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Article
Publication date: 8 February 2018

Justin Okoli and John Watt

The purpose of this paper is to draw on the naturalistic decision making and cognitive science literature to examine how experienced crisis managers utilize the intuitive…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to draw on the naturalistic decision making and cognitive science literature to examine how experienced crisis managers utilize the intuitive and analytical strategies when managing complex incidents. A cognitive model that describes the interplay between strategies is presented and discussed, and the specific role that intuition plays in analytical decision making is addressed.

Design/methodology/approach

Designed as a conceptual paper, the extant literature is reviewed to advance discussions on the theme of intuitive and analytical decision making in the naturalistic environment. A new model of expert intuition – the information filtering and intuitive decision model – is presented and evaluated against existing cognitive models from the wider literature.

Findings

The paper suggests that experts’ ability to make intuitive decisions is strongly hinged on their information processing skills that allow irrelevant cues to be sifted out while the relevant cues are retained. The paper further revealed that experts generally employ the intuitive mode as their default strategy, drawing on the analytical mode only as conditions warrant.

Originality/value

Prior research has shown that experts often make important task decisions using intuitive or analytical strategies or by combining both, but the sequence these should typically follow is still unresolved. Findings from the intuition model reveal that although intuition often precedes analytical thinking in almost all cases, both strategies exist to offer significant values to decision makers if the basis of their application is well understood.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 56 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article
Publication date: 28 October 2000

Mark D. Treleven, Charles A. Watts and Patrick T. Hogan

In order to survive and thrive in today’s global economy, firms of all sizes must be able to use information as a competitive weapon. Manufacturing firms must be able to…

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233

Abstract

In order to survive and thrive in today’s global economy, firms of all sizes must be able to use information as a competitive weapon. Manufacturing firms must be able to receive and process customer orders, schedule shop orders, and place purchase orders efficiently to be effective members of their supply chain. Information technology can be used to facilitate the exchange of order information between business functions and supply chain members. Two information technologies that are used for this information exchange are enterprise resource planning (ERP) and electronic commerce (e‐commerce). This article discusses the results of a survey of Midwestern manufacturers on their current and future use of and investment in information technology to support their supply chain activities. The results of the study show that there is a difference in the use of and investment in information technology between small/medium manufacturers and large manufacturers. Large manufacturers are placing more emphasis on supply chain technologies than small manufacturers. Manufacturers’ investment in information technologies for the supply chain were found to lag those for the manufacturing/operations function. The results also show that use of e‐commerce is greater than the use of ERP.

Details

American Journal of Business, vol. 15 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1935-5181

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Article
Publication date: 31 January 2011

Robin Mackenzie and John Watts

Should those of us who are neurologically atypical be diagnosed as ill, so in need of treatment or cure, or accepted as embodying a different way of being, as called for…

Abstract

Should those of us who are neurologically atypical be diagnosed as ill, so in need of treatment or cure, or accepted as embodying a different way of being, as called for by the neurodiversity movement? We consider what legal structures and health and social care systems would be appropriate to promote neurodiversity, and how far this infrastructure in the United Kingdom today meets these criteria for those diagnosed with cognitive disability and learning disability.

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Tizard Learning Disability Review, vol. 16 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-5474

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Article
Publication date: 9 November 2010

Robin Mackenzie and John Watts

Guidance has recently been issued to police officers on how to respond to people with learning disabilities and mental illnesses. We review this Guidance and comment on…

Abstract

Guidance has recently been issued to police officers on how to respond to people with learning disabilities and mental illnesses. We review this Guidance and comment on some of the advice, in the context of current issues and concerns. This article contains a brief summary of the Guidance, but for more detailed coverage, we recommend that the Guidance itself be consulted.

Details

Tizard Learning Disability Review, vol. 15 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-5474

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2014

Robin Mackenzie and John Watts

The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that the common and statutory law governing children's capacity or competence to consent to and to refuse medical treatment is…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that the common and statutory law governing children's capacity or competence to consent to and to refuse medical treatment is unsatisfactory and to suggest solutions.

Design/methodology/approach

Critical legal analysis of the law on assessing minors’ decision-making capacity in relation to legal recognition of their consent to and refusal of medical treatment.

Findings

Without legal mechanisms which protect both children and their rights, all children and young people are effectively disabled from exercising age and capacity-related autonomy and participation in decisions affecting their lives. Yet in English law, inconsistencies between legal and clinical measures of decision-making capacity, situations where compulsory medical or mental health treatment is lawful, and tensions between rights and duties associated with human rights, autonomy, best interests and protections for the vulnerable create difficulties for clinicians, lawyers and patients.

Research limitations/implications

As the paper acknowledges in its recommendations, the views of stakeholders are needed to enrich and inform legal reforms in this area.

Originality/value

The paper makes suggestions to amend the law and clinical practice which are original and far reaching. The paper suggests that in order to observe children's rights while protecting them appropriately, the Mental Capacity Act 2005 and Deprivations of Liberty Safeguards should be applied to minors. The paper recommends the establishment of Mental Capacity Tribunals, similar in nature and purpose to Mental Health Tribunals, to provide legal safeguards and mechanisms to foster the supported decision-making envisaged in recent United Nations Conventions.

