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Article
Publication date: 29 March 2013

Ram Herstein and Ron Berger

City branding has become a very popular activity all over the globe. In this paper the authors aim to show the importance of sports events in city re‐branding strategies

Abstract

Purpose

City branding has become a very popular activity all over the globe. In this paper the authors aim to show the importance of sports events in city re‐branding strategies, and how businesses take advantage of such opportunities to increase their incomes.

Design/methodology/approach

A new framework is presented that is based on four different alternatives for city re‐branding strategies based on sport events. These four re‐branding strategies are derived from two main dimensions: the locus of the sports event (local vs international) and the longevity of the sports event (one‐off vs continual).

Findings

Prospective hosts of mega or international sports events must ensure that people all over the world see their city as a leisure, tourism and consumption center and not just a sports arena. Conversely, when hosting medium or minor sports events, planners must aim for these sport events to increase residents' civic pride.

Practical implications

This conceptual paper demonstrates how city planners and decision makers can leverage their city image and its business sector's potential to earn from this event directly and indirectly, based on the aforesaid four re‐branding strategies: Mega sports events, International sports events, Medium sport events, and Minor sport events.

Originality/value

This article deals with four types of sports event strategies at the same time, whereas other investigations tend to deal with only a single type.

Details

Journal of Business Strategy, vol. 34 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0275-6668

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Article
Publication date: 16 October 2007

Danny O'Brien and Laurence Chalip

Some sport event stakeholders now look beyond “impact” to achieving longer‐term, sustainable outcomes. This move away from an ex post, outcomes orientation towards an ex

Abstract

Purpose

Some sport event stakeholders now look beyond “impact” to achieving longer‐term, sustainable outcomes. This move away from an ex post, outcomes orientation towards an ex ante, strategic approach refers to the phenomenon of event leveraging. This paper aims to introduce readers to the concept, and poses practical exercises to challenge current thinking on sport event impacts.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper provides an introduction to the literature on the strategic leveraging of sport events and presents three theoretical models depicting various aspects of event leverage. The paper includes training exercises on the subject of sport event leverage along with possible answers.

Findings

Building on prior work, this paper proposes a new model for social leverage. The model and the related discussion highlight potential synergies between economic and social leverage.

Research limitations/implications

As the proposed model for social leverage is essentially exploratory, it remains empirically untested. This represents an obvious challenge for further research.

Practical implications

This paper recognizes that, particularly in the last decade, a paradigm shift has taken place in parts of the international events community, and provides a challenge and potential direction for event practitioners to continue the path towards achieving the triple bottom line of economic, social and environmental benefits for host communities.

Originality/value

The social leverage model breaks new ground in the (sport) events field, as does the push towards sustainability and a more triple bottom line approach to event outcomes.

Details

International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, vol. 1 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6182

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Article
Publication date: 11 May 2010

Kirstin Hallmann and Christoph Breuer

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of image congruence between sport events and their hosts as perceived by sport tourists on future visits to the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of image congruence between sport events and their hosts as perceived by sport tourists on future visits to the destination, respectively the sport event.

Design/methodology/approach

In order to measure image congruence an indirect, multi‐attributive measure was chosen – using a self‐administered questionnaire distributed to sport tourists at six different sport events in Germany – so as to be able to investigate the two images first separately and second to construct an independent fit measure using the absolute differences of corresponding items. Logistic regression analyses evaluated dependencies between image congruence, location components and socio‐demographic aspects on behavioural intentions.

Findings

The results show that the overall models are significant and that certain elements such as the affinity of atmosphere do play a central role in predicting future visits.

Research limitations/implications

A research limitation could arise due to the sample because almost all sport tourists were German. A more international sample might have shown different results. Future research should analyse samples of different sports concluding whether the sport performed influences behaviour, too.

Practical implications

Some practical implications with respect to the kind of appeal towards sport tourists are given.

Originality/value

This paper shows that not only separated images affect future behaviour but that the perceived fit between two actually distinct images influences behaviour as well.

Details

Tourism Review, vol. 65 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1660-5373

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Article
Publication date: 5 May 2021

Yunduk Jeong and Sukkyu Kim

Mega-sporting events reportedly can offer many tangible and intangible benefits to the host country and regions, such as job creation, image improvement, local pride…

Abstract

Purpose

Mega-sporting events reportedly can offer many tangible and intangible benefits to the host country and regions, such as job creation, image improvement, local pride enhancement, social overhead capital investment and tourism business development. However, a paucity of studies in the literature have developed integrative models or have explored domestic tourist behavior in a general, or the sports tourism, context. To address this gap, the present study investigates the relationships between event quality, personal involvement, destination image and destination loyalty in the context of event sports tourism in order to provide sporting destination managers with valuable information for sustainable sports tourism development.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors collected information from 365 domestic tourists who attended the 100th National Sports Festival held in Seoul, South Korea, in 2019. Construct validity of the measurement scale was verified by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), factor loadings, average variance (AVE) extracted and construct reliability (CR). Reliability of the measurement scale was verified by Cronbach's alpha analysis. The authors utilized structural equation modeling (SEM) with maximum likelihood estimation to analyze the predicted relationships.

