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Article
Publication date: 4 March 2021

Nguyen Tuan Anh, Christopher Gan and Dao Le Trang Anh

This study simultaneously explores the nexus among formal, semiformal and informal credit markets and farm households' credit demand determinants in Vietnam.

Abstract

Purpose

This study simultaneously explores the nexus among formal, semiformal and informal credit markets and farm households' credit demand determinants in Vietnam.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses a multistage stratified random sampling process for a survey of 648 smallholder farmers in the Red River Delta (RRD), Vietnam. The trivariate probit model (TVPM) is used to address the interdependence of farm households' credit demands in different credit markets.

Findings

The results reveal complementary relationships among two pairs of credit markets (formal versus informal and semiformal versus informal). There are dissimilarities among the determinants (household characteristics, household head's characteristics, credit history and geographic factors) of farm households' credit demands in different markets, reflecting segmentation of Vietnam credit markets.

Practical implications

The study's empirical findings are important for policymakers and credit providers to enhance farm households' access to credit for agriculture and to improve the operations of the three credit markets.

Originality/value

This is the first empirical study in Vietnam and one of few in other developing countries simultaneously exploring the determinants of credit demand in and interrelationships among all three credit markets to provide more comprehensive and accurate results.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 48 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 14 July 2020

Abbas Ali Chandio, Yuansheng Jiang, Abdul Rehman, Martinson Ankrah Twumasi, Amber Gul Pathan and Muhammad Mohsin

In the developing countries, formal credit has dominant role for the development of agriculture sector. It increases the farmer's purchasing power for better farm inputs…

Abstract

Purpose

In the developing countries, formal credit has dominant role for the development of agriculture sector. It increases the farmer's purchasing power for better farm inputs and agricultural technology for high crop productivity. The main purpose of this study is to examine the influence of socioeconomic characteristics of smallholder farmers for credit demand in Sindh, Pakistan.

Design/methodology/approach

A cross-sectional data set randomly collected from 90 smallholder farmers in Thatta district, Sindh, Pakistan, is examined. Descriptive statistics, correlation and the OLS regression method were used to demonstrate the important factors affecting the demand for formal credit.

Findings

The results revealed that formal education, experience of farming, landholding size, road access and extension contacts positively and significantly influenced the demand for formal credit.

Originality/value

This study is the first, to the best of authors' knowledge, to demonstrate the influence of various socioeconomic characteristics of smallholder farmers on demand for formal credit in Sindh, Pakistan. It also illustrates the imperative contribution to the literature regarding credit access and demand to improve the agricultural productivity.

Details

Journal of Asian Business and Economic Studies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2515-964X

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Article
Publication date: 29 November 2018

Tiken Das

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the rural credit demand by providing a theoretical and econometric framework which controls the problem of selection bias.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the rural credit demand by providing a theoretical and econometric framework which controls the problem of selection bias.

Design/methodology/approach

The study is conducted in Assam, India, and uses a quasi-experiment design to gather primary data. Heckman two-stage procedure and type 3 Tobit model are used to evaluate the rural credit demand.

Findings

It is observed that, in general, rural households’ credit demand is influenced by the ability and capacity to work, the value of physical assets of the borrowers as well as some other lenders’ and borrowers’ specific factors. But, the direction of causality of the factors influencing borrowers’ credit demand is remarkably different across credit sources.

Research limitations/implications

The study recommends that it is possible to provide an efficient credit demand estimate through a correct theoretical and econometric framework. The possible limitation of the study can be due to the exclusion of the role of “traditional community based organizations” in rural Assam while evaluating the credit demand, and therefore, this limitation is left to future research.

Originality/value

The study contributes to the literature by assessing the probable differences among formal, semiformal and informal credit sources with respect to rural credit demand.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. 13 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

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Article
Publication date: 4 September 2020

Shruti Malik, Girish Chandra Maheshwari and Archana Singh

Over the period, the role of finance has emerged significant in the socio-economic development of the women. There are two major types of finances, i.e. formal and…

Abstract

Purpose

Over the period, the role of finance has emerged significant in the socio-economic development of the women. There are two major types of finances, i.e. formal and informal ones. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to investigate first the determinants of the demand for credit and then the demand for these credit sources by women especially in urban slums.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, a primary survey was conducted with the help of a structured questionnaire in slums of two major urban cities in India, i.e. Delhi and Mumbai. In total, 450 individuals were interviewed in each city.

Findings

This paper presents a range of significant socio-economic factors affecting the demand for credit and source of credit by women borrower in Delhi and Mumbai. Despite, the greater emphasis by the government to increase the formal credit utilization, the informal credit is still preferred.

