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Estimates show that close to 90% of the buildings we will need in 2050 are already built and occupied. The increase in the existing building stock has affected energy…
Estimates show that close to 90% of the buildings we will need in 2050 are already built and occupied. The increase in the existing building stock has affected energy consumption thereby negatively impacting the environment. The purpose of this paper is to assess determinants of sustainable upgrade of existing buildings through the adoption and application of sustainable technologies. The study also ranks sustainable technologies adopted by the professionals who participated in the survey with an in-built case study.
As part of the overall methodology, a detailed literature review on the nature and characteristics of sustainable upgrade and the sustainable technologies adopted was undertaken. A survey questionnaire with an in-built case study was designed to examine all the sustainable technologies adopted to improve energy consumption in Australia. The survey was administered to sustainability consultants, architects, quantity surveyors, facility managers and engineers in Australia.
The results show a total of 24 technologies which are mostly adopted to improve energy consumption in existing buildings. A factor analysis shows the main components as: lighting and automation, heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HAVC) systems and equipment, envelope, renewable energy and passive technologies.
The findings bridge the gap in the literature on the adoption and application of sustainable technologies to upgrade existing buildings. The technologies can be adopted to reduce the excessive energy consumption patterns in existing buildings.
The purpose of this paper is to report upon a doctoral thesis within the context of temporary project organisations that was driven by the question: “what really…
The purpose of this paper is to report upon a doctoral thesis within the context of temporary project organisations that was driven by the question: “what really influences decision makers when considering whether or not to adopt an innovation?” This paper describes the philosophy, methodology and findings of the study, and illustrates the usefulness of the findings for application in construction and other project‐driven industries.
The attitude of decision makers is discernible in their behaviour, which is an observable phenomenon. It has been observed from outside using a Delphi study of “experts”, providing an etic perspective, and reported upon first‐hand through multiple in‐depth interviews with “experienced practitioners”, thereby providing an emic counterpoint. Both perspectives have been further abstracted to develop a synthesised model of the attitudinal profile of information and communication technology (ICT) decision makers in the construction industry.
The adoption of innovative ICT‐driven business practices by a firm is determined in large part by the attitude of the decision maker, which changes over time, in response to technological push and cultural pull. Moreover, attitudes can be mapped against three exogenous issues: human, business process and technological. At the heart of these lies a domain of endogenous issues that are personal and, therefore, unique to the individual decision maker. All of these issues have an intra‐firm and inter‐organisational dimension, and these vary in response to the context within which they are considered.
Successful use of ICT in a temporary project organisation context requires consideration and accommodation of the attitudes of the various project team members. This may entail preparatory auditing of trading partners using an appropriate diagnostic tool.
The attitude of decision makers has not previously been mapped in relation to ICT innovation adoption. Moreover, it is likely that with innovation‐specific modification the model will be applicable to other innovations deployed in a similar context.
Money illusion is a bias in the assessment of the real value of economic transactions, induced by their nominal evaluation. By definition, money illusion may only be…
Money illusion is a bias in the assessment of the real value of economic transactions, induced by their nominal evaluation. By definition, money illusion may only be manifested in the presence of inflation. This paper presents the results of an experiment which shows that the actual behaviour of subjects departed from theoretical expectations and that the subjects failed to recognize the underlying real values and instead made nominal evaluations. The evidence has the further implication that, in the absence of some house price escalation, there may be a tendency for vendor’s asking prices to be “sticky”. Thus, in these circumstances the asking price of the property will tend to function less well as a signal of relative scarcity in the marketplace.
The nature, status and role of bid cutting in construction bidding are examined from economic, legal, ethical and management perspectives. Some possible means of…
The nature, status and role of bid cutting in construction bidding are examined from economic, legal, ethical and management perspectives. Some possible means of countering its negative effects are considered including prohibition by legislation, the use of bid depositories, earlier formalization of subcontracts, withdrawal of subcontract prices and through alternative procurement methods. An empirical survey of bid cutting practice is described involving a sample of main contractors (MCs) and subcontractors (SCs) in Southeast Queensland. The practice of bid cutting was found to be widespread. All the MCs considered the practice to be ethical and all the SCs considered it to be unethical. In some cases, MCs awarded contracts elsewhere, even after telling SCs they had the job. Most of the SCs had tried individually to counteract bid cutting but were unable to continue this while others were complying with MC bid cutting attempts. SC bid withdrawals are very rare and litigation is never applied by either MCs or SCs. Mainly as a result of incomplete project documentation, MCs disliked the idea of making the subcontract binding at the time of main contract bid subject to its success, although it was generally recognized that it would reduce bid cutting by the MC‐a view that was also shared by half the SCs. Most respondents thought the construction management procurement option might reduce bid cutting but none had sufficient direct experience to be sure.
Construction contract auctions are characterized by (1) a heavy emphasis on the lowest bid as it is that which usually determines the winner of the auction, (2…
Construction contract auctions are characterized by (1) a heavy emphasis on the lowest bid as it is that which usually determines the winner of the auction, (2) anticipated high outliers because of the presence of non‐competitive bids, (3) very small samples, and (4) uncertainty of the appropriate underlying density function model of the bids. This paper describes a method for simultaneously identifying outliers and density function by systematically identifying and removing candidate (high) outliers and examining the composite goodness‐of‐fit of the resulting reduced samples with censored normal and lognormal density function. The special importance of the lowest bid value in this context is utilized in the goodness‐of‐fit test by the probability of the lowest bid recorded for each auction as a lowest order statistic. Six different identification strategies are tested empirically by application, both independently and in pooled form, to eight sets of auction data gathered from around the world. The results indicate the most conservative identification strategy to be a multiple of the auction standard deviation assuming a lognormal composite density. Surprisingly, the normal density alternative was the second most conservative solution. The method is also used to evaluate some methods used in practice and to identify potential improvements.