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Book part
Publication date: 5 October 2018

Nima Gerami Seresht and Aminah Robinson Fayek

Fuzzy numbers are often used to represent non-probabilistic uncertainty in engineering, decision-making and control system applications. In these applications, fuzzy…

Abstract

Fuzzy numbers are often used to represent non-probabilistic uncertainty in engineering, decision-making and control system applications. In these applications, fuzzy arithmetic operations are frequently used for solving mathematical equations that contain fuzzy numbers. There are two approaches proposed in the literature for implementing fuzzy arithmetic operations: the α-cut approach and the extension principle approach using different t-norms. Computational methods for the implementation of fuzzy arithmetic operations in different applications are also proposed in the literature; these methods are usually developed for specific types of fuzzy numbers. This chapter discusses existing methods for implementing fuzzy arithmetic on triangular fuzzy numbers using both the α-cut approach and the extension principle approach using the min and drastic product t-norms. This chapter also presents novel computational methods for the implementation of fuzzy arithmetic on triangular fuzzy numbers using algebraic product and bounded difference t-norms. The applicability of the α-cut approach is limited because it tends to overestimate uncertainty, and the extension principle approach using the drastic product t-norm produces fuzzy numbers that are highly sensitive to changes in the input fuzzy numbers. The novel computational methods proposed in this chapter for implementing fuzzy arithmetic using algebraic product and bounded difference t-norms contribute to a more effective use of fuzzy arithmetic in construction applications. This chapter also presents an example of the application of fuzzy arithmetic operations to a construction problem. In addition, it discusses the effects of using different approaches for implementing fuzzy arithmetic operations in solving practical construction problems.

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Fuzzy Hybrid Computing in Construction Engineering and Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-868-2

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Article
Publication date: 18 September 2020

Xianjin Zha, Chengsong Huang, Yalan Yan, Guanxiang Yan, Xue Wang and Kun Zhang

This study aims to explore the mechanisms of extended information seeking, which is the combination of extended information technologies (IT) use behavior and…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to explore the mechanisms of extended information seeking, which is the combination of extended information technologies (IT) use behavior and information-seeking behavior. The purpose is to identify the factors that shape extended information seeking from the perspectives of psychological empowerment and attachment.

Design/methodology/approach

A research model was developed based on prior theory and literature. Survey data were collected, and the partial least squares (PLS) structural equation modeling was used to verify the research model.

Findings

Psychological empowerment is a well-constructed second-order construct, having a larger positive effect on extended information seeking. Digital libraries attachment has a positive effect on extended information seeking.

Practical implications

Accessing digital libraries does not mean using digital libraries effectively. Managers of digital libraries should design various specific information activities to help users enhance psychological empowerment. They should provide more available and responsive services for users to enhance digital libraries attachment.

Originality/value

Drawing on the adaptive structuration theory, this study examines extended information seeking by combining extended use of digital libraries and information seeking, presenting a new lens for digital library and information seeking research.

Details

Aslib Journal of Information Management, vol. 72 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-3806

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Article
Publication date: 9 February 2010

Jussi Lehtinen and Tuomas Ahola

The purpose of this paper is to assess whether performance measurement literature and as a result, practical applications, models and frameworks drawing from this…

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2822

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to assess whether performance measurement literature and as a result, practical applications, models and frameworks drawing from this literature are compatible with the central features of extended enterprises.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is based on a bibliometric study that is supplemented with an empirical case study.

Findings

The results of this paper indicate that literature on performance measurement and literature on extended enterprises are only partially compatible. The common underlying reasons for measuring performance are highly valid also in the context of an extended enterprise. However, performance measurement processes and practices utilized within firms are to a considerable degree incompatible with central characteristics of extended enterprises. A highly apparent conflict between the two streams of literature is related to choosing individual performance measures (i.e. the question of what to measure). Performance measurement literature emphasizes intra‐organizational measures which conflicts starkly with the emphasis of inter‐organizational collaboration dominant in literature addressing extended enterprises.

Research limitations/implications

The sample consists of articles published in many leading academic journals. The primary implication of this paper is that the importance of inter‐organizational relations and collaboration, and the lack of a central decision‐making authority should be taken into consideration when designing and implementing performance measurement systems for extended enterprises.

Practical implications

Managers implementing performance measurement systems may tend to adopt solutions recommended by industry actors and dominant performance measurement literature. As increasingly many firms operate as a part of an extended enterprise, the adoption of these off‐the‐shelf solutions poses considerable risks.

Originality/value

The main contribution of this paper is that it systematically assesses the compatibility of performance measurement and extended enterprise literature by means of a bibliometric analysis. In addition, the paper identifies key contributions from both streams of literature. An empirical case representing the shipbuilding industry is carried out to validate obtained findings.