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Article
Publication date: 23 May 2011

Robin Mackenzie and John Watts

The purpose in writing this paper is to highlight the lack of knowledge of many who are involved in capacity assessments, especially non‐professionals such as carers of…

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891

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose in writing this paper is to highlight the lack of knowledge of many who are involved in capacity assessments, especially non‐professionals such as carers of the learning disabled, and the view that current guidance for capacity assessments does not take into account issues of emotionality.

Design/methodology/approach

The approach is to discuss current guidance and practice, and to offer academic criticism and explanation.

Findings

The findings include the discovery that the Mental Capacity Act 2005 Code of Practice suggests that healthcare professionals and family/carers may undertake assessments of decision‐making capacity, yet the guidance it provides for their doing so overlooks salient issues. Many of those involved in the daily lives of those, who may lack decision‐making capacity (and thus be seen as legally incompetent) such as the learning disabled, demented, mentally ill and neurodiverse, must decide whether to respect their decisions as competent, or to disregard the decisions on the grounds of incompetence and to act in the person's best interests. As many will lack training in their clinical and legal responsibilities and liabilities, it is crucial that they, and those they care for, are protected by not only an increased knowledge of mental capacity legislation and practice, but also how it may apply to questions of emotionality and neurodiversity.

Originality/value

This paper expands and builds on the authors' previous research into including emotionality in assessments of capacity, and will be of use to practitioners in the field of learning disability, and other psychiatric specialities.

Details

Tizard Learning Disability Review, vol. 16 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-5474

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1998

Charles Watts, Patrick T. Hogan and Mark Treleven

To compete effectively in today’s global marketplace,a company must have a competitive supply chain. A competitive supply chain requires an ability to communicate rapidly…

Abstract

To compete effectively in today’s global marketplace,a company must have a competitive supply chain. A competitive supply chain requires an ability to communicate rapidly and accurately. Electronic Data Interchange(EDI) is one method that world class organizations have successfully used to improve the communication of orders and design changes. However, the growth in use of EDI has been much slower than projected. This article discusses the results of a survey to identify some of the barriers to the use of EDI and some possible methods to overcome those barriers. The results of this study show that organizational resistance to change is lower for EDI users than for non users. The results further indicate that awareness of technical issues is higher for EDI users. Suggestions regarding how to help overcome the barriers to using high technology innovations such as EDI are provided.

Details

American Journal of Business, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1935-5181

Keywords

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Abstract

Details

Tizard Learning Disability Review, vol. 15 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-5474

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Article
Publication date: 16 August 2010

Robin Mackenzie and John Watts

The law and guidance concerning the social care of adults are a mess. More than 30 statutes and guidance documents deal with this area, many of which overlap or contradict…

Abstract

The law and guidance concerning the social care of adults are a mess. More than 30 statutes and guidance documents deal with this area, many of which overlap or contradict each other, some dating back five decades. Because of this, the Law Commission has been asked to review the law and propose changes, which is, as the Law Society Gazette has put it, ‘the most radical shake‐up of adult social care in 60 years’ (Rayner, 2010). It is estimated that such legislation would affect 1.8 million people and six million carers (Brindle, 2010). The consultation document was published in February 2010 following a scoping exercise, and the closure date for responses was the 1st July 2010. The hope is that the consultation exercise will result in a response next year and a Bill drafted by the summer of 2012. In this article, we review the background to the consultation, and explore the Law Commission's proposals for reform. We examine the issues with particular reference to the readership of this journal, and make suggestions for change. We have also submited this article to the Law Commission as a response to the consultation document.

Details

Tizard Learning Disability Review, vol. 15 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-5474

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Article
Publication date: 5 April 2013

Robin Mackenzie and John Watts

The purpose of this paper is to clarify: the law on capacity to consent to sex; ethical and legal factors in assessing decision‐making capacity of those on the autism…

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1027

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to clarify: the law on capacity to consent to sex; ethical and legal factors in assessing decision‐making capacity of those on the autism (ASD) and neurodiverse (ND) spectrums; and the legal obligations to promote sexual health devolving to local authorities from April 2013. We make proposals to ensure socio‐sexual competence by providing appropriate sex and relationship education (SRE).

Design/methodology/approach

Critical legal analysis of case law and legislation on the capacity of the vulnerable to consent to sex, in the context of those diagnosed on the autism and neurodiverse spectrums.

Findings

Consent to sex cannot be regarded as informed, autonomous, valid and lawful without socio‐sexual competence. Sex and relationships education should be provided to ensure socio‐sexual competence, in keeping with international conventions and national laws and policies.

Research limitations/implications

There is an urgent need for research into the needs and experiences of people with ASD/ND and their families/carers with regard to the efficacy and tailoring of SRE strategies. This research should feed into SRE family intervention programmes (SREFIPs), developed in partnership with people with ASD/ND, their families/carers and professionals.

Originality/value

This article seeks to resolve many of the existing legal uncertainties surrounding the capacity to consent to sex and to propose novel solutions to ensure the socio‐sexual competence of those diagnosed on the ASD or ND spectrums in relation to their rights to sexual expression.

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