Findings

The findings display the positive impacts of (1) event quality on destination image, (2) personal involvement on destination image, (3) personal involvement on destination loyalty and (4) destination image on destination loyalty. The findings indicate the key roles for event quality and personal involvement in improving destination image and the important roles of personal involvement and destination image in building destination loyalty.

Originality/value

The present study (1) contributes to the recent debate in the sports tourism literature over the relationship between the destination image and destination loyalty and (2) shows that there is no mediating role of the destination image on the relationship between the event quality and destination loyalty, and personal involvement and destination loyalty.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

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Book part
Publication date: 17 July 2014

Michael Atkinson and Amanda De Lisio

While discourse abounds regarding the potential impacts of sports mega events on host cities, existing ideologies about, strategies for, and systematic examinations of…

Abstract

Purpose

While discourse abounds regarding the potential impacts of sports mega events on host cities, existing ideologies about, strategies for, and systematic examinations of “legacy” effects are poorly understood. This chapter presents a sociological examination of the sport mega-event legacy measurement process.

Design/methodology/approach

In this chapter, we reflect on our own involvement in legacy evaluation in the context of the 2015 Pan/Parapan Am Games in Toronto to examine existing legacy measurement strategies, review their findings, and present a theoretical detour via the past for consideration in future sociological contributions to the legacy measurement process.

Findings

Data discussed in this chapter suggest a need for the creation of a more sociologically informed, methodologically robust and piecemeal rather than Utopian-oriented “report card” measurement device for legacy evaluation.

Practical implications

Based on the review of evidence, we contend that if sociologists of sport remain committed to keeping their roles, as public intellectuals, applied researchers or participatory activists in the sport for development/legacy nexus, those involved might do so with a greater attention to focusing on what Karl Popper (1961) refers to as piecemeal social engineering strategies and measurements, and attending to those legacies both on and off the event organizing committee radar screen.

Details

Sport, Social Development and Peace
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-885-3

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Book part
Publication date: 7 December 2017

Joon-ho Kang

Abstract

Details

Sport Business in Leading Economies
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-564-3

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Book part
Publication date: 28 December 2016

Chris A. Vassiliadis and Anestis Fotiadis

This chapter aims to present and analyze how the methodology/approach of service blueprinting may contribute to managing and offering high quality experiences to sport tourists.

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter aims to present and analyze how the methodology/approach of service blueprinting may contribute to managing and offering high quality experiences to sport tourists.

Methodology/approach

In this study we use a combination of theoretical tools to develop a finalized services blueprint map for sport events. The method consists of a literature review and a presentation of empirical findings. First, using a case study, we present the process through which a small-scale sport event blueprint map was constructed. Secondly, based on a meeting with the management staff and the use of diaries, we analyze the comments of tourists in the sport event area. Thirdly, we compare and describe the main contact points between the front-line staff and sport event tourists in a service blueprint. Finally we apply the six dimensional construct domain analysis of service experiences and combine this information in a table format for the Failure, Effect, and Action analysis.

Findings

This study shows that observation, diaries, service blueprints, comment management, and FMEA (Failure Mode and Effects Analysis) are a range of corporate research approaches and management tools that can offer new insights into the theory and praxis of service management applications and can improve the experiences of sports tourists.

Research limitations/implications

This study is related to sport rural events. Researchers have to check with the same method to study the results also in other sport events.

Practical implications

The analysis of Small-Scale Sport Event Services Blueprinting can be combined with other useful managerial tools, like the Failure Mode and Effects Analysis to better manage the contact points, the “moments of truth” of tourist experiences in the sport event service system. In addition, the SMF case study shows that it is useful to point out the problematic areas in the service system using combined methods and managerial tools with the aim of enhancing and contributing to better manage sport tourism event experiences.

Originality/value

It presents the new idea of combining theoretical constructs and measurement tools in order to blueprint, analyze, and create service customer experiences.

Details

The Handbook of Managing and Marketing Tourism Experiences
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-289-7

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Article
Publication date: 24 December 2020

Pauline Zeiler and Richard Shipway

This paper explores perspectives of elite female athletes competing at world championship sports events, hosted in extreme climatic conditions. From the athlete…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper explores perspectives of elite female athletes competing at world championship sports events, hosted in extreme climatic conditions. From the athlete perspective, it examines the implications of decisions by global sports federations when selecting host cities and the subsequent impacts upon elite athletes competing in unfavourable climates.