Details

International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 30 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3577

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Article
Publication date: 21 November 2016

Hooman Estelami, Peter De Maeyer and Nicholas Estelami

Research in marketing has extensively examined the signaling effects of product warranties on consumer perceptions. Although this stream of research has focused on initial…

Abstract

Purpose

Research in marketing has extensively examined the signaling effects of product warranties on consumer perceptions. Although this stream of research has focused on initial product warranties offered by the manufacturer, studies of extended warranties, which protect consumers against product breakdowns beyond the warranty constraints of the manufacturer, are relatively scarce. This paper aims to empirically establish the effects of variables which influence the pricing of extended warranties for consumer durables.

Design/methodology/approach

Using data on over 8,000 product offers in six durable goods categories, drivers of the annual premiums for extended warranties are empirically identified. Bivariate and multi-level hierarchical linear regression methods are used to establish the effects of factors which may drive the prices of extended warranties.

Findings

The results reveal that the standardized annual premiums for extended warranties systematically vary across product categories and brands and are further affected by the retailer’s decision to use odd price endings for the sold product and the extended warranty. The influences of warranty length and price level of the protected product on extended warranty premiums are also empirically established.

Research limitations/implications

The findings indicate systematic variations in extended warranty prices as a result of the factors studied. Future research can extend this line of inquiry by utilizing alternative means of data gathering.

Practical implications

Given that marketers often cross-sell many consumer durable goods with extended warranty policies, and considering the growth in consumer spending in this category, as well as the high retail margins associated with extended warranties, this paper contributes to the understanding of the mechanism by which extended warranty prices are determined in the marketplace.

Originality/value

This is the first study to examine the determinants of extended warranty prices, as past studies have been normative and non-empirical in nature.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 25 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2005

Umit S. Bititci, Kepa Mendibil, Veronica Martinez and Pavel Albores

The purpose of this research paper is to demonstrate how existing performance measurement may be adopted to measure and manage performance in extended enterprises.

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7000

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research paper is to demonstrate how existing performance measurement may be adopted to measure and manage performance in extended enterprises.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper reviews the literature in performance measurement and extended enterprises. It explains the collaborative architecture of an extended enterprise and demonstrates this architecture through a case study. A model for measuring and managing performance in extended enterprises is developed using the case study.

Findings

The research found that due to structural differences between traditional and extended enterprises, the systems required to measure and manage the performance of extended enterprises, whilst being based upon existing performance measurement frameworks, would be structurally and operationally different. Based on this, a model for measuring and managing performance in extended enterprises is proposed which includes intrinsic and extrinsic inter‐enterprise coordinating measures.

Research limitations/implications

There are two limitations this research. First, the evidence is based on a single case, thus further cases should be studied to establish the generalisibility of the presented results. Second, the practical limitations of the EE performance measurement model should be established through longitudinal action research.

Practical implications

In practice the model proposed requires collaborating organisations to be more open and share critical performance information with one another. This will require change in practices and attitudes.

Originality/value

The main contribution this paper makes is that it highlights the structural differences between traditional and collaborative enterprises and specifies performance measurement and management requirements of these collaborative organisations.

Details

International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 25 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3577

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Article
Publication date: 29 May 2019

Kiran Karande and Mahesh Gopinath

Product failures can lead to customer dissatisfaction, negative brand attitudes and a loss of brand equity. The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether extended

Abstract

Purpose

Product failures can lead to customer dissatisfaction, negative brand attitudes and a loss of brand equity. The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether extended warranties offer a mechanism to mitigate the negative effects of product failure and the mediating role of positive and negative self-directed emotions.

Design/methodology/approach

The hypotheses are tested using two 2 × 2 between-subjects experiments with product failure and warranty purchase as the two factors, attitude toward the brand as the dependent variable, positive and negative self-directed emotions as mediating variables and attitude toward warranties as a covariate.

Findings

It is found that the decline in attitude toward the brand due to product failure is greater among customers purchasing an extended warranty, than among those who do not. Moreover, positive and negative self-directed emotions mediate this relationship.

Originality/value

Manufacturers are for the most part not involved in distribution or administration of extended warranties, which are mainly sold through retailers and administered by companies that specialize in extended warranties. The study findings indicate that contrary to industry practice, consumer-durable manufacturers should consider more active management and promotion of extended warranties to protect their brand’s equity from the negative effects of product failure.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 28 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

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Article
Publication date: 5 June 2019

Zhen Shao

The purpose of this paper is to examine the mediating effect of job autonomy on the relationship between direct supervisor’s transformational leadership behaviors and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the mediating effect of job autonomy on the relationship between direct supervisor’s transformational leadership behaviors and employees’ extended use of information technologies (IT). In addition, this study considers IT innovativeness as a significant moderator in the research model, in order to examine if the relative influences of leadership behaviors on IT extended use are contingent upon employees’ IT innovativeness.

Design/methodology/approach

A field survey was conducted in China and empirical data were collected from 299 employees who use IT in support of daily work. Structural equation modeling technique was used to examine the research model and corresponding hypotheses.

