Organizational researchers have become increasingly interested in multi-level constructs – that is, constructs that are meaningful at multiple levels of analysis. However, despite the plethora of theoretical and empirical work on multi-level topics, explicit frameworks for validation of multi-level constructs have yet to be fully developed. Moreover, available principles for conducting construct validation assume that the construct resides at a single level of analysis. We propose a five-step framework for conceptualizing and testing multi-level constructs by integrating principles of construct validation with recent advancements in multi-level theory, research, and methodology. The utility of the framework is illustrated using theoretical and empirical examples.
Chen, G., Mathieu, J.E. and Bliese, P.D. (2005), "A FRAMEWORK FOR CONDUCTING MULTI-LEVEL CONSTRUCT VALIDATION", Yammarino, F.J. and Dansereau, F. (Ed.) Multi-level Issues in Organizational Behavior and Processes (Research in Multi-Level Issues, Vol. 3), Emerald Group Publishing Limited, Bingley, pp. 273-303. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1475-9144(04)03013-9
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