Practical implications

The outcomes of the study are expectedly useful to various policymakers and banks in encouraging women to opt more for the formal credit. The government can follow the research outcomes to scale up the programmes and schemes targeted for women empowerment in urban slums.

Originality/value

The study is unique of its kind in doing a comparative analysis in slums of two differently located urban cities with large slum population.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal , vol. 36 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

Keywords

Abstract

Details

The Impacts of Monetary Policy in the 21st Century: Perspectives from Emerging Economies
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-319-8

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Article
Publication date: 25 June 2020

Lan Archer, Parmendra Sharma and Jen-Je Su

A review of literature has documented that accessing formal credit and other banking services has always been a crucial challenge for small and medium-sized enterprises…

Abstract

Purpose

A review of literature has documented that accessing formal credit and other banking services has always been a crucial challenge for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). The alternative, therefore, tends to be informal channels. However, the credit constraint vis-à-vis informal channel link does not appear to be well documented in the literature. This study aims to investigate whether credit constraints significantly affect the probability of accessing informal credit, as well as the credit values of Vietnamese SMEs.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses a trinary approach and correlated random-effects Probit and Tobit techniques to avoid the incidental coefficients problem.

Findings

The results suggest that relative to unconstrained and partially constrained firms, fully constrained firms tend to be more active in the informal credit markets, shown by their higher probability of informal credit access and larger credit values.

Originality/value

To the best of authors’ knowledge, this is the first study on Vietnam that takes a different approach to credit constraints and examines their impact on informal credit access. Policy implications arise and are discussed.

Peer review

The peer review history for this article is available at: https://publons.com/publon/10.1108/IJSE-11-2017-0543

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 47 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article
Publication date: 8 August 2016

Minh Chau Tran, Christopher E.C. Gan and Baiding Hu

– The purpose of this paper is to identify factors affecting formal credit constraint status of rural farm households in Vietnam’s North Central Coast (NCC) region.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify factors affecting formal credit constraint status of rural farm households in Vietnam’s North Central Coast (NCC) region.

Design/methodology/approach

Using the direct elicitation method (DEM), the authors consider both internal and external credit rationing.

Findings

Empirical evidences confirm the importance of household head’s age, gender and education to household’s likelihood of being credit constrained. In addition, households who have advantages in farm land size, labour resources and non-farm income are less likely to be credit constrained. Poor households are observed to remain restricted by formal credit institutions. Results from the endogenous switching regression model suggest that credit constraints negatively impact household’s consumption per capita and informal credit can act as a substitute to mitigate the negative influence of formal credit constraints.

Research limitations/implications

One limitation arises from the usage of the DEM to identify credit constrained households. The method cannot detect effective and ineffective constraints. Another limitation is the inability of cross-section data to capture long-term impacts of credit constraints on household welfare. Finally, causes of credit constraints from the lender’s view cannot be observed.

Practical implications

The results suggest that it is necessary to enhance the credit allocation regime to reduce the transaction cost and provide target households with sufficient credit. It should be emphasized that high transaction cost and the mismatch between credit demand and supply stemming from information asymmetry. The government can help formal financial institutions to reduce information cost by encouraging the active role of social organizations such as Women Unions, Youth Unions and Veteran Unions in bridging rural farm households with formal lenders.

Originality/value

There are limited studies focusing on determinants of credit constraints and their impacts on rural farm households. To the best of the knowledge, there is no study evaluating the impact of credit constraints on rural farm household welfare particularly in Vietnam. In addition, the studies related to credit constraints only considered full quantity rationing (households applied for the loan but were rejected), omitting the case of partly quantity rationing (loan obtained by the borrowers is less than their demand) and self-rationing.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 43 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article
Publication date: 6 December 2018

Senthil Arasu Balasubramanian, Thenmozhi Kuppusamy and Thamaraiselvan Natarajan

The purpose of this paper is to empirically examine the influence of women’s land ownership status on their inclusion in developing economies.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to empirically examine the influence of women’s land ownership status on their inclusion in developing economies.

Design/methodology/approach

The study adopted a cross-sectional analysis. Data were taken from Global Findex data of World Bank and Indices of social development. Data were analysed using limited information maximum likelihood to establish the relationship between usage of basic financial services and women’s land ownership status variables. The study considers different demographic, social and economic factors as control variables. Socio-economic gender equality index and land ownership status of men are considered as instrumental variables in the estimations for controlling endogeneity problem.

Findings

The study proves that there is a significant influence of women’s land ownership status on their demand and usage of basic financial services. The results show that women who own land alone have a significant relationship for formal account ownership and formal savings but are deprived of formal and informal credit. The results find that women are more likely to avail of formal credit when they are backed by someone else in the family especially men. Irrespective of the wealth quintile to which women belong, they are deprived of credit if they do not own any land. The findings also show that women in higher wealth quintiles are more active in availing credit.

