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Article
Publication date: 14 October 2013

Hassan Gholipour Fereidouni, Youhanna Najdi and Reza Ekhtiari Amiri

Unhappiness has been recognized as one of the main factors that cause political unrest in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region in recent years. The purpose of…

Abstract

Purpose

Unhappiness has been recognized as one of the main factors that cause political unrest in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region in recent years. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of governance matters on happiness in the MENA region while controlling for other relevant determinants.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper applies panel random effects regression analyses by using data from 14 MENA countries over the period of 2009-2011.

Findings

The empirical results show that higher level of political stability and absence of violence, government effectiveness and rule of law significantly increase happiness in the region. Furthermore, the paper finds that voice and accountability, regulatory quality and control of corruption variables have positive relationship with happiness but are not significant.

Originality/value

Most studies in this area cover developed countries. Since findings for developed countries might not be directly transferable to emerging economies such as MENA countries, therefore, more work is necessary to obtain a clearer picture of the political determinants of happiness in this region.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 40 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article
Publication date: 11 May 2015

James Po-Hsun Hsiao, Chyi Jaw, Tzung-Cheng (T.C.) Huan and Arch G. Woodside

This paper aims to advance a configural asymmetric theory of the complex antecedents to hospitality employee happiness-at-work and managers’ assessments of employees 

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to advance a configural asymmetric theory of the complex antecedents to hospitality employee happiness-at-work and managers’ assessments of employees’ quality of work performance. The study transcends variable and case-level analyses to go beyond prior statistical findings of small-to-medium effect sizes of happiness–performance relationships; the study here identifies antecedent paths involving high-versus-low happy employees associating with high-versus-low managers’ assessments of these employees’ performances.

Design/methodology/approach

The study merges data from surveys of employees (n = 247) and surveys completed by their managers (n = 43) and by using qualitative comparative analysis via the software program, fsQCA.com. The study analyzes data from Janfusan Fancyworld, the largest (in revenues and number of employees) tourism business group in Taiwan; Janfusan Fancyworld includes tourist hotels, amusement parks, restaurants and additional firms in related service sectors.

Findings

The findings support the four tenets of configural analysis and theory construction: recognize equifinality of different solutions for the same outcome, test for asymmetric solutions, test for causal asymmetric outcomes for very high versus very low happiness and work performance and embrace complexity.

Research limitations/implications

Additional research in other firms and additional countries is necessary to confirm the usefulness of examining algorithms for predicting very high (low) happiness and very high (low) quality of work performance. The implications are substantial that configural theory and research will resolve perplexing happiness–performance conundrums.

Practical implications

The study provides useful case-level algorithms involving employees’ demographic characteristics and their assessments of work facet-specifics which are useful for explaining very high happiness-at-work and high quality of work performance (as assessed by managers) – as well as algorithms explaining very low happiness and very low quality of work performance.

Originality/value

The study is the first to propose and test the tenets of configural theory in the context of hospitality frontline service employees’ happiness-at-work and managers’ assessments of these employees’ quality of work performances.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 27 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Article
Publication date: 5 March 2018

Shivam Rai and Jogendra Kumar Nayak

The purpose of this paper is to test the applicability of brand personality theory in the perspective of trade show events, and the influence of trade show event…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to test the applicability of brand personality theory in the perspective of trade show events, and the influence of trade show event personality on exhibitor’s eudaimonic and hedonic happiness and advocacy intentions.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 210 exhibitors (n=210) of three trade exhibitions, organized at Delhi, India participated in the study. A face to face survey method was used to collect the data.

Findings

The results of the study provide sustenance for the event personality and exhibitor’s eudaimonic and hedonic happiness model. The event personality factors significantly affected the meaningful and subjective happiness of exhibitor. Happiness was identified as a key influencer for advocacy intentions. Hedonic and eudaimonic facets of happiness had positive effects on exhibitor’s intention to participate, and word of mouth intention.

Practical implications

The current study provides event marketer a tool for measuring event personality. Event personality is vital to build the event equity and to position the event in the market to gain a competitive advantage over the other events. Happiness as a construct is being studied in various social science studies. This study has attempted to establish a relationship among exhibitor happiness, event personality, and advocacy intentions.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the management literature in two ways: first, Eudaimonic and hedonic happiness constructs have never been explored in the brand personality context. Thus, this research adds a new value to the brand personality literature. And second, the brand personality construct is used for the first time in trade show event context that will open a new domain in brand personality, and event research.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 18 May 2021

Wasseem Waguih Alexan Rizkallah

The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between fiscal policy (tax revenues and government expenditure) and economic happiness. The panel data are…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between fiscal policy (tax revenues and government expenditure) and economic happiness. The panel data are used from 2012 to 2016 for 18 countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region.

