Search results

1 – 10 of over 2000
Book part
Publication date: 8 August 2016

Bridget Gorman, Becky Wade and Alexa Solazzo

To determine gendered patterns of preventive medical care (physical and dental/optical) use among pan-ethnic U.S. Asian and Latino adults.

Abstract

Purpose

To determine gendered patterns of preventive medical care (physical and dental/optical) use among pan-ethnic U.S. Asian and Latino adults.

Methodology/approach

Using National Latino and Asian American Study (2004) data, we apply Andersen’s (1995) Behavioral Model of Health Services Use to assess how preventive care use among Asian and Latino men and women varies as a function of predisposing, enabling, and need-based characteristics. We explore whether adjustment for these factors mediates gender disparities in both physical and dental/optical check-ups, and test whether certain factors operate differently among men versus women.

Findings

A higher proportion of women reported a routine care visit last year, especially among Latinos. Adjusting for predisposing, enabling, and need-based factors explained the gender difference in reporting a dental/optician check-up, but not a physical check-up, among both Asian and Latino adults.

Research limitations/implications

Our findings illustrate how gender patterns in routine care use differ by race/ethnicity, and highlight the fundamental importance of enabling characteristics (especially health insurance and having a regular doctor) for shaping routine care use between men and women, both Asian and Latino. Limitations of this chapter are that the data are cross-sectional and were collected before the implementation of the Affordable Care Act, and measures are self-reported.

Originality/value

This chapter focuses on Asian and Latinos because they represent the fastest growing minority populations in the United States, yet few studies have evaluated gender differences in preventative health care use among these groups.

Details

Special Social Groups, Social Factors and Disparities in Health and Health Care
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-467-9

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 22 November 2021

Ruchi Sinha, Louise Kyriaki, Zachariah R. Cross, Imogen E. Weigall and Alex Chatburn

This chapter introduces electroencephalography (EEG), a measure of neurophysiological activity, as a critical method for investigating individual and team decision-making…

Abstract

This chapter introduces electroencephalography (EEG), a measure of neurophysiological activity, as a critical method for investigating individual and team decision-making and cognition. EEG is a useful tool for expanding the theoretical and research horizons in organizational cognitive neuroscience, with a lower financial cost and higher portability than other neuroimaging methods (e.g., functional magnetic resonance imaging). This chapter briefly reviews past work that has applied cognitive neuroscience methods to investigate cognitive processes and outcomes. The focus is on describing contemporary EEG measures that reflect individual cognition and compare them to complementary measures in the field of psychology and management. The authors discuss how neurobiological measures of cognition relate to and may predict both individual cognitive performance and team cognitive performance (decision-making). This chapter aims to assist scholars in the field of managerial and organizational cognition in understanding the complementarity between psychological and neurophysiological methods, and how they may be combined to develop new hypotheses in the intersection of these research fields.

Article
Publication date: 17 April 2009

Glenn Davidson and Dan Dorner

The purpose of this paper is to discover the criteria upon which selection decisions are made in six mobile libraries in New Zealand.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to discover the criteria upon which selection decisions are made in six mobile libraries in New Zealand.

Design/methodology/approach

In this qualitative study data were gathered from interviews with six mobile librarians. The study is guided conceptually by the perceived need for a collection development policy and a selection procedures statement to guide selection, and the needs versus wants debate.

Findings

The data suggest that there is no universal approach to the selection of material for mobile library collections; mobile librarians achieve a balance between users' needs and wants to some extent when selecting; and there is no relationship between the nature of mobile library services and the serving of needs and wants. The researchers contend that mobile librarians' selection decisions are influenced by various criteria other than users' needs or users' wants.

Research limitations/implications

This qualitative research is based on the analysis of the selection practices of six mobile librarians in New Zealand. Future research might seek to replicate this study's methodology using a larger population or investigate the lack of emphasis on reference services on some mobile libraries or the management of fixed, floating, and integrated mobile library collections.

Originality/value

Only a slight amount of literature exists about the selection of mobile library collections. This study will be of interest to mobile librarians in New Zealand and elsewhere who wish to obtain a better understanding of current selection practices. It will also act as guiding literature to help mobile librarians to make better informed selection decisions.

Details

Collection Building, vol. 28 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0160-4953

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 November 2017

Paraskevas Petrou, Machteld Van den Heuvel and Wilmar Schaufeli

The purpose of this paper is to examine the main and interaction effects of self-rated promotion and prevention regulatory focus on self-rated work performance, emotional…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the main and interaction effects of self-rated promotion and prevention regulatory focus on self-rated work performance, emotional exhaustion and sickness absence for managers and non-managers separately. The authors expected that promotion focus relates positively to performance and negatively to sickness absence, while prevention focus relates positively to exhaustion and sickness absence, both for managers and non-managers. Furthermore, the authors expected that promotion focus relates positively to performance but also to exhaustion and sickness absence when prevention focus is high, only for managers (i.e. a manager’s dual regulatory focus can be an effective but also exhausting leadership strategy).

Design/methodology/approach

The authors tested the hypotheses via moderated regression analyses among two independent groups, managers (n=241) and non-managers (n=415).

Findings

Promotion focus was positively related to managers’ and non-managers’ performance and negatively to non-managers’ sickness absence, while prevention focus did not have any main effects. As expected, managers’ promotion focus was positively related to managers’ sickness absence when managers’ prevention focus was high (i.e. dual regulatory focus). Furthermore, managers’ promotion focus negatively related to managers’ performance when managers’ prevention was high, failing to support the hypothesis.

Practical implications

Promotion focus should be enhanced by organizations among leaders and employees. The authors also cautiously discuss the possibility of interventions comparing a promotion focus with dual-focus training.

