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Book part
Publication date: 24 November 2010

Susan Warner

Flexible scheduling in school libraries is supported by the American Association for School Libraries (AASL) and the Association for Educational Communications and…

Abstract

Flexible scheduling in school libraries is supported by the American Association for School Libraries (AASL) and the Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT). Support is based on the constructivist theory of learning and posits increased learning, collaboration, and visitations by classes, small groups, and individuals to the availability of resources during the time of need, yet there is no direct evidence to support flexible scheduling. The quantitative study sought to examine the relationship between media center scheduling on students’ academic achievement, teacher and media specialist collaboration, and class visitation in an elementary school. The researcher utilized an experimental posttest-only control group design. The point-biserial correlation was utilized to identify any relationship between groups who utilized the media center on a fixed versus a flexible schedule and criterion-referenced test scores. No significant relationship was found between scheduling patterns, student achievement, and collaboration. However, the research supported increased number of visitations by classes on a fixed schedule.

Details

Advances in Library Administration and Organization
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-287-7

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Article
Publication date: 17 January 2020

Parviz Fattahi, Naeeme Bagheri Rad, Fatemeh Daneshamooz and Samad Ahmadi

The purpose of this paper is to present a mathematical model and a new hybrid algorithm for flexible job shop scheduling problem with assembly operations. In this problem…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a mathematical model and a new hybrid algorithm for flexible job shop scheduling problem with assembly operations. In this problem, each product is produced by assembling a set of several different parts. At first, the parts are processed in a flexible job shop system, and then at the second stage, the parts are assembled and products are produced.

Design/methodology/approach

As the problem is non-deterministic polynomial-time-hard, a new hybrid particle swarm optimization and parallel variable neighborhood search (HPSOPVNS) algorithm is proposed. In this hybrid algorithm, particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is used for global exploration of search space and parallel variable neighborhood search (PVNS) algorithm for local search at vicinity of solutions obtained in each iteration. For parameter tuning of the metaheuristic algorithms, Taguchi approach is used. Also, a statistical test is proposed to compare the ability of metaheuristics at finding the best solution in the medium and large sizes.

Findings

Numerical experiments are used to evaluate and validate the performance and effectiveness of HPSOPVNS algorithm with hybrid particle swarm optimization with a variable neighborhood search (HPSOVNS) algorithm, PSO algorithm and hybrid genetic algorithm and Tabu search (HGATS). The computational results show that the HPSOPVNS algorithm achieves better performance than competing algorithms.

Practical implications

Scheduling of manufacturing parts and planning of assembly operations are two steps in production systems that have been studied independently. However, with regard to many manufacturing industries having assembly lines after manufacturing stage, it is necessary to deal with a combination of these problems that is considered in this paper.

Originality/value

This paper proposed a mathematical model and a new hybrid algorithm for flexible job shop scheduling problem with assembly operations.

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Article
Publication date: 26 October 2012

Rajeev Agrawal, L.N. Pattanaik and S. Kumar

The purpose of this paper is to solve a flexible job shop scheduling problem where alternate machines are available to process the same job. The study considers the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to solve a flexible job shop scheduling problem where alternate machines are available to process the same job. The study considers the Flexible Job Shop Problem (FJSP) having n jobs and more than three machines for scheduling.

Design/methodology/approach

FJSP for n jobs and more than three machines is non polynomial (NP) hard in nature and hence a multi‐objective genetic algorithm (GA) based approach is presented for solving the scheduling problem. The two objective functions formulated are minimizations of the make‐span time and total machining time. The algorithm uses a unique method of generating initial populations and application of genetic operators.

Findings

The application of GA to the multi‐objective scheduling problem has given optimum solutions for allocation of jobs to the machines to achieve nearly equal utilisation of machine resources. Further, the make span as well as total machining time is also minimized.

Research limitations/implications

The model can be extended to include more machines and constraints such as machine breakdown, inspection etc., to make it more realistic.

Originality/value

The paper presents a successful implementation of a meta‐heuristic approach to solve a NP‐hard problem of FJSP scheduling and can be useful to researchers and practitioners in the domain of production planning.

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Article
Publication date: 17 January 2020

Yi Zhang, Haihua Zhu and Dunbing Tang

With the continuous upgrading of the production mode of the manufacturing system, the characteristics of multi-variety, small batch and mixed fluidization are presented…

Abstract

Purpose

With the continuous upgrading of the production mode of the manufacturing system, the characteristics of multi-variety, small batch and mixed fluidization are presented, and the production environment becomes more and more complex. To improve the efficiency of solving multi-objective flexible job shop scheduling problem (FJSP), an improved hybrid particle swarm optimization algorithm (IH-PSO) is proposed.

