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Article
Publication date: 9 May 2016

Jörg Henseler, Christian M. Ringle and Marko Sarstedt

Research on international marketing usually involves comparing different groups of respondents. When using structural equation modeling (SEM), group comparisons can be…

Abstract

Purpose

Research on international marketing usually involves comparing different groups of respondents. When using structural equation modeling (SEM), group comparisons can be misleading unless researchers establish the invariance of their measures. While methods have been proposed to analyze measurement invariance in common factor models, research lacks an approach in respect of composite models. The purpose of this paper is to present a novel three-step procedure to analyze the measurement invariance of composite models (MICOM) when using variance-based SEM, such as partial least squares (PLS) path modeling.

Design/methodology/approach

A simulation study allows us to assess the suitability of the MICOM procedure to analyze the measurement invariance in PLS applications.

Findings

The MICOM procedure appropriately identifies no, partial, and full measurement invariance.

Research limitations/implications

The statistical power of the proposed tests requires further research, and researchers using the MICOM procedure should take potential type-II errors into account.

Originality/value

The research presents a novel procedure to assess the measurement invariance in the context of composite models. Researchers in international marketing and other disciplines need to conduct this kind of assessment before undertaking multigroup analyses. They can use MICOM procedure as a standard means to assess the measurement invariance.

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Article
Publication date: 17 September 2019

Hyo Jin Eom and Zhenqiu (Laura) Lu

Researchers have used the construct of consumers’ perceived value to examine the behavioral attitudes or outcomes from different shopping experiences. The purpose of this…

Abstract

Purpose

Researchers have used the construct of consumers’ perceived value to examine the behavioral attitudes or outcomes from different shopping experiences. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the equivalence of psychometric characteristics of consumers’ perceived value across groups of consumers to support the underlying assumption that the construct is universally equivalent across different shopping contexts.

Design/methodology/approach

Confirmatory factor analyses were performed to examine the measurement invariance of consumers’ perceived value in the different types of brand and retailer collaborations in a sample of 856 American consumers.

Findings

Based on the sequential tests, the results confirmed the consistent structure of the measurement instrument of consumers’ perceived value. In practical applications, although the invariance of monetary value could not be established at the metric level, the findings suggest that social value, convenient value and epistemic value were invariant across groups of consumers in the different shopping contexts.

Originality/value

This research may provide valuable insights into the measurement invariance of consumers’ perceived value, as well as suggestions for researchers before conducting substantive tests of theories with the construct.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 32 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 12 June 2019

Nina Michaelidou, Milena Micevski, Selma Kadic-Maglajlic, Tribikram Budhathoki and Siddhartha Sarkar

The current challenges international charities face with regards to their deteriorating image, as a result of recent scandals (e.g. Oxfam, Save the Children), provide the…

Abstract

Purpose

The current challenges international charities face with regards to their deteriorating image, as a result of recent scandals (e.g. Oxfam, Save the Children), provide the impetus for this exploratory research, where the purpose of this paper is to examine the conceptualization and dimensionality of non-profit brand image across national cultures.

Design/methodology/approach

The study employs a quantitative research design, using multi-country samples from India, Bosnia and Herzegovina and the UK. The authors first examine the psychometric properties of the non-profit brand image scale via confirmatory factor analysis across countries, identifying the optimal model for invariance testing. Further, the authors use multi-group invariance analysis to evaluate whether non-profit brand image (using an 18-item scale and six factors) provides equivalent measurement across cultures.

Findings

The study shows that individuals in the three countries perceive non-profit brand image equally, and as consisting of perceptions of usefulness, efficiency, affect, dynamism, reliability and ethicality. However, the results also indicate that the means of the dimensions of non-profit brand image are not comparable across different cultures.

Originality/value

The study extends limited current literature on non-profit brand image in international contexts, deriving insightful suggestions for further theoretical approaches in this under-developed research domain. It also yields key implications for charities and other non-profit organizations operating internationally, as they can use non-profit brand image and its dimensions as actionable tools in their communication campaigns to shape their brand image.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 36 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

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Article
Publication date: 11 May 2015

Marietjie Wepener and Christo Boshoff

The purpose of this study is to develop a valid and reliable instrument to measure the corporate reputation of large service organizations. The validity of a discipline’s…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to develop a valid and reliable instrument to measure the corporate reputation of large service organizations. The validity of a discipline’s constructs is a prerequisite for effective theory development and testing. Construct validity thus lies at the very heart of both decision-making and scientific progress in marketing. The use of marketing instruments that do not demonstrate sufficient evidence of construct validity can lead to invalid results, erroneous conclusions and poor decision-making. Despite several attempts to develop an instrument to measure the corporate reputation of service organizations effectively, lingering doubts remain about the construct validity of several published instruments.

