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Book part
Publication date: 5 June 2018

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Viewpoints on Interventions for Learners with Disabilities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-089-1

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Book part
Publication date: 11 August 2021

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Traditional and Innovative Assessment Techniques for Students with Disabilities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-890-1

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Book part
Publication date: 7 January 2019

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Special Education for Young Learners with Disabilities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-041-3

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Book part
Publication date: 26 November 2019

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Special Education Transition Services for Students with Disabilities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-977-4

Book part
Publication date: 28 January 2011

Carrie Anna Courtad and Jeffrey P. Bakken

In other words, LD can affect the way in which a person takes in, remembers, understands, and expresses information. Typically, a person with LD is of average…

Abstract

In other words, LD can affect the way in which a person takes in, remembers, understands, and expresses information. Typically, a person with LD is of average intelligence, based on his/her intelligence quotient (IQ); however his/her academic performance is different from how they should be able to perform. People with LD are intelligent and have abilities to learn despite difficulties in processing information; however, they require specialized interventions in home, school, community, and workplace settings, appropriate to their individual strengths and needs, including but not limited to (a) specific skill instruction, (b) the development of compensatory strategies, (c) the development of self-advocacy skills, and (d) appropriate accommodation. Typically, a student with mild LD, who is identified and provided learning-disabilities instruction, can enhance his/her academic achievement, however, a student with undetected LD can struggle with low grades, low self-esteem, a loss of interest in higher education, and later reduced employment opportunities as an adult (Burkhardt, Obiakor, & Rotatori, 2004).

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History of Special Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-629-5

Book part
Publication date: 5 June 2018

Jeffrey P. Bakken and Festus E. Obiakor

People with disabilities have always existed in our communities and societies; however, how we treat them has always been an issue. For example, for a long time, people…

Abstract

People with disabilities have always existed in our communities and societies; however, how we treat them has always been an issue. For example, for a long time, people with physical disabilities received more attention than those with disabilities that we could hardly see (e.g., learning disabilities). Very early research focused on students with sensory impairments and then the focus shifted to students with cognitive impairments. Finally, the focus was on students with learning disabilities and emotional behavioral disorders. Early research with this last group of students focused on comparing students with and without disabilities to document deficits and characteristics of these individuals. Over time, when the characteristics were established, researchers moved their attention to interventions or ways to improve deficits in specific content areas such as reading and mathematics. This chapter is an introduction to the rest of this volume that addresses different viewpoints on interventions for students with different types of disabilities.

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Viewpoints on Interventions for Learners with Disabilities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-089-1

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Book part
Publication date: 30 July 2014

Jeffrey P. Bakken and Stephanie Gaddy

Learning disabilities (LD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) include one of the largest special education populations in the United States. These…

Abstract

Learning disabilities (LD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) include one of the largest special education populations in the United States. These disabilities can range in severity from mild to severe and although these concepts were formulated in the United States, they are also being diagnosed across the globe in other countries. This chapter begins with an historical explanation of the origins of the term LD followed by the U.S. Federal Laws enacted to protect students with LD. Next, the identification of LD, the characteristics, diagnoses, and supportive services are described. Following this description is information about students with ADHD, their diagnoses, and supports in educational environments. Specific characteristics and difficulties students with LD and ADHD possess are then defined within academic activities including reading, math, writing, and social skills as well as overall difficulties students may experience are not defined within these academic subject areas. Some possible strategies are then offered to help ameliorate the effects of LD and ADHD and finally the prevalence of LD/ADHD and the supportive environments for these students throughout the world are described.

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Special Education International Perspectives: Biopsychosocial, Cultural, and Disability Aspects
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-045-2

Book part
Publication date: 5 June 2018

Festus E. Obiakor, Jeffrey P. Bakken and Jessica Graves

Changes are occuring at a startling fillip in our society and our world. One of the changes is the need to revamp how persons with disabilities are treated and educated…

Abstract

Changes are occuring at a startling fillip in our society and our world. One of the changes is the need to revamp how persons with disabilities are treated and educated. In the United States of America, laws have been pulmulgated to reduce the plight of learners with disabilties. As a result, myriad intervention strategies have been instituted to identify, assess, label, place, and educate these learners. However, some interventions continue to be very traditional. To go beyond tradition and adequately maximize the fullest potential of learners with disabilties, we must value the “specialness” of special education as a powerful intervention program, listen to new voices with new ideas, and debunk deficit thinking that are prejudicial, especially in helping people with disabilities to survive in our competitive society. Interestingly, the chapters in this book have exposed the different intervention options for learners with disabilities. Clearly, without innovative interventions for these learners, special education will be a failure.

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Viewpoints on Interventions for Learners with Disabilities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-089-1

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 28 January 2011

Kagendo Mutua, James Siders and Jeffrey P. Bakken

This chapter traces the history of intellectual disabilities by exploring significant historical periods and personalities who impacted the disability field and…

Abstract

This chapter traces the history of intellectual disabilities by exploring significant historical periods and personalities who impacted the disability field and specifically the area of intellectual disability. Like other documented histories, the purpose of this chapter is to instruct and inform readers about the historical underpinnings of the labels, practices, and programs related to intellectual disability that are in effect today. While this chapter is not intended to be prescriptive in how the information presented here is to be interpreted, we are acutely aware that historical accounts are often interpreted based upon contemporary ideologies, knowledge, and practices. As such, as a historical account, this chapter is no exception. Current belief and practices about intellectual disabilities indeed influence the choices that, we as the chapter authors, made about the relative importance of the events that we select to highlight in this chapter. Nonetheless, this account reflects the events and personalities who, in our estimation, transformed and/or advanced the field of intellectual disability. We open with a brief prologue of the representations of the intellectual disability in popular culture and its potential impact on perceptions of persons with intellectual disability.

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History of Special Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-629-5

Book part
Publication date: 28 January 2011

Stacy M. Kelly and Christine Clark-Bischke

Defined functionally, having low vision can mean the inability to read newsprint even with best correction (when wearing conventional eyeglasses or contact lenses) (Maino

Abstract

Defined functionally, having low vision can mean the inability to read newsprint even with best correction (when wearing conventional eyeglasses or contact lenses) (Maino, 1993). Other functional definitions of low vision refer to a loss of vision that may be severe enough to hinder an individual's ability to complete daily activities such as reading, cooking, or walking outside safely, while still retaining some degree of useable vision. Low vision is decreased visual performance that prevents performance to full capacity compared with a typically sighted person of the same age and gender. It may be a consequence of reduced acuity, abnormal visual field, reduced contrast sensitivity, or other ocular dysfunction (Faye, 1984). This definition includes people who are legally blind and those who have a more significant amount of remaining vision.

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History of Special Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-629-5

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