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Open Access
Article
Publication date: 11 July 2017

Jason Heyes and Joanna Shapland

Abstract

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 37 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 11 July 2017

Joanna Shapland and Jason Heyes

Recent changes in the UK to the regulation and modes of work in the formal and informal economies are considered. Research in this field has tended to remain in silos (treating…

3682

Abstract

Purpose

Recent changes in the UK to the regulation and modes of work in the formal and informal economies are considered. Research in this field has tended to remain in silos (treating formal economy working conditions separately from research on the informal economy). The question is whether the means of work and benefits to the worker for formal and informal work are now as different as the former images of formal and informal economy work imply under a “jobs-for-life” economy. The purpose of this paper is to consider whether the current aim of government regulation of the informal economy – to formalise it – is actually of benefit to workers, as might be supposed.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper considers recent research findings on the formal and informal economy, using official government statistics for the UK and more detailed European studies on the informal economy.

Findings

This paper argues that formal employment in the UK is becoming more casualised, with less associated benefits to employees. Though it is still of benefit to the state to formalise informal work (to increase tax take), some of the links between formalisation and a good working environment for workers are being broken, which may lead to the informal economy becoming more popular and requiring different priorities in its regulation.

Originality/value

This paper argues that we need to change our assumptions and image of work in the formal economy, compared to that in the informal economy.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 37 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 August 1994

Jason Heyes and Mark Stuart

The burgeoning literature on vocational education and training (VET) hasfailed to provide an adequate theoretical basis by which to understandtraining outcomes. Critically…

500

Abstract

The burgeoning literature on vocational education and training (VET) has failed to provide an adequate theoretical basis by which to understand training outcomes. Critically appraises the notion of a “low skill equilibrium” and highlights a number of conceptual and analytical weaknesses in the literature. Suggests some key ingredients for a more sensitive approach to training provision. Emphasizes the importance of addressing developments in production and illustrates this by reference to case study research.

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 11 July 2017

Ana Carolina Ogando, Sally Roever and Michael Rogan

This paper explores the perceptions and experiences of women and men who work as informal waste collectors in four different cities. The purpose of this paper is to map out how…

6363

Abstract

Purpose

This paper explores the perceptions and experiences of women and men who work as informal waste collectors in four different cities. The purpose of this paper is to map out how and to what extent occupational, political-legal, economic and social dynamics are experienced differently by gender in a highly vulnerable segment of the urban informal economy, and explore gender differences in these workers’ coping strategies and the levels of action they develop to protect their livelihoods.

Design/methodology/approach

The analysis is based on a mixed methods study which combined a quantitative survey of informal workers with a qualitative participatory methodology. Study participants were drawn from a purposive sample of informal workers who belong to, or are affiliated with, membership-based workers’ organisations. The sample consists of waste pickers (n=614) from Belo Horizonte, Brazil; Bogotá, Colombia; Durban, South Africa; and Nakuru, Kenya.

Findings

The data show that despite significant differences between women and men upon entry into (informal) employment, their perceptions of key drivers and impacts are largely similar, with the exception of concerns around various types of physical security among women. They also indicate that levels of action among men and women waste pickers are only moderately influenced by gender, but are strongly influenced by the degree of organisation in the sector and the symbolic assets held by workers. The findings also illustrate the way in which gendered power dynamics operate within the informal recycling sector and how different levels of sector organisation and development often contribute to opportunities for collective action and, in turn, a reduction in gendered vulnerabilities.

Originality/value

The study offers a new policy angle which connects the level of sector organisation and development with the levels of action taken by informal workers in adapting to different types of shocks, as well as what this means in terms of gender empowerment.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 37 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 July 2019

Jonathan Winterton and Jason J. Turner

The purpose of this paper is to understand the concept of graduate work readiness (GWR) from a stakeholder perspective. The research attempts to pull together the various…

4335

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to understand the concept of graduate work readiness (GWR) from a stakeholder perspective. The research attempts to pull together the various multidisciplinary themes from the literature into a comprehensive analysis of the relationship between graduates and the labour market, considering the international dimension of what is a global phenomenon.

Design/methodology/approach

The critical review is divided into four distinct sections, the first is to contextualise the concept of GWR and graduate employability taking into account recent academic discussion, particularly in the EU and ASEAN; second, to explore the different perspectives of stakeholders in the “triple helix” of universities, governments and the corporate world; third, critically to assess the arguments that educational provision is poorly aligned with labour market needs; and finally, to investigate the implications of the fourth industrial revolution for graduate jobs and skills and propose an agenda for future research.

Findings

Despite the apparent consensus between stakeholders over the central importance of graduate employability, there is considerable diversity in how each imagines GWR is best assured.

Research limitations/implications

Any review is limited by the extant literature and whilst it is not uncommon that most research has been done in North America, Western Europe and Australasia, this is a serious limitation. GWR is a global concern and this review shows the need for more research that extends beyond the dominant geographical focus and its attendant paradigms. The implication is that geography is important and local research is needed to develop solutions that fit specific cultural, economic and institutional contexts.

Practical implications

The paper highlights the need to reconcile different stakeholder perspectives on GWR and ensure that they work together on shared agendas to improve graduate transition to the labour market. At the same time, the profound changes being brought about by the fourth industrial revolution suggest that more attention should be paid to the employability of existing employees.

Originality/value

This review should prove useful to both academics and practitioners because it emphasises the need to treat GWR as a concept that varies according to context and stakeholder interests, rather than a homogeneous phenomenon.

Details

Education + Training, vol. 61 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 January 1986

The Kraft Nutrition Award scheme has been operating for ten years now, and it continues to stimulate students' interest in healthy eating and the importance of putting good…

Abstract

The Kraft Nutrition Award scheme has been operating for ten years now, and it continues to stimulate students' interest in healthy eating and the importance of putting good nutrition into practice by being able to prepare dishes which are appetising and attractive as well as being good food value.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 86 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Book part
Publication date: 15 August 2002

James Boyd

Financial assurance rules, also known as financial responsibility or bonding requirements, foster cost internalization by requiring potential polluters to demonstrate the…

Abstract

Financial assurance rules, also known as financial responsibility or bonding requirements, foster cost internalization by requiring potential polluters to demonstrate the financial resources necessary to compensate for environmental damage that may arise in the future. Accordingly, assurance is an important complement to liability rules, restoration obligations, and other regulatory compliance requirements. The paper reviews the need for assurance, given the prevalence of abandoned environmental obligations, and assesses the implementation of assurance rules in the United States. From the standpoint of both legal effectiveness and economic efficiency, assurance rules can be improved. On the whole, however, cost recovery, deterrence, and enforcement are significantly improved by the presence of existing assurance regulations.

Details

An Introduction to the Law and Economics of Environmental Policy: Issues in Institutional Design
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76230-888-0

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 21 February 2022

Mariann Hardey

Abstract

Details

Household Self-Tracking during a Global Health Crisis
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-915-3

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