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Book part
Publication date: 28 September 2015

Arief Rahman

Citizens are substantial stakeholders in every e-government system, thus their willingness to use and ability to access the system are critical. Unequal access and…

Abstract

Citizens are substantial stakeholders in every e-government system, thus their willingness to use and ability to access the system are critical. Unequal access and information and communication technology usage, which is known as digital divide, however has been identified as one of the major obstacles to the implementation of e-government system. As digital divide inhibits citizen’s acceptance to e-government, it should be overcome despite the lack of deep theoretical understanding on this issue. This research aimed to investigate the digital divide and its direct impact on e-government system success of local governments in Indonesia as well as indirect impact through the mediation role of trust. In order to get a comprehensive understanding of digital divide, this study introduced a new type of digital divide, the innovativeness divide.

The research problems were approached by applying two-stage sequential mixed method research approach comprising of both qualitative and quantitative studies. In the first phase, an initial research model was proposed based on a literature review. Semi-structured interview with 12 users of e-government systems was then conducted to explore and enhance this initial research model. Data collected in this phase were analyzed with a two-stage content analysis approach and the initial model was then amended based on the findings. As a result, a comprehensive research model with 16 hypotheses was proposed for examination in the second phase.

In the second phase, quantitative method was applied. A questionnaire was developed based on findings in the first phase. A pilot study was conducted to refine the questionnaire, which was then distributed in a national survey resulting in 237 useable responses. Data collected in this phase were analyzed using Partial Least Square based Structural Equation Modeling.

The results of quantitative analysis confirmed 13 hypotheses. All direct influences of the variables of digital divide on e-government system success were supported. The mediating effects of trust in e-government in the relationship between capability divide and e-government system success as well as in the relationship between innovativeness divide and e-government system success were supported, but was rejected in the relationship between access divide and e-government system success. Furthermore, the results supported the moderating effects of demographic variables of age, residential place, and education.

This research has both theoretical and practical contributions. The study contributes to the developments of literature on digital divide and e-government by providing a more comprehensive framework, and also to the implementation of e-government by local governments and the improvement of e-government Readiness Index of Indonesia.

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E-Services Adoption: Processes by Firms in Developing Nations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-325-9

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2004

Winnifred R. Louis, Donald M. Taylor and Tyson Neil

Two studies in the context of English‐French relations in Québec suggest that individuals who strongly identify with a group derive the individual‐level costs and benefits…

Abstract

Two studies in the context of English‐French relations in Québec suggest that individuals who strongly identify with a group derive the individual‐level costs and benefits that drive expectancy‐value processes (rational decision‐making) from group‐level costs and benefits. In Study 1, high identifiers linked group‐ and individual‐level outcomes of conflict choices whereas low identifiers did not. Group‐level expectancy‐value processes, in Study 2, mediated the relationship between social identity and perceptions that collective action benefits the individual actor and between social identity and intentions to act. These findings suggest the rational underpinnings of identity‐driven political behavior, a relationship sometimes obscured in intergroup theory that focuses on cognitive processes of self‐stereotyping. But the results also challenge the view that individuals' cost‐benefit analyses are independent of identity processes. The findings suggest the importance of modeling the relationship of group and individual levels of expectancy‐value processes as both hierarchical and contingent on social identity processes.

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International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 15 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

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Book part
Publication date: 19 May 2009

Francis J. Yammarino and Fred Dansereau

Following from the cutting-edge work of Stephen Wolfram in A New Kind of Science (2002), in this chapter we propose “a new kind of OB” (organizational behavior) based on…

Abstract

Following from the cutting-edge work of Stephen Wolfram in A New Kind of Science (2002), in this chapter we propose “a new kind of OB” (organizational behavior) based on the varient approach to theory building and testing. In particular, we offer four simple, yet comprehensive theories to account for individual behavior, interpersonal relationships, group dynamics, and collectivized processes in organizations. In each case, two constructs, their association, and the levels of analysis of their operation are proposed. While the four theories proposed here are simple notions, they can explain a variety of complex phenomena and behavior in organizations.