Design/methodology/approach

After reviewing literatures on FJSP, an IH-PSO algorithm for solving FJSP is developed. First, IH-PSO algorithm draws on the crossover and mutation operations of genetic algorithm (GA) algorithm and proposes a new method for updating particles, which makes the offspring particles inherit the superior characteristics of the parent particles. Second, based on the improved simulated annealing (SA) algorithm, the method of updating the individual best particles expands the search scope of the domain and solves the problem of being easily trapped in local optimum. Finally, analytic hierarchy process (AHP) is used in this paper to solve the optimal solution satisfying multi-objective optimization.

Findings

Through the benchmark experiment and the production example experiment, it is verified that the proposed algorithm has the advantages of high quality of solution and fast speed of convergence.

Research limitations/implications

This method does not consider the unforeseen events that occur during the process of scheduling and cause the disruption of normal production scheduling activities, such as machine breakdown.

Practical implications

IH-PSO algorithm combines PSO algorithm with GA and SA algorithms. This algorithm retains the advantage of fast convergence speed of traditional PSO algorithm and has the characteristic of inheriting excellent genes. In addition, the improved SA algorithm is used to solve the problem of falling into local optimum.

Social implications

This research provides an efficient scheduling method for solving the FJSP problem.

Originality/value

This research proposes an IH-PSO algorithm to solve the FJSP more efficiently and meet the needs of multi-objective optimization.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 49 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1999

LONNIE GOLDEN

This paper aims to discuss the importance of flexible working time arrangements in the United States (U.S.). Section I creates a framework to analyse the various…

Abstract

This paper aims to discuss the importance of flexible working time arrangements in the United States (U.S.). Section I creates a framework to analyse the various dimensions of working time and their impacts. It examines the availability of flexitime and its potential costs and benefits to workers and employers. Section II describes the current distribution and differential access to flexitime by workers' demographic characteristics and by industry and occupational sector. Section III analyses these data to estimate the probability that workers with a given demographic or work characteristic have access to flexitime daily schedules. The fourth and final section discusses the implications of the findings. The empirical findings reveal that many workers are gaining flexibility in the timing of their daily work schedules, but access to flexible schedules remains uneven by characteristics of workers such as gender or race and by their jobs such as skill‐level, job status and hours status. Having flexible scheduling comes at the expense of working long average hours per week, or re‐locating to part‐time or self‐employment status or “unsocial” evening shifts. One implication of this is that a public policy aimed at flexible work hours for workers benefit must seek first to spread such flexibility to those who are currently not sharing it because of their occupation, industry or other personal or labour market characteristics.

Details

Journal of Human Resource Costing & Accounting, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1401-338X

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Book part
Publication date: 1 June 2007

Morris Altman and Lonnie Golden

A theoretical economic model is developed to explain the disparities in flexible work scheduling observed across firms, workplaces, sectors, and time periods. Given…

Abstract

A theoretical economic model is developed to explain the disparities in flexible work scheduling observed across firms, workplaces, sectors, and time periods. Given heterogeneity in firms’ costs, the supply of flextime is determined by firms’ costs of enacting versus not adopting it. The innovative practice would be adopted if it generates net unit labor cost savings. If it is cost neutral, the extent to which the supply of flextime falls short of worker demand for it depends on the extent to which employers must accommodate employee preferences for more time sovereignty and are induced by policy incentives to switch to flexible scheduling.

Details

Workplace Temporalities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1268-9

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Article
Publication date: 8 February 2008

Adil Baykasoğlu and Lale Özbakır

In today's very competitive, dynamic and unpredictable manufacturing environments it is critical to improve manufacturing performance in order to be able to compete…

Abstract

Purpose

In today's very competitive, dynamic and unpredictable manufacturing environments it is critical to improve manufacturing performance in order to be able to compete. Responsiveness and agility become important characteristics of manufacturing systems and organizations. Manufacturing systems must be designed optimally by taking into account responsiveness and agility related measures in order to improve effectiveness and performance. One of the important enablers of performance improvement is flexibility. It is a known fact that flexibility has a positive effect on the manufacturing system performance if it is properly utilized by the control system (usually scheduling). However, the relationship between flexibility and manufacturing system performance through scheduling is not entirely explored in the previous literature. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of process plan and machine flexibilities on the scheduling performance of manufacturing job‐shops.

Design/methodology/approach

Effects of process plan and machine flexibilities on the scheduling performance of manufacturing job‐shops are analyzed at different flexibility levels by using the grammar‐based flexible job shop scheduling system that is developed by Baykasoğlu et al.. Three different flexibility levels are defined for process plans and machines. Four different problem sizes are evaluated according to “makespan” “machine load balance” and “mean waiting times of jobs”. Performance differences among “process plan” and “machine flexibility” levels are determined and statistically analyzed through Taguchi experimental design methodology.