Design/methodology/approach

The study adopted the Barro (1990) model of endogeneity growth to characterize the relationship between fiscal policy and economic happiness. The study estimated the model by using the pooled ordinary least squares method, the fixed effects method and the random-effects method. In addition, the study used the dynamic estimate of this relationship rather than the conventional static estimate through the generalized method of moments’ method. This leads to overcoming the endogeneity problem between the dependent variable and the independent variables.

Findings

The main findings indicated that there is a negative and statistically significant relationship between nondistortionary taxes and economic happiness. Also, there is no relationship between public expenditure and economic happiness, whether productive or nonproductive. The results confirmed a positive and significant relationship between other revenues and economic happiness. The current study recommended the diversification of other public revenue sources to increase its contribution to public expenditure financing and the restructuring of the tax system, particularly nondistortionary taxes. These taxes must be replaced by other revenues or by distortionary taxes to increase economic happiness.

Research limitations/implications

The research represents a strong starting base that can help researchers to conduct more studies on economic happiness by using different measures and comparing their results to find out the determinants of happiness. The relationship between economic happiness and fiscal policy with its different aspects requires more studies, especially the relationship between taxes and economic happiness in our region. The study of the relationship between public expenditure and economic happiness according to economic activities can guide decision-makers to direct the expenditure toward economic activities that achieve the happiness of their citizens. Enriching this study requires the availability of fiscal data for the entire MENA region for longer periods, which allow us to divide the countries of the region into petroleum and nonpetroleum countries, but the scarcity of data is one of the limitations of the study.

Practical implications

The governments of MENA countries should diversify other public revenue sources to increase the financing public expenditure by the expense of tax revenues, especially nondistortionary taxes, which would increase the economic happiness of their citizens.

Originality/value

This study is one of the rare studies that investigate the relationship between fiscal policy and economic happiness at the global level. This study contributed to filling the gap of this issue in the MENA region and enriching global literature through the experience of the MENA region. Moreover, this study investigated all aspects of fiscal policy, in contrast to other studies that focused on one of its aspects. The weakness in these studies is because of the lack of correlation between the sources of revenues and the face of their spending.

Details

Review of Economics and Political Science, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2356-9980

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Article
Publication date: 11 December 2019

Wilson Bastos

This paper aims to examine how conversing about experiences and objects affects consumer happiness. In contrast to previous research focusing on conversation frequency…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine how conversing about experiences and objects affects consumer happiness. In contrast to previous research focusing on conversation frequency, this paper explores how each conversation instance influences happiness.

Design/methodology/approach

Four experiments use three different methodologies, namely, actual talking behavior (Study 1), recalled and mental framing interventions and measurement of the focal variables (Studies 2 and 3) and manipulation of purchase conversationality (Study 4).

Findings

Consumers derive equivalent levels of happiness from each material or experiential conversation they have. When the object is highly conversational (when it generates as much conversation as experiences do), it advances as much happiness as experiences.

Research limitations/implications

The findings inform precisely how the purchase conversationality model unfolds; clarify previous claims made in the literature; establish the direction of causal effect; and reveal a novel boundary condition of happiness superiority of experiences.

Practical implications

The findings inform marketing managers how to optimally allocate their world-of-mouth (WOM) resources to advance consumer happiness. Additionally, this work shows a mental framing strategy able to increase WOM for objects – i.e. a tool for the manager.

