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Article
Publication date: 8 May 2009

Duncan McTavish and Karen Miller

The purpose of this paper is to analyse gender representation in leadership and management in further and higher education organisations. It does this, through the lens of two…

3306

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyse gender representation in leadership and management in further and higher education organisations. It does this, through the lens of two perspectives on bureaucratic representation, a “liberal democratic” perspective and an alternative view which states that bureaucracies are not necessarily gender blind or women friendly. The paper reviews the reform and managerial environments, vertical and horizontal gender patterns in the sectors; undertakes empirical research which surveys staff in six case study institutions seeking responses on job roles and activities, career motivators and inhibitors, supportiveness of line managers, perceptions of organisational leadership and culture with regard to gender equality and career advance.

Design/methodology/approach

Secondary data were used from a variety of sources. Primary data were based on all staff surveys using online software symbolic network analysis program in case study institutions with n=4,522, representing one quarter of the population.

Findings

Non‐executive levels of management in both sectors were highly gendered and unrepresentative of the population. Vertical segregation was found at executive level too, though less in colleges than universities. In higher education, horizontal gendering – in subject areas – and the emphasis on subject knowledge and background with the connected gender segregation of research activity, played a crucial role in unequal gender representation patterns. In colleges, while there was horizontal subject‐based segregation, the lesser importance of research/subject background in the career dynamic has created opportunities to de‐couple subject background and career opportunity. Part‐time working, especially in colleges, had mixed effects in gender career terms. The research showed that in universities women spent greater proportions of time in teaching and administration vis‐a‐vis research compared to men. Work life balance was not a career inhibitor for women in higher education but was for women in colleges. Some other key similarities and differences in perceptions between men and women in both sectors are outlined, perhaps the most striking of which was that women in both sectors, while agreeing that opportunities policies are equal and fair, felt that institutional leadership could do more to advance the careers of women; men did not.

Originality/value

This is the first study of its kind to compare and contrast college and university sectors, and makes a significant contribution to understanding of gender representation in organisations. While, there are similarities between the sectors, this research has highlighted major differences which have importance for research, policy and managerial practice. The paper, in its conclusion, aims to stimulate action by suggesting some practical initiatives, based on the research.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal, vol. 24 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 May 2007

Duncan McTavish and Robert Pyper

A key aspect of the government's modernisation programme is to promote greater gender balance and diversity across public sector institutions and services. This includes…

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Abstract

Purpose

A key aspect of the government's modernisation programme is to promote greater gender balance and diversity across public sector institutions and services. This includes appointments to and membership of public funded bodies. This paper reports on initial research on gender representation on boards in the Scottish enterprise (SE) sector.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey of membership by gender of SE and local enterprise company (LEC) boards; questionnaire survey of board members (n=66 – 43 male, 23 female); elite interviews.

Findings

Gender imbalance skewed in favour of males to an even greater extent than the public appointments sector as a whole. Women were more likely to approach board membership through formal means than by personal contact. Men and women had different views about personal contribution made to boards. Women surveyed tended to serve on more boards than did men. There were major procedural differences and inconsistencies between LECs and between LECs and SE regarding board recruitment.

Practical implications

Appointments procedures could be altered to ensure consistency, transparency and increased “gaze” across the enterprise network. Ways should be found to increase the female recruitment pool to counter the over stretching currently observed among existing female board members.

Originality/value

This research highlights the challenges faced by modernisation in this sector with respect to improving gender balance in representational terms. The next stage of the research will focus on substantive representation in the enterprise sector.

Details

Women in Management Review, vol. 22 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0964-9425

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 30 December 2013

Duncan McTavish

To explore the shifting contours of politico-economic governmental responsibility and accountability from the consensually driven Keynesian welfare state model through to the…

Abstract

Purpose

To explore the shifting contours of politico-economic governmental responsibility and accountability from the consensually driven Keynesian welfare state model through to the market focused neo-liberal new public management (NPM) approach and beyond. In particular the chapter addresses the post-2008 crisis and austerity environment. It questions why the apparent failure of the market privileged neo-liberal model resulting in financial crisis and the prolonged aftermath has not led to an alternative recognizably coherent or consensually based approach to government and state responsibility for politico-economic management, and the implications of this for the accountability of public services.

Methodology

The chapter draws on extensive literature across economic, social policy, public management and other fields as well as government and key institutional documents and reports. This enables a comparative perspective on governmental approaches to politico-economic management and management of public services, addressing key areas of consensus, responsibility and accountability.

Findings

The chapter traces the trajectory of governmental accountability and responsibility from Keynesianism to neo-liberalism and NPM, conceptually grounding these policy shifts and punctuations. It suggests that the key issue – why the dramatic failure of the neo-liberal model from 2008 has not led to a new emerging paradigm – may be answered not simply by reference to the continuation of neo-liberal approaches, but by appreciating that a number of countries have in fact implemented adaptive and resilient systems which have accommodated many of the neo-liberal NPM prescriptions. The findings conclude with some speculation on the future of government and public sector accountabilities and responsibilities.

