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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1980

George Glew

Food during manned space missions is part of the life support system. In the earliest American short duration space flights of a few earth orbits the food system was the least of…

Abstract

Food during manned space missions is part of the life support system. In the earliest American short duration space flights of a few earth orbits the food system was the least of the technical problems which had to be tackled. However, as space flights lengthen from days to months and possibly in the next half‐century , to years, then all the earth‐bound socio‐psychological factors associated with food become important.

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Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 80 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Article
Publication date: 1 May 1985

This was the title of the British Nutrition Foundation's seventh conference held this year at The Polytechnic, Huddersfield in July. Welcoming delegates from all over the UK, Sir…

Abstract

This was the title of the British Nutrition Foundation's seventh conference held this year at The Polytechnic, Huddersfield in July. Welcoming delegates from all over the UK, Sir Alan Marre, chairman of the BNF, said that their enthusiastic response showed the general interest in nutrition today. Here we include a brief report of three of the papers.

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Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 85 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Article
Publication date: 1 April 1985

Roger Collison

Catering technology can be defined as ‘the application of science to the art of catering’. For this purpose catering is taken to mean the feeding of people in large groups and…

Abstract

Catering technology can be defined as ‘the application of science to the art of catering’. For this purpose catering is taken to mean the feeding of people in large groups and includes restaurants, hotels, work canteens, schools meals and hospitals as well as take‐away meals such as fish and chip shops.

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Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 85 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Article
Publication date: 1 April 1974

Smedleys Ltd v. Breed effectively disposes of Section 3 (3), Food and Drugs Act, 1955 as a defence in law in what nowadays constitutes the commonest source of all food…

Abstract

Smedleys Ltd v. Breed effectively disposes of Section 3 (3), Food and Drugs Act, 1955 as a defence in law in what nowadays constitutes the commonest source of all food prosecutions, viz., foreign matter in food. Their Lord‐ships' judgment is indeed a brilliant exposition of the law on the subject, but the result of their dismissal of the appeal can only be seen, as one of their number stated, that local authorities and magistrates for all practical purposes can ignore the subsection, and from the numerous reports of legal proceedings, this is what they have been doing for many years. It was resurrected in a case, similar in circumstance to that in Smedleys, a couple of years ago, in respect of a snail in black currant jam, in which the snail and black currants were identical in size and appearance.

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British Food Journal, vol. 76 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Article
Publication date: 1 August 1989

Michael Jacob, V.S. Billingham and Eileen Rubery

The various authorities concerned with food safety and thearrangements for detection and withdrawal of food which is hazardous tohealth are discussed. Suspect food can be removed…

Abstract

The various authorities concerned with food safety and the arrangements for detection and withdrawal of food which is hazardous to health are discussed. Suspect food can be removed from sale and from catering establishments rapidly thanks to the warning system organised by the Department of Health.

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British Food Journal, vol. 91 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 March 1969

It must be difficult for many to contemplate the numerous changes in progress and projected without wondering why it all has to happen now. Of course, there have always been with…

Abstract

It must be difficult for many to contemplate the numerous changes in progress and projected without wondering why it all has to happen now. Of course, there have always been with us those who would change everything, even those who would spoil; all seemingly unable to leave anything alone; unwillingly to let us be for what we are. Then there are those who dislike change of any kind in their familiar environment and strangely, children are the most conservative of us all, and others who do not object to change when it is necessary, but only when it is change merely for the sake of change. The changeover to the metric system, or to use one of the grating terms of the new technological language, metrication, must be accepted as a natural sequence to decimal currency and advances in industry. A revolution in weights and measures, it will indeed present very great problems throughout the country and at all levels, which will dwarf those presented by the switch to decimal coinage, for at worst, these may be just confusing to the general public and a price‐raiser in small‐value commodities, despite assurances to the contrary.

