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Entrepreneurship education and training are an increasingly widespread component of governmental and nongovernmental efforts to address the interrelated challenges of youth…
Entrepreneurship education and training are an increasingly widespread component of governmental and nongovernmental efforts to address the interrelated challenges of youth unemployment and poverty reduction. In the absence of consensus regarding how best to design learning opportunities that effectively prepare youth to improve their livelihoods, this chapter explores the central debates surrounding three components that are integrated into most entrepreneurship training initiatives: learning, earning, and saving. Drawing on existing literature and considering three entrepreneurship training programs underway in East Africa, the authors argue that the effectiveness of any particular youth entrepreneurship program is highly dependent on a variety of contextual considerations, many of which are beyond the control of individual youth and program managers. Implications of this are that (a) program managers need to be modest in their expectations of program effects and avoid overpromising, (b) training is needed to help prepare youth to recognize, understand, and cope with various contextual factors that impact their livelihoods, and (c) NGOs and other private organizations that implement such programs are in a position to address certain contextual factors. By highlighting key debates relevant to the design of entrepreneurship training programs, this chapter contributes to the development of entrepreneurship training initiatives that are responsive to contextual realities, thereby increasing the potential effectiveness of entrepreneurship training as a poverty alleviation strategy.
This study presents an innovative approach to Information and communication technology (ICT) skill training and employment generation for out-of-school and disadvantaged…
This study presents an innovative approach to Information and communication technology (ICT) skill training and employment generation for out-of-school and disadvantaged youths in Africa. With technical and policy assistance from the World Bank, ICTs can be used to revitalize technical and vocational training to meet skill and employment needs of disadvantaged youths in the region. The deplorable conditions of out-of-school youth and the state of secondary education in Africa underscore the urgency to engage disadvantaged youth in productive economic activities. An ICT-enhanced technical and vocational training program in Africa provides both private and social gains: it provides economic prospects for disadvantaged youth and; it adds to the development of the knowledge economy in Africa. The NairoBits Digital Design School in Kenya is presented as a model of a vocational and training school that uses ICTs to improve skill formation among disadvantaged youths in informal settlements in urban Africa. Meeting the objectives of an ICT-based training and employment generation program for underprivileged youth in Africa require strong regulatory frameworks and contributions from the World Bank. The involvement of the bank, particularly through private sector grants for ICT skill train in Africa will help to revitalize technical and vocational education and training in the region. Above all, the collaboration of government agencies, private businesses, other international development agencies and civil society groups in ICT skill training will help to meaningfully engage African youths in the development of their communities in the emerging knowledge economy.
The purpose of this paper is to examine how the eThekwini Municipal Academy (EMA) conducts training needs assessments for vocational skills training for unemployed and…
The purpose of this paper is to examine how the eThekwini Municipal Academy (EMA) conducts training needs assessments for vocational skills training for unemployed and disadvantaged youths, KwaZulu-Natal province. By examining the process of training needs assessment (TNA), the focus was on determining how it might influence the success in employment outcomes of the graduates.
The researcher used mixed research methods of qualitative and quantitative approaches. The quantitative research method was a survey questionnaire. The survey questionnaire helped produce a detailed description of respondents' opinions and experiences. The qualitative method in the form of semi-structured interviews helped to present the data from the perspective of the training managers on the process of TNA and opportunities in accessing employment for the graduates. Purposive sampling was used to select 24 training centre managers and 512 trainees. The quantitative data were analysed using SPSS software, and data from interviews were analysed using thematic analysis.
The findings revealed that the most important aspect of the TNA process was that the EMA managers selected and design a training course after consulting and engaging the stakeholders who were also prospective employers to identify needs and job availability within the companies or government departments. The author concludes that the process of TNA involving all stakeholders helped to provide vocational training programmes, which were demand-driven. The process also might promote the best and most promising practices enhancing the transition from skills acquisition to skills utilisation in the labour market.
The results of the study have shown the three main factors that affect the TNA process, which are an individual or person analysis, consulting key stakeholders and labour market assessment. It is hoped that the results of the study can be used by training practitioners for better understanding of factors that can contribute to the effectiveness of vocational skills training for unemployed youth.
The paper is unique because it contributes to the knowledge by explaining the link between the effectiveness of vocational skills training and a proper TNA for unemployed youth. It also provides knowledge on key factors in conducting the TNA process by involving all stakeholders. Existing TNA research focuses on competency-based need analysis for employees of companies, organisations and institutions. Therefore, this paper is significant because it helps to understand the role of TNA in enhancing the effectiveness of vocational skills training for unemployed and disadvantaged youths.
The Youth Training programme (YT), formerly known as the YouthTraining Scheme, has been in existence for over 11 years. During thattime the objectives and content of the…
The Youth Training programme (YT), formerly known as the Youth Training Scheme, has been in existence for over 11 years. During that time the objectives and content of the programme have changed, and so too has the institutional framework within which the school‐to‐work transition takes place. Provides a detailed account of the historical development of the YT programme, and highlights a number of structural characteristics of the programme that raise implications for the econometric assessment of the programme′s impact on employment probabilities and wages. Presents a review and assessment of the UK literature on the econometric evaluation of YT. Concludes by raising a number of implications for future research.