Findings

It is found out after detailed analysis that the effect of machine flexibility on job shop performance is higher than the process plan flexibility. It is also figured out that after a certain level of machine flexibility, the speed of scheduling performance improvement decreases considerably.

Originality/value

The paper presents the interaction between flexibility and scheduling performance of manufacturing job‐shops. The findings should be taken into account while designing scheduling systems for job shops that have flexible processing capabilities.

Details

Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, vol. 19 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-038X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1997

Tan Hock Soon and Robert de Souza School

In recent years, many firms have rediscovered the importance of scheduling on the shopfloor. Within the manufacturing functions, scheduling remains among the most…

Abstract

In recent years, many firms have rediscovered the importance of scheduling on the shopfloor. Within the manufacturing functions, scheduling remains among the most important and challenging tasks that must be performed routinely. Developing a schedule involves designating the resources needed to execute each operation of the process routeing plan and assigning the times at which each operation in the routeing will start and finish execution. The trend of current scheduling technology is towards a combination of the three common approaches; OR‐based, simulation‐based and AI‐based. Presents a hybrid approach using simulation‐based scheduling and a neural network to solve the detailed scheduling problem. Develops the neural network to analyse the complex information as well as orders coming on the shopfloor, and suggests candidate scheduling rules to the simulation model. The simulation model then uses the rules to schedule the orders on hand. The work is set against a backdrop of a currently operating flexible manufacturing cell.

Details

Integrated Manufacturing Systems, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-6061

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 1996

Godfrey C. Onwubolu

Describes flow‐shop scheduling problems and an interactive graphical flow‐shop manufacturing scheduling system (FSMS) developed to handle any number of jobs and machines…

Abstract

Describes flow‐shop scheduling problems and an interactive graphical flow‐shop manufacturing scheduling system (FSMS) developed to handle any number of jobs and machines. Outlines the methodical approach of using scheduling tools, such as lower bound, automatic generation of near‐optimal system sequences and schedule optimization in which the user is guided in determining optimal sequence, to cut scheduling time and make the scheduling system flexible. Outputs are in the form of Gantt charts. The graphical capability can be a very useful tool for decision makers such as production and operations managers who often encounter many day‐to‐day scheduling problems and challenges.

Details

International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 16 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3577

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2006

James A. Russo and Lea E. Waters

This study had three aims. First, to examine the validity of the workaholism triad as compared to the workaholism dyad. Second, to test the relationship between…

Abstract

Purpose

This study had three aims. First, to examine the validity of the workaholism triad as compared to the workaholism dyad. Second, to test the relationship between workaholism and work‐family conflict. Third, to explore the three‐way relationships between worker type, work‐family conflict (WFC) and supervisor support and flexible work schedules.

Design/methodology/approach

Participants consisted of 169 workers employed in the legal industry. The sample used was respondent‐driven and questionnaires were self‐administered. Workaholism was operationalised using two dimensions of the Spence and Robbins WorkBat: first, drive to work and second, work enjoyment, which produced four worker types (workaholics, enthusiastic workaholics, relaxed workers and uninvolved workers).

Findings

Support was found for McMillan et al.'s dyad conceptualisation of workaholism as opposed to Spence and Robbins' triad model. Specifically it was found that the work involvement subscale had low internal reliability and an unreliable factor structure. Results demonstrated that worker type was significantly related to WFC. Specifically, workaholics and enthusiastic workaholics experienced significantly more WFC than relaxed and uninvolved workers. Regarding the three‐way relationships, it was found that worker type moderated the relationship between schedule flexibility and WFC. Specifically, it was found that enthusiastic workaholics, in contrast to their workaholic counterparts, experienced declining WFC with access to flexible scheduling. Supervisor support was not significant.

Practical implications

The current study suggests that blanket policies, designed to promote work‐life balance, are unlikely to be effective for all employees. Indeed, it appears that although both workaholics and enthusiastic workaholics experience high levels of WFC, these two worker types may require different support mechanisms in order to achieve greater work‐life balance.

Originality/value

Despite their apparent conceptual linkage, the relationship between workaholism and work‐family conflict has not been explored in the literature to date. The current study contributes to the field of organisational behaviour both through proposing an additional dispositional antecedent to WFC (i.e. workaholism) and through uncovering an additional consequence of workaholic behaviour patterns (i.e. WFC).

Details

Career Development International, vol. 11 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

Keywords

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