-Walsh and Kristi M. Probst

The world revolves around sound. Children who are deaf/hard of hearing (D/HH) lack access to sound, thus need careful monitoring and planning to ensure they have access to…

Abstract

The world revolves around sound. Children who are deaf/hard of hearing (D/HH) lack access to sound, thus need careful monitoring and planning to ensure they have access to adequate language models and supports to develop a strong language foundation. It is this foundation that is needed to ensure D/HH children are able to achieve developmental and academic milestones. Research is emerging to suggest specific intervention strategies that can be used to support D/HH children from birth throughout their educational career. In this chapter, we highlight several strategies that can be used to support communication, language, academic, and social/emotional growth. We freely admit that this is in no way a comprehensive and exhaustive list, but rather only scratches the surface. The field of deaf education and related research and technology is constantly changing. To ensure adequate educational access, it is highly recommended that a professional specialized in hearing loss be a part of the educational team any time a child is identified as having any degree or type of hearing loss.

Details

Viewpoints on Interventions for Learners with Disabilities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-089-1

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 25 April 2024

Kate L. Fennell, Pieter Jan Van Dam, Nicola Stephens, Adele Holloway and Roger Hughes

A systematic investigation of postgraduate leadership programs for health and/or human services offered by Australian higher education institutions was undertaken.

144

Abstract

Purpose

A systematic investigation of postgraduate leadership programs for health and/or human services offered by Australian higher education institutions was undertaken.

Design/methodology/approach

Quantitative analysis identified the core characteristics of the programs. A thematic analysis of the course learning outcomes was conducted and six major themes of disciplinary leadership and management knowledge; research and analytical skills; professional practice; communication and collaboration; creativity and innovation; and system knowledge are shared in this study.

Findings

The authors conclude that Australian universities have taken an evidence-based approach to leadership education.

Originality/value

More work might need to be undertaken to ensure leadership theories are incorporated into learning outcomes.

Details

Journal of Leadership Education, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1552-9045

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 June 2019

Joost (Johannes) Platje, Markus Will and Ynte K. Van Dam

Management education trainers are increasingly called upon to train students to devise interventions for sustainable development in business settings. Due to the dominant…

Abstract

Purpose

Management education trainers are increasingly called upon to train students to devise interventions for sustainable development in business settings. Due to the dominant reductionist paradigm, these interventions may lead to unwanted side effects. Teaching students about unacknowledged feedback loops in complex systems should prevent them from choosing “the most obvious” intervention without considering unwanted side effects.The current study aims to report the effects of teaching a systems perspective, applied to transport systems, on students’ opinions and expressed paradigms. The following questions are addressed: Do students adhere to the techno-centric paradigm, believing technology, innovation and growth can solve all types of threats for sustainable development, while neglecting low probability, high impact events? Are paradigms held by students coherent? Can teaching lead to a change in opinions and paradigms held by students?

Design/methodology/approach

Measures for several systems concepts (i.e. functional stupidity, paradigms and fragility) are taken across a wide sample of university students. Posttests of some key items are taken for a subsample that followed a sustainability and systems perspective in a course on transport economics.

Findings

A large share of students think that technology can solve different types of problems in sustainable development (a kind of weak sustainability), but their paradigms tend to be a mix of conflicting opinions. Though student opinions on topics that were explicitly treated in the course have changed, neither a wider paradigm shift nor significantly more coherent paradigms can be confirmed.

Originality/value

The results show that even though students can be taught about the unwanted side effects and limitations on specific techno-fix interventions, this does not automatically translate into a critical mind-set toward techno-fixing in general.

Details

International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, vol. 20 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1467-6370

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 6 December 2019

Wim Lambrechts, Joost (Johannes) Platje and Ynte K. Van Dam

Abstract

Details

International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, vol. 20 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1467-6370

1 – 10 of 19