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Multi-Level Issues in Organizational Behavior and Leadership
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-503-7

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1989

T.P.A. Carey

The revolution experienced in the banking industry over the lastdecade has led to a constant series of changes with banks attempting toadjust their internal organisation…

Abstract

The revolution experienced in the banking industry over the last decade has led to a constant series of changes with banks attempting to adjust their internal organisation to suit the ever‐changing external environment. The author includes edited extracts from his research into this process of strategic formulation and the translation of marketing and planning concepts to meet the needs and character of the corporate market in Britain. Major issues influencing the development of a competitive strategy are examined, topics of strategic formulation, differentiation and the nature of transactions between banks and their customers are discussed, and the findings of market and industry analysis, outlining the practical use to which research findings have been put, is illustrated. Findings reveal that banks have been forced to identify the profitability and content of the constituent parts of their total business, and market segmentation is now seen as a necessary discipline. The current economic environment requires not only a more rapid adjustment to change, but to be effective must create within the organisation a culture which induces managers to act as agents of change.

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International Journal of Bank Marketing, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-2323

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2004

Michael J. Keeney, Andrea F. Snell, Steven J. Robison, Daniel V. Svyantek and Jennifer Bott

Measures of personality and organizational climate were subjected to three different analytical methods that extract patterns from data: Discriminant, Classification and…

Abstract

Measures of personality and organizational climate were subjected to three different analytical methods that extract patterns from data: Discriminant, Classification and Regression Trees, and neural network classification analysis. Risk, openness, rewards, and neuroticism (rather than conscientiousness) emerged as key variables in differentiating among three similar work groups. Results of the analyses support the central hypothesis of ASA theory of greater variance in personality across compared to within organizations and an interactionist paradigm between person and environment. Implications for ASA theory and for personnel selection are discussed.

Details

Organizational Analysis, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1551-7470

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Book part
Publication date: 29 August 2018

Paul A. Pautler

The Bureau of Economics in the Federal Trade Commission has a three-part role in the Agency and the strength of its functions changed over time depending on the…

Abstract

The Bureau of Economics in the Federal Trade Commission has a three-part role in the Agency and the strength of its functions changed over time depending on the preferences and ideology of the FTC’s leaders, developments in the field of economics, and the tenor of the times. The over-riding current role is to provide well considered, unbiased economic advice regarding antitrust and consumer protection law enforcement cases to the legal staff and the Commission. The second role, which long ago was primary, is to provide reports on investigations of various industries to the public and public officials. This role was more recently called research or “policy R&D”. A third role is to advocate for competition and markets both domestically and internationally. As a practical matter, the provision of economic advice to the FTC and to the legal staff has required that the economists wear “two hats,” helping the legal staff investigate cases and provide evidence to support law enforcement cases while also providing advice to the legal bureaus and to the Commission on which cases to pursue (thus providing “a second set of eyes” to evaluate cases). There is sometimes a tension in those functions because building a case is not the same as evaluating a case. Economists and the Bureau of Economics have provided such services to the FTC for over 100 years proving that a sub-organization can survive while playing roles that sometimes conflict. Such a life is not, however, always easy or fun.

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Healthcare Antitrust, Settlements, and the Federal Trade Commission
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-599-9

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Article
Publication date: 9 May 2016

Gajanand Gupta and Rajesh P Mishra

The purpose of this paper is to use well-established methodology strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) analysis – in order to identify the important…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to use well-established methodology strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) analysis – in order to identify the important factors for reliability centered maintenance (RCM) implementation.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper demonstrates a SWOT analysis for different 19 frameworks of RCM to make a strategic decision for implementing RCM in different organizations. The various 19 frameworks are grouped together into three clusters, namely Group A, Group B and Group C based on their qualitative or theoretical, quantitative and practical approach, respectively.

Findings

The strengths and weaknesses are identified by internal factors while the opportunities and threats are identified by external factors of an organization for each group of frameworks. Also, it was observed that each group of frameworks has a unique set of strengths and weaknesses.

Research limitations/implications

In this paper, the SWOT analysis for RCM implementation is limited to the comparison of various 19 RCM frameworks which are available in literatures and based on internal or external factors of an organization.

Practical implications

The SWOT analysis also suggests that the implementation of RCM is not an easy task for any practitioner and one should weigh in all the opportunities and threats before arriving at any strategic decision.

