The purpose of this paper is to present a computationally efficient approach for the stochastic modeling of an inhomogeneous reluctivity of magnetic materials. These materials can be part of electrical machines such as a single-phase transformer (a benchmark example that is considered in this paper). The approach is based on the Karhunen–Loève expansion (KLE). The stochastic model is further used to study the statistics of the self-inductance of the primary coil as a quantity of interest (QoI).
The computation of the KLE requires solving a generalized eigenvalue problem with dense matrices. The eigenvalues and the eigenfunction are computed by using the Lanczos method that needs only matrix vector multiplications. The complexity of performing matrix vector multiplications with dense matrices is reduced by using hierarchical matrices.
The suggested approach is used to study the impact of the spatial variability in the magnetic reluctivity on the QoI. The statistics of this parameter are influenced by the correlation lengths of the random reluctivity. Both, the mean value and the standard deviation increase as the correlation length of the random reluctivity increases.
The KLE, computed by using hierarchical matrices, is used for uncertainty quantification of low frequency electrical machines as a computationally efficient approach in terms of memory requirement, as well as computation time.