Research limitations/implications

The study is limited to the extent of influence of women’s land ownership status on their demand for basic financial services.

Practical implications

The study recommends appropriate economic and financial policies to encourage women to own, possess and use their land for personal as well as entrepreneurial activities. The study also suggests for policies to encourage women for joint ownership of land for better credit availability.

Social implications

Formal institutions must be more favourable for women in providing credit facilities because women play an essential role in economic development in developing economies.

Originality/value

This study is the first of its type in providing empirical evidence that women’s land ownership status influences their demand for basic financial services in developing countries.

Details

International Journal of Development Issues, vol. 18 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1446-8956

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2014

Leslie J. Verteramo Chiu, Sivalai V. Khantachavana and Calum G. Turvey

– The purpose of this paper is to determine the extent of risk rationing among potential rural borrowers in Mexico and China.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to determine the extent of risk rationing among potential rural borrowers in Mexico and China.

Design/methodology/approach

Using primary survey data from 730 farm households in the Shaanxi province of China and from 372 farmers in northeastern Mexico, the authors investigate factors associated with risk rationed, price rationed and quantity rationed farmers. The survey was instrumented to self-identify borrower typologies. In addition the authors created within the survey a discrete-choice credit demand build to determine borrower credit demand elasticities. The analysis applies a linear probability which the authors found to be consistent with multinomial and binary logit models.

Findings

The authors find in China the incidence of risk rationing in farmers to be 6.5, 14 percent for quantity rationed and 80 percent for price rationed. In Mexico, 35 percent of the sample is risk rationed, 10 percent quantity rationed and 55 percent price rationed. The results from China support the hypothesis that the financially poor are more likely to be quantity rationed; in Mexico, however, the level of education is found to be important in determining quantity rationed. In both countries, asset wealthy farmers are less likely to be risk rationed; however, income does not appear to have an impact. The paper provides evidence that the elasticity of demand for credit is different among the three credit rationed groups: risk rationed, price rationed and quantity rationed. Risk aversion and prudence are significantly correlated with risk rationing in China, while only risk aversion is significant in Mexico. The results suggest that efforts to enhance credit access must also deal with risk and risk perceptions.

Practical implications

Risk rationing is an important concept in the understanding of rural credit markets. The findings that only 6.5 and 35 percent of Chinese and Mexican farmers are in stark contrast to each other. For agricultural economies such as Mexico with a significant number of farmers being risk rationing, more effort should be put into financial education and financial practices, including perhaps the use of risk-contingent credit to remove collateral risk. As property rights in China evolve, and new laws are promulgated to permit borrowing against land use rights, the collateralization issue will become much more important in rural credit markets.

Originality/value

This paper is the first to investigate risk rationing in China and Mexico and one of the few research studies empirically investigating risk rationing. A comparative analysis of Mexico and China is enlightening because of the structural differences in the respective agricultural economies. The use of a credit demand build and the enumeration of individual credit demand elasticities is an original contribution to this literature.

Details

Agricultural Finance Review, vol. 74 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-1466

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Article
Publication date: 24 February 2021

Annkathrin Possner, Selina Bruns and Oliver Musshoff

The purpose of this paper is to examine the extent to which individual risk attitude determines a Cambodian smallholder's choice between a commercial informal loan and a…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the extent to which individual risk attitude determines a Cambodian smallholder's choice between a commercial informal loan and a credit from a licensed microfinance institution.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper analyzes a sample of smallholder farmers in the Ratanakiri province in northeastern Cambodia, a country with a long history of microfinance and a saturated microcredit market. Employing a binary and a multinomial logit model, this paper assesses the effect of individual risk attitude on the choice of a financial instrument.

Findings

The results reveal a statistically significant relationship between the choice of a credit source and an individual's risk attitude: On average (c.p.) the less risk averse the smallholder is, the more they tend to prefer an unlicensed commercial lender.

Practical implications

The findings suggest that less risk-averse individuals tend to take up riskier and generally more expensive informal loans. Measures to increase the safe access to financial services for less risk-averse borrowers as well as improvements in financial literacy should be undertaken to protect smallholders from taking risky choices.

Originality/value

Although existing studies have examined the importance of risk attitudes between credit provider and borrower, they focus mainly on the lender's perspective. This paper provides new insights on how risk attitude influences the borrower's choice in Cambodia. Thus, this study is relevant for policymakers in countries with oversaturated microcredit markets and a high prevalence of informal lenders.

Details

Agricultural Finance Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-1466

Keywords

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