Originality/value

This is the first investigation to disentangle the frequency of conversation from each conversation’s ability to advance happiness. It is also the first to engage participants in an actual conversation and measure changes in their happiness, and therefore, conclusively establish the direction of the effect. Additionally, by manipulating purchase conversationality, this work demonstrates a new boundary condition associated with conversationality.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 54 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Book part
Publication date: 27 December 2016

Chyi Jaw, James Po-Hsun Hsiao, Tzung-Cheng (T. C.) Huan and Arch G. Woodside

This chapter describes and tests the principles of configural theory in the context of hospitality frontline service employees’ happiness-at-work and managers’ assessments…

Abstract

ABSTRACT

This chapter describes and tests the principles of configural theory in the context of hospitality frontline service employees’ happiness-at-work and managers’ assessments of these employees’ quality of work performances. The study proposes and tests empirically a configural asymmetric theory of the antecedents to hospitality employee happiness-at-work and managers’ assessments of employees’ quality of work performance. The findings confirm and go beyond prior statistical findings of small-to-medium effect sizes of happiness-performance relationships. The method includes matching cases of data from surveys of employees (n = 247) and surveys completed by their managers (n = 43) and uses qualitative comparative analysis via the software program fsQCA.com. The findings support the four principles of configural analysis and theory construction: recognize equifinality of different solutions for the same outcome; test for asymmetric solutions; test for causal asymmetric outcomes for very high versus very low happiness and work performance; and embrace complexity. The theory and findings confirm that configural theory and research resolves perplexing happiness–performance conundrums. The study provides algorithms involving employees’ demographic characteristics and their assessments of work facet-specifics which are useful for explaining very high happiness-at-work and high quality-of-work performance (as assessed by managers) – as well as algorithms explaining very low happiness and very low quality-of-work performance.

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Article
Publication date: 27 November 2019

Mansi Rastogi

With intention to promote growth of happiness literature in non-western settings and facilitate positive interventions at workplace, the purpose of this paper is to…

Abstract

Purpose

With intention to promote growth of happiness literature in non-western settings and facilitate positive interventions at workplace, the purpose of this paper is to examine the psychometric properties and validate the short version of happiness at workplace (S-HAW) scale using knowledge workers’ sample in the Indian context.

Design/methodology/approach

The S-HAW scale was validated using data from 226 Indian knowledge workers from public and private sector organisations. The mixed-mode approach was used for collecting data, whereas factor structures, reliability and validity scores were also examined with the help of SPSS AMOS 21. The study included initial descriptive analysis, item analysis, exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis.

Findings

The results of the study discovered that psychometric properties of the S-HAW scale were similar to those of originally developed scale when applied in the Indian context. Hence, the higher-order structure was retained in Indian settings.

Originality/value

Despite the changes in work-related values and societal structures between Western and Asian nations, this study provides a significant contribution to empirically confirming that the different cultural scales can also show good fits in Collectivist cultures. The study can bridge the gap between Asian and Western nations with the uniform measure of HAW. Thus, more cross-cultural studies usually comparative in nature welcomed with S-HAW Indian version scale for knowledge workers.

Details

Industrial and Commercial Training, vol. 52 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0019-7858

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 26 July 2021

Biagio F. Giannetti, Luis Velazquez, Krystal M. Perkins, Marisela Trillas-Ortiz, Carlos Anaya-Eredias, Feni Agostinho, Cecilia M.V.B. Almeida, Marcos Jose Alves Pinto and Nora Munguia

Students play an unequivocal role in sustainable universities as they are theorized to embody the mission of a sustainable university through a sustainable lifestyle and…

Abstract

Purpose

Students play an unequivocal role in sustainable universities as they are theorized to embody the mission of a sustainable university through a sustainable lifestyle and spread sustainability practices during their professional careers. Despite this, it is not well known how or why students come to embody a sustainable lifestyle. This study aims to better understand the relationship between happiness, academic achievement and sustainability behaviors among the student population in a Mexican higher education institution.

Design/methodology/approach

In a questionnaire study, engineering and psychology university students at a large public university in northwestern Mexico answered questions regarding their environmental sustainability behaviors, happiness and academic performance. A stratified random sampling technique was used to obtain the sample population that best represents the entire population. After chi-square tests, it was confirmed that the three variables were independent of one another. Therefore, a series of correspondence analyses were conducted to examine clusters or patterns that could indicate relationships among the three variables.

Findings

The main finding from this work was that the happiest and most academically astute participants were only slightly environmentally sustainable or not sustainable at all. The lack of environmental sustainability in students from one of the most top-rank sustainable universities in Mexico does not align with previous sustainability reports. External factors to the university, such as cultural values and extreme weather conditions, may have influenced students’ sustainability behaviors.