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British Food Journal, vol. 71 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 8 June 2021

Alessandro Laureani and Jiju Antony

Abstract

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Leading Lean Six Sigma
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-065-8

Article
Publication date: 1 January 1989

Joachim M. Schafheitle and Nicholas D. Light

The changing demands of consumers, advances in technology and thepressures of the economic climate have led to many changes in cateringover the last two decades. Among other…

Abstract

The changing demands of consumers, advances in technology and the pressures of the economic climate have led to many changes in catering over the last two decades. Among other systems introduced to rationalise large‐scale catering are cook‐freeze and cook‐chill, with the latter becoming increasingly popular due to its advantages in energy saving and food (textural) quality over cook‐freeze. However, the microbiological risks of cook‐chill have always been acknowledged as being higher than those inherent in cook‐freeze and, in a recent survey of operations in the UK, cook‐chill food was regarded only as poor to good by consumers – few “high‐class” caterers were found to be using the system. New systems which utilise vacuum packaging either before or after cooking in combination with the chilling techniques of cook‐chill are becoming more popular and appear to give higher quality food. Sous‐vide cuisine is one of these. In combination with cook‐chill (sous‐vide/cook‐chill), this method is claimed to give rise to a host of benefits yet very little laboratory research work has been published on sous‐vide/cook‐chill. The few research publications on the sous‐vide/cook‐chill method in the context of food safety and the use of Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) and quality assurance techniques like Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP) are discussed. It is argued that sous‐vide/cook‐chill, like standard cook‐chill itself, should be regarded more as food manufacturing methods than catering methods.

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International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 January 1967

The value which can be placed upon the rights of property in a name of a commodity, a food or drink, perhaps famous all over the world, which has come down to us through the…

Abstract

The value which can be placed upon the rights of property in a name of a commodity, a food or drink, perhaps famous all over the world, which has come down to us through the centuries, is incalculable. Most of such foods and drinks have a regional association, and are prepared according to methods, often secret, handed down from one generation to another and from locally grown and produced materials. Nowhere are such traditions so well established as in cheese‐making and the wine industry. The names do not signify merely a method of manufacture, since this can be simulated almost anywhere, nor even the raw materials, but differences in climate, the soil and its treatment, its produce, harvesting, even in the contaminants of environment. Rochfort cheese, for example, is made from ewe's milk, but most important, with mould growths found only in the caves of that part of France where it is stored.

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British Food Journal, vol. 69 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Article
Publication date: 1 November 1934

During the year the appointments of 32 Public Analysts were approved. The number of samples of food analysed by Public Analysts during the year 1933 was 138, 171, a slight…