Design/methodology/approach

Empirical data were collected from the clients of service organization using an online survey during three waves of data collection and scale purification. Invariance testing in two different service industries confirmed that the final instrument is completely invariant, suggesting that the measurement parameters of the measurement model are the same in both samples.

Findings

Rigorous scale development led to the development of a 19-item instrument that effectively measures a large service organization’s corporate reputation along five dimensions, namely, emotional appeal, corporate performance, social engagement, good employer and service points.

Research limitations/implications

The study was limited to the measurement of the corporate reputation of large service organizations.

Practical implications

Given the fact that corporate reputation has been described as “the ultimate determinant of competitiveness” by some executives, the outcome of this study is a proposal that large service organizations measure this intangible asset along five dimensions, namely, emotional appeal, corporate performance, social engagement, good employer and service points.

Originality/value

Despite several attempts to do so, a valid and reliable instrument to effectively measure the corporate reputation of service firms (particularly large ones) has remained elusive. After more than two decades after the first attempts at measurement, there are many who now call for improved methodologies and more valid instruments to measure corporate reputation, based on more rigorous theoretical and conceptual development. This study addresses a matter of concern for many managers and academics.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 29 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 13 November 2017

Jose Carlos M. Pinho and Douglas Thompson

Drawing insights from institutional theory, the purpose of this paper is to analyse the synergistic effects of a range of entrepreneurial framework conditions (EFCs) on…

Abstract

Purpose

Drawing insights from institutional theory, the purpose of this paper is to analyse the synergistic effects of a range of entrepreneurial framework conditions (EFCs) on the capacity to start a business within different types of economies.

Design/methodology/approach

This is a preliminary study that uses data from the National Expert Survey-Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (NES-GEM). Specifically, the data were gathered through the application of a questionnaire to National Entrepreneurship Experts in a cross-cultural context. Two countries – Portugal and Angola – are analysed.

Findings

Among the five structural relationships involving institutional drivers analysed, four are found to be statistically significant in the Portuguese sample. Three are found to be statistically significant in the Angolan sample. The results from the multigroup analysis did not support most of the proposed relationship between the two countries.

Research limitations/implications

This study is limited by the number and type of countries selected and by the fact that each sub-sample covers several years. It also relies on the perceptions of national experts on entrepreneurship covering several areas. Another limitation is based on the fact that this study emphasises mainly a macro perspective. Therefore, interpretation of these findings and their generalisation should be made with caution.

Originality/value

First, this study addresses an area of the GEM model that is believed to be under-researched (NES). Second, the model presented is based on latent variables and analysed through a variance-based method, PLS-structural equation modelling. Third, this study compares the proposed relationships between two sub-sample data sets that represent a factor-driven economy and an innovation-driven economy. Fourth, and most importantly, this study responds to the call for the need to use a new procedure for measurement invariance assessment for composite modelling.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 34 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 11 December 2018

Heesup Han, Kiattipoom Kiatkawsin and Wansoo Kim

The purpose of this paper is to examine the intricate associations among the performance of ambient atmospherics, emotional experiences, overall image and guest…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the intricate associations among the performance of ambient atmospherics, emotional experiences, overall image and guest satisfaction and test the influence of these relationships on loyalty intentions by considering the moderating impact of continuance commitment in the upscale hotel context.

Design/methodology/approach

A field survey was conducted to collect the data. A quantitative approach was used for data analysis. Structural equation modeling and a test for metric invariance were used to identify the impact of study variables.

Findings

The results of this paper indicated that the hypothesized relationships were in general significant, that the proposed theoretical framework satisfactorily predicted guests’ intentions to be loyal and that the role of satisfaction among study constructs was prominent. Findings from the test for metric invariance also showed that continuance commitment significantly affected the associations among emotional experiences, satisfaction and loyalty intentions. Moreover, emotional experiences, overall hotel image and guest satisfaction were found to play a significant mediating role in generating loyalty intentions.

Practical implications

The findings of this paper inform hotel practitioners of the clear role of atmospherics, emotional experiences, image, satisfaction and continuous commitment in building loyalty. In addition, these findings can help hotel practitioners and researchers invent thorough and strategic methods for loyalty enhancement.

Originality/value

The existing hotel literature has provided a limited view regarding the impact of these research variables. The present paper filled this research gap through the successfully development of a robust framework for hotel guest loyalty.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 31 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 17 July 2020

Zaimy Johana Johan, Mohd Zainee Hussain, Rohani Mohd and Badrul Hisham Kamaruddin

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioural control, religiosity, knowledge and Shariah-compliance…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioural control, religiosity, knowledge and Shariah-compliance with intention to hold Shariah-compliant credit card (SCCC) amongst Muslims and non-Muslims.

Design/methodology/approach

Researchers used survey questionnaire to collect data and applied a purposive sampling method, then analyzing the data using descriptive statistics and also multi-group analysis of SmartPLS.