Details

Looking for Consensus?: Civil Society, Social Movements and Crises for Public Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-725-2

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 March 2000

John Newton, Joanne Graham, Kevin McLoughlin, Alice Moore and Duncan McTavish

Describes the findings from the first year of an evaluation of change at a PMS+ site in West Cumbria. The study has used qualitative methods including non‐participant observation…

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Abstract

Describes the findings from the first year of an evaluation of change at a PMS+ site in West Cumbria. The study has used qualitative methods including non‐participant observation at the site; face to face interviews with 28 clinical staff; group interviews with administrative and secretarial staff; and the collection of documents. Analysis of the data against a set of “outcome indicators” shows that significant progress has been made towards implementing the model of primary care delivery described in the pilot proposal. Multidisciplinary working is developing in the clinical action groups and the establishment of a primary care emergency unit has changed general practitioner workloads. The new organisation structure is not yet working wholly as anticipated but recently initiated changes are intended to strengthen the role and authority of the management board.

Details

Journal of Management in Medicine, vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-9235

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Looking for Consensus?: Civil Society, Social Movements and Crises for Public Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-725-2

Book part
Publication date: 6 July 2015

Duncan McTavish

Existing work on multi-level governance (MLG) has concentrated on decentring of the state (e.g., Rhodes, R. A. W. (1994). The hollowing out of the state: The changing nature of…

Abstract

Purpose

Existing work on multi-level governance (MLG) has concentrated on decentring of the state (e.g., Rhodes, R. A. W. (1994). The hollowing out of the state: The changing nature of the public service in Britain. Political Quarterly, 65(2), 138–141; Rhodes, R. A. W. (1997). Understanding governance: Policy networks, governance, reflexivity and accountability. London: Open University Press; Rhodes, R. A. W. (2008). Understanding governance: Ten years on. Organisation Studies, 28(8), 1243–1264); growth of non-state actors in governing (e.g., Crouch, 2004; Jessop, B. (2004). Multi level governance and multi-level metagovernance-changes in the European Union as integral moments in the transformation and re-orientation of contemporary statehood. In I. Bache & M. Flinders (Eds.), Multi level governance. Oxford: Oxford University Press); classifying different types of governance (e.g., type 1 and type 2 MLG – see Hooghe & Marks, 2003; Ongaro, E., Massey, A., Holzer, M., & Wayenberg, E. (Eds.). (2010). Governance and intergovernmental relations in the European Union and the United States: Theoretical perspectives. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar). The purpose of the chapter is to complement these approaches by focusing on politics and political strategies in multi-level systems.

Methodology/approach

The chapter draws on an extensive literature in governance and political accountability and on political dynamics, management and strategies within multi-level state systems. Although in international context, particular accentuation is placed on the UK case.

Findings

There are three broad findings. First, while the growth of MLG and in particular supra state activities and institutions have undermined conventional conceptions of political accountability, more nuanced interpretations are provided; as are cases of successful popular challenge to a seemingly inevitable application of neo-liberal new public management driven approaches to public service provision, as witnessed in examples of public service de-privatisation and re-municipalisation. Second, as seen in the United Kingdom, political strategies in a multi-state system are presented in terms of zero sum or alternatively win-win scenarios. In Scotland, for example, though there have been difficulties for state wide parties in managing multi-level politics in the devolved arena, yet in that arena win-win strategies have been played out; and in Northern Ireland with a contextual backdrop of conflict, there is also evidence of win-win political actions. Third, some general findings are presented which outline a range of centrifugal and centripetal forces found in some European countries and how these affect the choice of political strategy.

Details

Multi-Level Governance: The Missing Linkages
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-874-8

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 January 2006

Susan M. Ogden, Duncan McTavish and Lindsay McKean

Females now comprise just over half of the workforce in the UK financial services sector. This paper aims to report on the current position relating to factors that are…

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Abstract

Purpose

Females now comprise just over half of the workforce in the UK financial services sector. This paper aims to report on the current position relating to factors that are facilitating and inhibiting women from moving into middle and senior levels of management within the financial services sector.

Design/methodology/approach

A comparative analysis of four case studies from a cross‐section of the financial services industry is presented, each compiled using interviews with male and female senior and middle managers, and gender‐defined focus groups usually of employees who are in the promotion pipeline.

Findings

Despite progress in the case study organisations, both men and women concur that females encounter more barriers to career progression in the industry than men and that these relate primarily to a long hours culture and networking. This leads some women to exclude themselves from working in certain parts of the industry, such as corporate banking. Further, this aspect of the industry culture tends to permeate into areas of the industry where these activities are less important for fostering client relationships.

Practical implications

The research implies that the industry needs to do more to make networking events and activities more gender neutral. Additionally, as more women move up the career pipeline, they should be encouraged to access networks that tap into their equivalent “female networks”.

Originality/value

The paper provides a current picture of managerial working life in the UK financial services industry and provides empirical evidence of the managerial work cultures within the sector.

Details

Women in Management Review, vol. 21 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0964-9425

Keywords

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 6 July 2015

Abstract

Details

Multi-Level Governance: The Missing Linkages
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-874-8

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 30 December 2013

Abstract

Details

Looking for Consensus?: Civil Society, Social Movements and Crises for Public Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-725-2

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 18 October 2014

Abstract

Details

European Public Leadership in Crisis?
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-901-0

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