Abstract

During the year the appointments of 32 Public Analysts were approved. The number of samples of food analysed by Public Analysts during the year 1933 was 138, 171, a slight increase over the number reported in the previous year. 7,601 samples were reported as adulterated or not up to standard. The percentage adulterated or below standard was 5·5. In the two previous years the percentages were 5·1 and 4·6 respectively, the latter being the lowest recorded. There were 380 infringements of the Public Health (Preservatives, &c., in Food) Regulations, a considerable reduction as compared with the number reported in any previous year. In 138 instances the food contained preservatives prohibited by the regulations, e.g., boron preservative in cream, sausages, meat pies, rennet and other articles; sulphur dioxide in sweets, minced, potted and other meat, desiccated soup, pepper, vinegar and table jelly; formaldehyde in milk; salicylic acid in lime juice and non‐alcoholic wine; and benzoic acid in caviare. Preservative in excess of the permissible amount was reported in 81 instances, including samples of sausages, jam, dried fruit, orange and lemon squashes, lemon juice, and non‐alcoholic wine and beer, while a preservative powder labelled as containing 12 per cent. of sulphur dioxide contained more than that amount. In 160 samples the preservative would have been permissible if its presence had been declared on the label. The number of samples of milk analysed was 74,545, of which 5,760 (or 7·7 per cent.) were reported to be adulterated or not up to standard. Soma local authorities also arrange for the informal testing of samples by their officers, but particulars of these are not available. 1,068 “appeal to cow” samples, i.e., samples taken at the time of milking, were analysed and 380, or 35·6 per cent., were reported to be below the presumptive standard of the Sale of Milk Regulations, 1901. Excluding “appeal to cow” samples, the number analysed and the percentage adulterated or below standard were, respectively, 73,477 and 7·3. The vendor of a sample which was reported to be 23 per cent. deficient in milk fat and to be coloured with annatto was prosecuted and fined 3 guineas and 1 guinea costs. There were 8 other cases in which added colouring matter was reported, and in several instances the vendors were convicted and fined. The presence of visible dirt was reported in 8 samples and of formaldehyde in 6 samples. Another sample was found to contain 1·79 grains per gallon of sulphur dioxide. 24 samples of graded milk were stated to be deficient in milk fat, the amount of the deficiency in one case being as much as 48 per cent., and 20 samples of skimmed milk were reported as deficient in non‐fatty solids, one being stated to contain 79 per cent. of added water. 1,171 samples of condensed milk were analysed, of which 24 were reported against. 16 contained the equivalent of less milk than indicated on the label, 5 were deficient in milk solids, 2 were unsound and unfit for consumption, and 1 contained 125 parts per million of tin. The number of samples of dried milk analysed was 207, and 8 were reported against. Two were deficient in milk fat, 3 which were sold as full cream milk should have been sold as skimmed milk, 1 was unlabelled, 1 contained the equivalent of less milk than indicated on the label and the remaining sample was not dried milk within the meaning of the Public Health (Dried Milk) Regulations. The number of samples of cream reported upon was 2,171, and in 59 cases adverse reports were given. Eighteen contained boron preservative, 11 sold as cream were reconstituted or artificial cream, 9 were deficient in milk solids, and 3 were reported against because of the presence of fat not derived from milk. Fifteen samples, some of tinned cream, were deficient in milk fat. One sample of tinned cream labelled as “a highly concentrated and rich cream” contained only 24 per cent. of fat, and 2 samples of tinned sterilised cream labelled “Pure Rich English Clotted Cream” contained only 25 per cent. of fat. The Analyst stated that a “cream containing only this amount of fat can hardly be described as ‘rich,’ since ordinary fresh cream contains on an average about 50 per cent. of fat. Clotted cream is manufactured by a special process and usually contains about 60 per cent. of fat.” Out of 8,903 samples of butter reported upon, 83 were stated to be adulterated or below standard. 67 contained water in excess of the legal maximum of 16 per cent., the vendor of a sample containing 36·5 per cent. of water being prosecuted and fined £2. Three samples contained excess free fatty acid, 12 consisted wholly or partly of margarine, and the remaining sample contained boron preservative. 3,180 samples of margarine were analysed, and the number reported against was 16; 2 contained milk fat in excess of the legal maximum of 10 per cent., 1 sold in error consisted wholly of butter, 10 were found to contain water in excess of the legal maximum of 16 per cent., and 3 were unsatisfactory both on the latter ground and because of not being properly labelled. The number of samples of lard reported upon was 2,688, only 3 adversely. Two consisted wholly of substitute fat and the third contained cotton seed oil. 414 samples of suet were analysed; 38 samples, of which 33 were “shredded” suet, contained an excess of rice flour or other starch. Out of 578 samples of dripping, 7 were reported upon adversely, 2 as consisting entirely of hog fat, 4 as containing excess water or excess free fatty acid, and one as being rancid and unfit for human consumption. The number of samples examined was 1,392, 5 sold as “Cheshire Cheese” were deficient in fat, the deficiency in one case being 53 per cent., 6 samples wrapped in tinfoil contained excess tin amounting in one case to 7·2 grains per lb., and 3 sold as cream cheese were made from whole or separated milk. 273 samples of bread were analysed; 4 were affected with “ropiness,” and one sample, submitted for analysis by a private purchaser, was reported to contain powdered glass. Investigation failed, however, to discover the source of the adulterant. The number of samples of flour analysed was 1,370, of which only 2 were reported against. One contained about 2 per cent. of soap flakes, presumably due to accident, and one sample of self‐raising flour contained an excess of bicarbonate of soda. 1,773 samples were analysed and 124 or 7 per cent. were found to be adulterated or below standard, a considerable increase on the proportion reported against in any previous year. The majority of these were deficient in the fruit specified on the label or contained other fruit, 25 contained preservative in excess of the amount permitted, while 5 were deficient in fruit and also contained more than the permitted amount of preservative. One sample contained a considerable amount of fungus. Proceedings were successfully taken in several cases and penalties were imposed. The samples reported upon numbered 1,746, of which 135 were stated to be adulterated or below standard. 9S were deficient in acetic acid, and 34, described as malt or table vinegar, consisted wholly or partly of artificial vinegar. Three samples contained prohibited preservative. In a number of cases proceedings were successfully taken and penalties imposed. The vendor of a sample sold as malt vinegar, which was wholly artificial vinegar, was fined three guineas and one guinea costs, and a similar penalty was imposed on a vendor of artificial vinegar found to be 72 per cent. deficient in acetic acid. The number of samples of spirits analysed was 1,947, of which 132 were reported against because the spirit had been reduced more than 35 degrees under proof. Of the samples reported against 85 were whisky, 26 rum, 14 gin and 7 brandy. Out of 420 samples of beer, 3 were adversely reported upon, one as containing phenolic disinfectant, one as being a non‐alcoholic imitation, and the third as containing more than the permitted amount of preservative.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 36 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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