Originality/value

The authors contribute to the literature by examining the joint (rather than main) effects of promotion and prevention focus on work behavior and the authors address these links among managers and non-managers.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 46 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 30 June 2016

Minoo Farhangmehr, Paulo Gonçalves and Maria Sarmento

This research aims to better understand the main drivers of entrepreneurial motivation among university students and to determine whether entrepreneurship education has a…

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Abstract

Purpose

This research aims to better understand the main drivers of entrepreneurial motivation among university students and to determine whether entrepreneurship education has a moderating effect on improving the impact of knowledge base and entrepreneurship competencies on entrepreneurial motivation.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses a mixed-method approach that combines qualitative interviews and a cross-sectional survey of a sample of 465 university students.

Findings

The study reveals that entrepreneurship competencies are a predictor of entrepreneurship motivation but that knowledge base is not. Additionally, entrepreneurship education does not improve the motivation of university students to become entrepreneurs. These findings suggest that, to increase entrepreneurial motivation, pedagogy should emphasize the development of students’ entrepreneurial psychological and social skills by covering in particular the emotional dimension and critical thinking.

Originality/value

This research contributes to the literature on entrepreneurship education and provides strategic recommendations for university managers and education-policy makers.

Details

Education + Training , vol. 58 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

Article
Publication date: 1 June 2000

Klaus G. Altmann and G.E. Gorman

This study examines the effect of employing density of use data in making serial relegation decisions. It demonstrates that density of use favours the retention of used…

327

Abstract

This study examines the effect of employing density of use data in making serial relegation decisions. It demonstrates that density of use favours the retention of used titles which occupy a small amount of shelf space compared with titles occupying a large amount of shelf space. Density of use may favour the retention of low‐use titles possessing a high density of use compared with a high‐use title occupying a large amount of shelf space. While the paper presents an easy method for identifying titles possessing a high total use but having a comparatively low density of use, the strategy fails to identify titles having a high density of use but which also have some scope for partitioning between open and closed access. It therefore outlines a simple method of partitioning these titles between open and closed access to increase the density of use of the open access collection.

Details

New Library World, vol. 101 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4803

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 1999

Klaus G. Altmann and G.E. Gorman

The usefulness of impact factors as a substitute for conducting a costly local use study was investigated in an Australian university library. The results presented in…

385

Abstract

The usefulness of impact factors as a substitute for conducting a costly local use study was investigated in an Australian university library. The results presented in this paper are consistent with the view that logical deselection decisions can be made only by using the results of a local use study. A number of reasons are advanced for why impact factors are poor predictors of local use.

Details

Collection Building, vol. 18 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0160-4953

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 10 July 2006

Thomas E. Scruggs, Margo A. Mastropieri and Kelley S. Regan

Single subject research has long been employed to evaluate intervention effectiveness with students with learning or behavioral disabilities. Typically, the results of…

Abstract

Single subject research has long been employed to evaluate intervention effectiveness with students with learning or behavioral disabilities. Typically, the results of single subject research are presented on graphic displays and analyzed by a method of visual inspection, in which analysts simultaneously consider such data elements as level change, slope change, and variability in baseline and treatment data. However, over the years several concerns regarding visual inspection have emerged, including relatively low inter-rater reliabilities. This chapter reviews the arguments in favor of visual inspection as an analytic tool, and also summarizes the arguments favoring statistical analysis of single case data. The use of randomization tests is recommended, and an example is provided of its use in research with students with learning and behavioral disorders.

Details

Applications of Research Methodology
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-295-5

Article
Publication date: 16 August 2011

Ina Fourie and Kirstin Krauss

Information literacy (IL) training for teachers in developing communities, e.g. rural areas or townships in developing countries, is expected to pose special challenges in…

1059

Abstract

Purpose

Information literacy (IL) training for teachers in developing communities, e.g. rural areas or townships in developing countries, is expected to pose special challenges in terms of sustainability, contextualisation, life‐long learning and empowerment. Little has been reported on such training in developing countries. Based on the authors' involvement in a UNESCO‐funded IL training project for teachers in a developing community in South Africa, the purpose of this paper is to review literature and to suggest a model that can further research and training in IL that meets actual requirements and needs of developing communities.

Design/methodology/approach

Literature reviews on four issues are reported on: ICT skills, teachers and developing/rural contexts; IL skills, teachers and developing communities; internet usage, search skills, teachers and developing communities; and lessons from ICT for development (ICT4D).

Findings

ICT4D literature and critical social theory seem useful to further research on IL training in developing communities as it empowers researchers to take up a position of enquiry that questions the value of ICT and the underlying assumptions embedded in the ways ICT is introduced in developing contexts. It is assumed that this would also apply to IL.

Originality/value

The contribution is original in its attempt to combine IL and ICT training for teachers in a developing community against an ICT4D background.

Details

Journal of Systems and Information Technology, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1328-7265

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 March 2009

Kirsi Helkala and Einar Snekkenes

The purpose of this paper is to present a new method for ranking authentication products. Using this method, issues such as technical performance…

743

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a new method for ranking authentication products. Using this method, issues such as technical performance, application/system‐specific requirements, cost and usability are addressed. The method simplifies and makes the selection process more transparent by identifying issues that are important when selecting products.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper used quantitative cost and performance analysis.

Findings

The method can be widely applied, allowing the comparison and ranking of an extensive variety of authentication products (passwords, biometrics, tokens). The method can be used for both product selection and the process of product development as supported by the case studies.

Originality/value

This is a work that demonstrates how to compare authentication methods from different categories. A novel ranking method has been developed which allows the comparison of different authentication products in a defined usage scenario.

Details

Information Management & Computer Security, vol. 17 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0968-5227

Keywords

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