High rates of youth unemployment, worldwide, have led governments to advocate a range of policies designed to increase job offers to young workers. For example, the…
High rates of youth unemployment, worldwide, have led governments to advocate a range of policies designed to increase job offers to young workers. For example, the Australian Government is currently introducing a system of “training wages” which will see effective youth wages set well below adult award wages for a designated training period. This policy is designed to simultaneously increase the human capital of young workers as well as help to overcome the initial barriers to entry into the labour market. However, youth‐specific wages have been criticized on the basis of age discrimination and on equity grounds. Also, some US data question the employment‐boosting potential of reduced minimum youth wages. In this paper recent international findings on the relationship between youth wages and employment are presented and compared with empirical tests of the relationship using labour market data for Australia as a whole as well as the State of Queensland. The results are used to examine the likely impact of the introduction of the training wage on the youth labour market in Australia and to provide further generalizations on the wider issue of employment and youth‐specific wages.
The purpose of this paper is to examine the difference in attaining and maintaining employment between transition age youth (ages 19–22) with emotional and behavioral…
The purpose of this paper is to examine the difference in attaining and maintaining employment between transition age youth (ages 19–22) with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBDs) completing and not completing vocational training.
A quantitative causal-comparative research design using existing data extracted from the National Longitudinal Transitional Study-2 (NLTS-2) via a restricted data use license issued by the National Center Special Education Research, Institution of Education Sciences, US Department of Education. One-way ANCOVA and multiple regression analysis with one independent variable and six control variables were used for the study.
The results showed there is a significant difference in employment status between transition age youth with EBDs completing vocational training as compared to non-completion of vocational training, controlling for gender, race, age, mental health services, academic achievement and prior work experience. Individuals who completed vocational training are more likely employed after two years, than those who had not completed vocational training.
The outcomes of the study showed that vocational training during the transitional period had a positive impact on outcomes such as employment status, participation in job skills programs and perceived preparedness for employment. These findings support the idea that vocational training during the secondary school period is an effective way to scaffold support for the transitional period. As a result, these findings justify the use of vocational training as part of the transitional preparation for students with emotional and behavioral disorders.
In Germany structural change and aggravated international competition have been accompanied by a declining willingness of enterprises to offer apprenticeships. Young…
In Germany structural change and aggravated international competition have been accompanied by a declining willingness of enterprises to offer apprenticeships. Young people with low levels of qualification increasingly end up in courses at vocational schools that offer few transitions to regular VET or the labour market. This paper aims to show how the German VET (vocational education and training) system turned from an inclusive scheme to a selective scheme regarding young people with low levels of qualifications from basic schooling.
The paper presents empirical results of an evaluation study on the background of the structural changes in German VET.
The empirical results show exemplarily the low connection between these courses and the apprenticeships in companies.
The results are exemplary for one type of course at vocational schools. The results cannot empirically illustrate causalities between the structure of German VET system and the diminishing possibilities of youth with low levels of qualification but secondary data presented in this paper support the assumption of an increasingly selective German VET system.
The article provides information about social selectivity in contemporary German VET.
The article not only recapitulates the current German discussions about structural problems and reforms concerning the VET‐system, but also draws conclusions from the German situation about possibilities of apprenticeship‐based pathways for youths with low levels of qualifications in other countries.
This paper raises the question whether or not a social and economic dimension exists (community and social involvement, career service intervention/assistance, employer…
This paper raises the question whether or not a social and economic dimension exists (community and social involvement, career service intervention/assistance, employer requirements, qualification building) within the Jobskills Training Programme in Northern Ireland. For many young school leavers it has undoubtedly assisted them in the transition from school to the world of work. In addition, many of the cohort study gained an accredited qualification for the first time. All of this, of course, has the aim of making them more employable within the labour market. However, with the local economy becoming stronger and skills shortages rising quickly we have to ask what real contribution does a training intervention like Jobskills really make. In order to determine the effectiveness and contribution to the local labour market, a comparison is made to the Danish vocational and education training model, which highlights significant fundamental differences. The paper concludes by demonstrating the key policy differences and thus presents a new vocational model for youth training in Northern Ireland.
Outlines the service provided by Opportunity Youth, a unique personal development and health and social awareness programme delivered to 16‐18‐year‐olds undergoing youth…
Outlines the service provided by Opportunity Youth, a unique personal development and health and social awareness programme delivered to 16‐18‐year‐olds undergoing youth training in four community workshops in North and West Belfast, Northern Ireland. Opportunity Youth employs peer educators alongside professional health workers to provide a formal programme on social skills, relationships, sex education and alcohol/drugs awareness in parallel with an informal counselling and advice service. It provides a universally accepted and user‐friendly service for marginalized youth, offering, in most circumstances, a “one‐stop‐shop” within the context of youth training. The model is a flexible one and could be transferred to any context, but particularly where young people provide a captive audience, for example in schools and colleges. Suggests that health education for young people, by young people, supported and facilitated by professionals with health promotion experience, provides a new direction in health education for young people.
This article aims to review UK policy to industrial training over the post‐war period and its relationships with employment generation is reviewed. The focus is on evaluating current training schemes, which have evolved throughout the 1980s via a series of significant Government White Papers on this subject. The economic theory debate over whether a monetarist supply‐side approach to tackling the unemployment problem is preferable to a traditional Keynesian demand‐side approach is addressed.