Findings

The empirical results indicate that: three dimensions of transformational leadership, specifically interpersonal consideration, intellectual stimulation and inspirational motivation, are significant antecedents of employees’ IT extended use; perceived job autonomy partially mediates the relationships between transformational leadership behaviors and IT extended use; and employees’ IT innovativeness positively moderates the effects of transformational leadership behaviors on IT extended use.

Practical implications

This study can provide first-line managers with a better understanding of how to stimulate employees to make an extended use of IT by granting them more freedom in job assignments. Furthermore, the managers also need attend to subordinates’ personal IT innovativeness when exhibiting transformational leadership behaviors.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the extant literature of IT extended use through the lens of transformational leadership and job characteristics theory. In particular, this study identifies the boundary condition of the proposed research model by uncovering the moderating effect of IT innovativeness between transformational leadership behaviors and IT extended use.

Details

Journal of Enterprise Information Management, vol. 32 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0398

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Article
Publication date: 3 June 2014

Yung-Shen Yen

– The purpose of this paper is to explore the interaction effect of information richness, retailer brand, and extended offers on customer purchase intention in e-commerce.

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5838

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the interaction effect of information richness, retailer brand, and extended offers on customer purchase intention in e-commerce.

Design/methodology/approach

Hierarchical moderator regression analysis and simple slope analysis were used to test the hypotheses, also 356 savvy internet consumers in Taiwan were investigated.

Findings

The findings revealed that information richness, retailer brand, and extended offers are positively related to customer purchase intention. However, the interaction effects may differ in these relationships. While information richness complements both retailer brand and extended offers on customer purchase intention, extended offers may substitute retailer brand for increase in purchase intention.

Research limitations/implications

A bias may exist because of the sample from an online survey. The findings suggest that complements are actually synergistic strategies of factors, while substitution is a switching of the alternative.

Practical implications

Practitioners shall utilize information richness to the complements, such as retailer brand and extended offers, to strengthen customer purchase intention. In contrast, they may provide extended offers for acquiring customers in the short-term period, when retailer brand is relatively low or unknown.

Originality/value

The findings of the study provide a new marketing strategy: managing substitutes and complements in adequate factors can give rise to better results for purchase intention increases in e-commerce.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 26 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

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Article
Publication date: 9 January 2009

Shwu‐Ing Wu and Chen‐Lien Lo

This study aims to determine and discuss relevant factors and relationship models affecting consumers’ purchase intention towards the extended product, PC for Microsoft…

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15788

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to determine and discuss relevant factors and relationship models affecting consumers’ purchase intention towards the extended product, PC for Microsoft. The results are to serve as a reference for managers when implementing brand extension strategies.

Design/methodology/approach

The two major factors, “core‐brand attitude” and “consumer perception fit”, have been included in studying their influence on consumer purchase intention towards extended products. Of the questionnaire surveys distributed to PC users in Taiwan, 667 valid samples were returned. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to establish the relationship model.

Findings

The results indicate that consumers in Taiwan show a relatively high purchase intention towards virtually extended products, Microsoft PC. The relational structure shows that brand awareness has a significant influence on core‐brand image (parent‐brand image), thus indirectly affecting core‐brand attitude and causing impacts on consumer purchase intention towards extended products. On the other hand, consumer perception fit has greater influence than core‐brand attitude, denoting that both the brand association and product connection have a remarkable influence on consumer purchase intention towards extended products.

Originality/value

The study proposes an effective structural model and notes significant influence factors for consumers’ purchase intention towards extended products.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 21 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

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Article
Publication date: 2 November 2018

Jan Dettmers and Jana Biemelt

Studies have shown that availability for work during non-work hours can impair well-being. However, there are significant inter-individual differences regarding these…

Abstract

Purpose

Studies have shown that availability for work during non-work hours can impair well-being. However, there are significant inter-individual differences regarding these effects. Referring to the “effort–reward–imbalance” model and the “stress-as-offense-to-self” model, the purpose of this paper is to investigate the role that perceived advantages as well as the illegitimacy of extended availability plays in explaining the inter-individual differences.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 310 participants completed an online questionnaire that measured extended availability, illegitimacy of extended availability, advantages of availability and two strain indicators. The authors conducted regression analyses to analyze the effects of extended availability on strain and the moderating role of perceived illegitimacy and advantages of extended availability.

Findings

Extended availability and – beyond this effect – perceived illegitimacy of extended availability were positively correlated with strain, whereas perceived advantages showed the opposite effect. Furthermore, perceived advantages had a moderating effect in that high advantages buffered the detrimental effects of extended availability.

Research limitations/implications

The results are based on cross-sectional data. However, the findings confirm previous research indicating that the detrimental effects of extended availability are dependent on specific boundary conditions. In this study, the authors provided evidence for the moderating effect of perceived advantages regarding extended availability.

Practical implications

The results provided indications to designing availability in a risk-reducing way by accounting for boundary conditions that may increase or decrease the detrimental effects.

Originality/value

By focusing on perceived illegitimacy and flexibility advantages as boundary conditions for the effects of extended availability, the study introduces two established concepts into the research on increasingly flexible work–home boundaries.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 33 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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