Research limitations/implications

As with any other questionnaire study, the provided data is subject to interpretation, judgment and bias. In addition, the environmental and happiness index used in this study are not free of criticizing, and some author had disputed its efficacy. Finally, this study’s findings did not determine any causality or directionality between any of the latent variables. However, causality and directionally between environmental sustainability-happiness and happiness-academic performance have to be found in both directions.

Practical implications

Despite the unsustainability of students in this study, this study has several contributions. First, it provides an evaluation of a sustainable university from the perspectives and behaviors of students. The views of students as they relate to the complexities and visions of a sustainable university have remained relatively underexamined. Second, these analyses point to specific sustainability-oriented challenges and inadvertent barriers (e.g. extreme weather patterns) toward the embodiment of a sustainable lifestyle. These challenges and barriers suggest that sustainable universities need to address the dynamic changes inherent in sustainable development. Finally, this study indicates that the link between happiness, academic performance and sustainability may be more complicated and driven by cultural and structural barriers. The issue of barriers, as they relate to sustainability behaviors, is highly relevant and presents important opportunities and questions for future research.

Originality/value

This study provides an evaluation of a sustainable university from the perspectives and behaviors of students. Students’ views as they relate to the complexities and visions of a sustainable university have remained relatively underexamined. Second, these analyses point to specific sustainability-oriented challenges and barriers as they relate to the embodiment of a sustainable lifestyle. These challenges and barriers suggest that sustainable universities need to address the dynamic changes inherent in sustainable development. Finally, this study indicates that the link between happiness, academic performance and sustainability may be more complicated and driven by cultural and structural barriers.

Details

International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1467-6370

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Article
Publication date: 16 June 2021

Pankaj Kumar, Parveen Kumar, Ramesh Kumar Garg and Rakesh Garg

This study examines the effect of housing environment on residents’ satisfaction and happiness using the data collected from selected residents of Gurugram, an urban…

Abstract

Purpose

This study examines the effect of housing environment on residents’ satisfaction and happiness using the data collected from selected residents of Gurugram, an urban locality in India.

Design/methodology/approach

Using the convenience-cum-judgmental sampling technique, data was collected from 321 residents of 17 gated private housing estates and tested by performing factor analysis and partial least squares – structural equation modeling.

Findings

The results revealed that maintenance service at housing estates significantly influences residents’ satisfaction followed by social infrastructure, dwelling attributes and residential amenities, whereas the accessibility aspect has no significant impact on residents’ satisfaction and happiness. Results also show a significant impact of social infrastructure on residents’ happiness, and most notably, residents’ satisfaction has a significant influence on their happiness.

Research limitations/implications

The findings of this study are likely to provide valuable insight into housing stakeholders (government officials; real estate developers; property and construction professionals, i.e. planners, architects and maintenance managers) to improve the attributes in urban housing setting and neighborhood facilities to upsurge the residents’ satisfaction and happiness level toward the housing estates and townships, which leads to quality and happiness in residents’ life.

Originality/value

According to the authors’ knowledge, the present study is the first to provide an inclusive way toward showcasing the key antecedents of residents’ satisfaction and happiness in the Indian urban housing context. Authors anticipate that future researchers will find present research as a valuable contribution to the residents’ satisfaction and happiness in urban housing planning and revitalization of urban locations.

Details

Open House International, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0168-2601

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Article
Publication date: 18 November 2019

Magnus Soderlund and Hanna Berg

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of happiness expressed by service firm employees when they are depicted in marketing communications materials, such as…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of happiness expressed by service firm employees when they are depicted in marketing communications materials, such as printed ads and videos.

Design/methodology/approach

Two experiments were conducted in a fitness service setting, in which employee display of happiness was manipulated (low vs high).

Findings

Both experiments showed that expressions of high levels of happiness produced a more positive attitude toward the service employee than expressions of low levels of happiness. Moreover, the impact of the expression of happiness on the evaluation of the employee was mediated by several variables, which suggests that the influence of depicted employees’ emotional expressions can take several routes.

Practical implications

The results imply that service firms should not only be mindful about which specific employee they select for appearing in marketing communications materials, they should also pay attention to the emotional displays of selected employees.

Originality/value

The present study contributes to previous research by assessing a set of potential mediators to explain why displays of happiness influence consumers, and by examining these effects in a marketing communications setting in which the customer is exposed to still images or video-based representations of the employee. The present study also focuses explicitly on happiness rather than on smiles.

Details

Journal of Service Management, vol. 31 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-5818

Keywords

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