Design/methodology/approach

Using an exploratory case study approach at the 2019 IAAF World Athletics Championships in Doha, Qatar, this paper explores insider perspectives of four elite female participants competing in the Marathon. Adopting the “elite interviewing” technique, and based on event participant experiences, the paper prioritises the perspective and “voice” of the athlete.

Findings

Four key themes emerged from the data. These were (1) the importance of training and preparation; (2) unique challenges of competition day; (3) elite athlete retrospection; and (4) prioritising the perspectives of elite athletes at international sports events. The findings highlight the challenges of managing athlete preparation and performance at world championship events hosted in extreme climatic conditions.

Research limitations/implications

The sample size for this study whilst relatively small is unique. This reflects challenges accessing elite athletes, their reluctance to be interviewed, and the small pool of elite athlete talent available. Given these practical barriers, this represents a good sample size.

Originality/value

This paper secures unique insider access to elite level female endurance athletes competing at world championship events. The study makes a contribution to knowledge in event studies by introducing concepts of “elite event interviewing” and the “athlete-event paradox”.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

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Article
Publication date: 25 June 2020

David Parra-Camacho, Rómulo Jacobo González-García and Manuel Alonso-Dos-Santos

To examine the social impact of a small-scale sporting event and its influence on the willingness to support future events.

Abstract

Purpose

To examine the social impact of a small-scale sporting event and its influence on the willingness to support future events.

Design/methodology/approach

A self-supplied questionnaire was used with 248 residents-sportspeople that participated in the Valencia Triathlon. Descriptive analysis, exploratory and confirmatory factorials were done through SPSS, FACTOR and EQS.

Findings

Three dimensions of positive impacts were identified; sporting participation and city image, social development and human capital and economic development. The impacts in sporting participation and in the improvement to the image of the city contribute to positively explaining the willingness to support the holding of sporting events. Local sportspeople highlight their participative component and the projection of the city image as key factors to endorse holding future sporting events as a strategy for tourism.

Research limitations/implications

The convenience sampling limits the extrapolation of the results.

Practical implications

Making the most of the intangible aspects is recommended due to the great potential these events have to generate social capital and increase the networks of social collaboration. Give a more active role to volunteers and local organizers in an organization. Transmit the pride of the community and the sense of belonging to this community to the media and advertising communication.

Social implications

Small scale sporting events can contribute to improving the quality of life, increasing pride, the sense of belonging of the residents, opportunities for entertainment and encouraging local participation.

Originality/value

A contribution to the empirical analysis of the social impact of small-scale sporting events from the perspective of local participants.

Details

Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-678X

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Article
Publication date: 10 August 2020

Yinghui Zhang, Euisoo Kim and Zunming Xing

Image congruence is one central metrics that significantly influences image transfer. Nevertheless, studies on impact of image congruence on consumers' attitudinal and…

Abstract

Purpose

Image congruence is one central metrics that significantly influences image transfer. Nevertheless, studies on impact of image congruence on consumers' attitudinal and behavioral components in the context of sport tourism remain few. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the relationship among image congruence between sport event and host city, spectators' attitude toward the event and city and their intention to revisit and recommend the event and city. A mediating role of attitude in the relationship between image congruence and behavioral intention was also examined.

Design/methodology/approach

The study selected non-local spectators of the F1 Chinese Grand Prix and Shanghai ATP Masters 1000 as the participants. A total of 491 valid questionnaires were obtained from the survey of two events, including 222 from F1 Chinese Grand Prix and 269 from Shanghai ATP Masters 1000. Among respondents, 360 were Chinese spectators from other regions (73.3%) and 131 were international spectators (26.7%). The data were analyzed via descriptive statistics, correlations, factor analysis, exploratory factor analysis (EFA), confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), hierarchical regression analysis and ANOVA.

Findings

The results showed that image congruence between sports event and host city had a positive impact on spectators' attitude toward and intention to recommend the city; but it had no significant impact on attitude toward event, intention to revisit and recommend the event and intention to revisit the city. Attitude toward event had a positive impact on intention to revisit and recommend the event, and attitude toward host city had a positive impact on intention to revisit and recommend the city. In addition, attitude toward host city fully mediated the relationship between image congruence and intention to recommend the city.

Originality/value

The current study provides a meaningful contribution to the existing literature by examining the impact of image congruence on spectators' attitudinal and behavioral components in the context of sport tourism.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 22 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

Keywords

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