Originality/value

A unique approach applied to analysis the frameworks of RCM. The SWOT analysis of various RCM frameworks will help the practitioner to take any strategic decision for RCM implementation in an organization.

Details

Journal of Quality in Maintenance Engineering, vol. 22 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2511

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Book part
Publication date: 1 January 2005

Gilad Chen, John E Mathieu and Paul D Bliese

Organizational researchers have become increasingly interested in multi-level constructs – that is, constructs that are meaningful at multiple levels of analysis. However…

Abstract

Organizational researchers have become increasingly interested in multi-level constructs – that is, constructs that are meaningful at multiple levels of analysis. However, despite the plethora of theoretical and empirical work on multi-level topics, explicit frameworks for validation of multi-level constructs have yet to be fully developed. Moreover, available principles for conducting construct validation assume that the construct resides at a single level of analysis. We propose a five-step framework for conceptualizing and testing multi-level constructs by integrating principles of construct validation with recent advancements in multi-level theory, research, and methodology. The utility of the framework is illustrated using theoretical and empirical examples.

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Multi-level Issues in Organizational Behavior and Processes
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-269-6

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Article
Publication date: 28 August 2009

Gurparkash Singh, Louise Hawkins and Greg Whymark

Collaborative knowledge building (CKB) is seen as a means for achieving desired learning outcomes as well as facilitating sharing and distribution of knowledge among

Abstract

Purpose

Collaborative knowledge building (CKB) is seen as a means for achieving desired learning outcomes as well as facilitating sharing and distribution of knowledge among community members. However existing CKB studies do not appear to identify and account for the tools used by groups (at individual and group level) as part of the CKB process. The paper aims to address this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper describes a group knowledge building exercise within an educational context using activity theory as a descriptive data analysis tool. Data analysis involved conceptualising the CKB process as an activity system in which the group worked towards a shared object and identifying the ensuing contradictions in the CKB activity system.

Findings

Results from the analysis illustrate participants' use of reflective thinking processes for resolving contradictions and as a tool for articulating knowledge and developing a shared understanding. Two types of contradictions are identified from the analysis resolving which helped the group to achieve their objective. The efficacy of using activity systems as a holistic and flexible unit of analysis for studying CKB is illustrated through discussion of the results.

Research limitations/implications

The results have educational research implications in terms of developing research tools for analysing CKB, collecting data from a group context, and developing tools for improving group‐work.

Practical implications

The results have practical implications in terms of building knowledge from experience within knowledge communities.

Originality/value

One of the outcomes of the study is the identification of developmental and reflective contradictions which highlight the issues that when addressed allow for successful achievement of the object (or to some degree of success), as well as a richer deeper experience for the participants.

Details

VINE, vol. 39 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-5728

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Article
Publication date: 3 August 2012

Stephen P. Huffman, Scott B. Beyer and Michael H. Schellenger

The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the effectiveness of integrating a portfolio simulation‐based trading program with the top‐down approach to fundamental analysis

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the effectiveness of integrating a portfolio simulation‐based trading program with the top‐down approach to fundamental analysis in a security analysis course. The simulation allows for the application of class material using a combination of group and individual projects.

Design/methodology/approach

Students enrolled in the class completed a survey about the integrated approach and the required simulated trading.

Findings

Over 87 per cent of students agreed that the economic analysis provided more educational value as a group project than as an individual project, while over two‐thirds of the students disagreed that the trading simulation had more education value as a group project.

Research limitations/implications

Although the authors focus on the top‐down approach, the concepts of technical analysis, hedging, and income generation could be more formally incorporated into the trading simulation.

Practical implications

The outline of how to integrate a trading simulation into the top‐down approach, using a combination of group projects and a cumulating project completed by each student, can be used as a guide for how to make the top‐down approach a more meaningful task.

Social implications

The integration of the portfolio simulated trading program with the top‐down approach makes the course more applied and more enjoyable for both the students and the faculty.

Originality/value

The paper outlines how to integrate a trading simulation and the top‐down approach and reports the finding that students preferred the group approach to economic analysis and individual projects for the simulation and the company analysis.

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