Findings

For Muslims, attitude, subjective norm, Shariah-compliance, knowledge and religiosity are positively significant. While for non-Muslims, only attitude and subjective norm are positively significant to intention to hold SCCCs.

Research limitations/implications

The behavioural study only focusses on intention to hold Islamic credit cards, which is constraining the extended model of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) without the actual performance of the behaviour, which is holding SCCCs. Secondly, the research caters for a single method, namely, quantitative without including the qualitative method to better understand and explore other factors affecting consumers’ behavioural intention. The qualitative part can be carried out by conducting interviews with practitioners, regulators and customers. Thirdly, the cultural dimensions are not combined as parts of TPBs’ antecedents for extended model that could be affecting intention, as Malaysia has diverse ethnic groups with different religious background.

Practical implications

In terms of managerial implications, the findings will further assist financial service providers to develop more effective marketing strategies for Islamic financial products not just to cater for the Muslims but also the non-Muslims, who are increasingly attracted to Islamic banking. As many Muslims are still holding conventional credit cards, it is timely for the Islamic financial institutions to attract them with the SCCCs.

Social implications

Financial marketers are expected to be qualified and well-versed on the different Islamic product structures and also the conventional products. By having such enables them to enlighten and create awareness amongst the targeted consumers in seeking Shariah-compliant financial-related products.

Originality/value

The research will contribute to new theoretical knowledge of an extended behavioural model in relation to customers’ perception towards SCCCs’ acceptance.

Details

Journal of Islamic Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0833

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Applying Partial Least Squares in Tourism and Hospitality Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-700-9

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Article
Publication date: 4 June 2021

Shinaj Valangattil Shamsudheen and Ziyaad Mahomed

This study aims to examine the burdening effect of Shariah knowledge on the sales performance of the salesforce at Islamic financial institutions (IFIs) with special…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the burdening effect of Shariah knowledge on the sales performance of the salesforce at Islamic financial institutions (IFIs) with special reference to addressing the heterogeneous effects of work experience.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 335 samples were collected from the sales professionals of IFIs in Malaysia using a purposive sampling technique and the empirical analysis was conducted with the measures of model fit and bootstrapping technique using partial least square structural equation modeling and multi-group analysis.

Findings

Empirical results indicate that the burdening effect of Shariah knowledge is evident among salesforce and the magnitude of the impact remains consistent across the groups of salesforces with different levels of work experience.

Practical implications

Findings suggest respective authorities of IFIs intensify capacity building for their salesforce particularly in the area of Shariah knowledge and nature of underlying Islamic contracts used in the financial products. An insignificant heterogeneous effect of work experience suggests respective authorities that the actions and policy formulations are equally important among the entire salesforce regardless of the number of years of job tenure each salesforce holds.

Originality/value

As customer awareness and knowledge may be influenced by the information transferred via the IFI employees (especially salesforce in IFIs), any information overload (i.e. additional requirement of Shariah knowledge/features) on the IFI employees may, therefore, negatively influence customer patronage and reduce IFI market share. However, the increased information expectation (i.e. Shariah knowledge/features) on IFI employees and its impact on market share along with the heterogeneous effect of work experience has not been documented before. If a burdening effect of Shariah knowledge is identified, this may be a formidable reason for the slowing growth of Islamic finance.

Details

International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8394

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 3 September 2020

Adriel K.S. Sim, Kim-Lim Tan, Joseph Kee-Ming Sia and Ivy S.H. Hii

In the last decade, female students' enrolment in higher education has experienced significant growth. However, male and female students still differ in criteria set of…

Abstract

Purpose

In the last decade, female students' enrolment in higher education has experienced significant growth. However, male and female students still differ in criteria set of choosing higher education institutions. While several studies have been disentangled in developed countries in analyzing gender differences in pursuing higher education, a similar area of studies conducted in developing countries is scarce. The purpose of this study is to examine gender differences and the factors that influence first-year students' choice of higher education in a developing country.

Design/methodology/approach

The study involved 575 students who were either enrolled in an undergraduate or foundation program of an international branch campus. We tested the hypotheses using partial least squares multigroup analysis (PLS-MGA).

Findings

Our results revealed that graduate employability, information sources, program characteristics, institution characteristics and campus safety were influential factors affecting the students' institutional choice. The MGA results also indicated that gender differences exist in selecting higher education institutions. Male students are more strongly influenced by information sources such as family, friends, media compared with female students.

Originality/value

Very few international branch campus choice studies explore gender differences in developing countries. This study enriches the current literature of institutional choice through the lens of an Asian developing country and extends the discourse regarding the role of gender in influencing students' institutional choice, of which they are commonly overlooked in most literature. The study has significant implications for student recruitment managers in higher education institution to develop marketing strategies targeting to potential male and female students.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 35 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

Keywords

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