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Book part
Publication date: 11 July 2019

Annette Bergemann, Erik Grönqvist and Soffia Guðbjörnsdóttir

We investigate how career disruptions in terms of job loss may impact morbidity for individuals diagnosed with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Combining unique, high-quality…

Abstract

We investigate how career disruptions in terms of job loss may impact morbidity for individuals diagnosed with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Combining unique, high-quality longitudinal data from the Swedish National Diabetes Register (NDR) with matched employer–employee data, we focus on individuals diagnosed with T2D, who are established on the labor market and who lose their job in a mass layoff. Using a conditional difference-in-differences evaluation approach, our results give limited support for job loss having an impact on health behavior, diabetes progression, and cardiovascular risk factors.

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Health and Labor Markets
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-861-2

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Article
Publication date: 12 February 2018

Il-Hyoung Cho and Kyujin Jung

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED), a crime prevention tool, on reducing rates of sexual…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED), a crime prevention tool, on reducing rates of sexual assault. In addition, the study attempts to understand if CPTED results in crime displacement in non-target areas.

Design/methodology/approach

This research utilizes a Weighted Displacement Quotient (WDQ) model to analyze the effects of CPTED, which is an appropriate tool in fields of regional-scale crime prevention and on sexual assault prevention. WDQ is capable of analyzing policy effectiveness while controlling for geographical crime displacement, a known side effect of CPTED in the literature.

Findings

The analysis results show that CPTED is an effective tool to prevent sexual assaults in South Korea. The sexual assault occurrence rate decreased in the CPTED implementation zone of Yeomri-dong Mapo-gu. WDQ showed that crime displacement occurred in adjacent areas in Daeheung-dong and Ahyun-dong. But, crime displacement was lower than the policy effectiveness in the target zone.

Originality/value

The policy implications of this research are immense. First, CPTED for the prevention of sexual assaults should be considered as a pre-control tool. Second, a strategic method for more effectively implementing CPTED is required. Third, because CPTED is a policy done on a regional scale, provisions need to be in place to manage crime displacement.

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Article
Publication date: 28 October 2014

Marcus Eliason

The purpose of this paper is to examine the earnings, employment and income effects of job displacement among female assistant and auxiliary nurses – two hard-hit…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the earnings, employment and income effects of job displacement among female assistant and auxiliary nurses – two hard-hit female-dominated occupations – in Sweden during the economic crisis of the 1990s.

Design/methodology/approach

Using register data, assistant and auxiliary nurses who were displaced due to mass-layoffs during the crisis years were identified, as well as an appropriate control group. The study population could be followed for a maximum of 13 years. Mean effects were estimated using a propensity score weighted fixed effect estimator. In a supplementary analysis, propensity score weighted quantile effects were estimated.

Findings

Job loss among women in the public sector seems to have had similar earnings and employment consequences as previously found for job loss among men in the private sector. However, the social insurance system replaced a majority of the lost earnings. Moreover, a distributional analysis revealed that the income and earnings losses were limited to the lower part of the distributions.

Social implications

Budget consolidation measures to restore health to public finances in the aftermath of the Great Recession are likely to have long-lasting adverse consequences for some. Although many of those losing their jobs are likely to quickly regain employment at a comparable earnings level, the unlucky few may bear most of the costs.

Originality/value

The author is aware of no previously published research that has investigated either the impact of job displacement in the public sector or the distributional effect of job displacement.

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International Journal of Manpower, vol. 35 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Book part
Publication date: 19 May 2009

David Brady

Purpose – Since the 1960s, the affluent democracies have experienced substantial changes in earnings inequality at the same time as heightening economic globalization…

Abstract

Purpose – Since the 1960s, the affluent democracies have experienced substantial changes in earnings inequality at the same time as heightening economic globalization. This paper investigates the relationship between these two processes.

Methodology/Approach – I use fixed-effects models, and comprehensive measures of globalization and earnings inequality to scrutinize the relationship between the two in 18 affluent democracies. Although past studies concentrate on worker displacement, I examine how globalization affected earnings inequality before and after controlling for manufacturing employment and unemployment as indicators of displacement.

Findings – Initial evidence suggests net migration and investment openness have moderate positive effects, but trade openness has larger, more significant positive effects. In full models, only trade openness remains robustly significant. For a standard deviation increase in trade openness, earnings inequality should increase by between 1/5th and 2/5th of a standard deviation.

Originality/Value of paper – Beyond displacement, this study encourages investigation of power relations (e.g., class capacities of employers vs. workers) and institutional change (e.g., practices of firms) as mechanisms by which globalization contributes to inequality.

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Economic Sociology of Work
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-368-2

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Book part
Publication date: 10 October 2017

Francisco H. G. Ferreira, Deon Filmer and Norbert Schady

Conditional cash transfers (CCT) have been adopted in many countries over the last two decades. Although the impacts of these programs have been studied extensively…

Abstract

Conditional cash transfers (CCT) have been adopted in many countries over the last two decades. Although the impacts of these programs have been studied extensively, understanding of the economic mechanisms through which cash and conditions affect household decisions remains incomplete. In particular, relatively little is known about the effects of these programs on intra-household allocation decisions. This chapter uses evidence from a program in Cambodia, where eligibility varied substantially among siblings in the same household, to illustrate these effects. A simple model of schooling decisions highlights three different effects of a child-specific CCT: an income effect, a substitution effect, and a displacement effect. The model predicts that such a CCT should unambiguously increase enrollment for eligible children, but have an ambiguous effect on ineligible siblings. The ambiguity arises from the interaction of a positive income effect with a negative displacement effect. These predictions are shown to be consistent with evidence from Cambodia, where the CESSP Scholarship Program (CSP) makes modest transfers, conditional on school enrollment for children of middle-school age. Scholarship recipients were more than 20 percentage points more likely to be enrolled in school, and 10 percentage points less likely to work for pay. However, the school enrollment and work of ineligible siblings was largely unaffected by the program. A possible fourth effect, operating through non-pecuniary spillovers of the intervention among siblings, remains largely outside the scope of the analysis, although there is some tentative evidence to suggest that it might also be at work.

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Research on Economic Inequality
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-521-4

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2003

Patrick A. Puhani

Analyses Polish active labour market policy programmes (ALMP) from a macroeconomic (regional) point of view. The effects of training programmes on the outflows from…

Abstract

Analyses Polish active labour market policy programmes (ALMP) from a macroeconomic (regional) point of view. The effects of training programmes on the outflows from unemployment into employment and the effects of all ALMP programmes on the outflows from employment into unemployment (to identify displacement effects) are estimated. The empirical evidence gives no support to the view that public training programmes can be used to reduce unemployment, and there is no robust evidence for displacement effects by any ALMP programme. The result that start‐up loans can reduce flows from employment into unemployment is only weakly significant.

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International Journal of Manpower, vol. 24 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1977

Adrian Ziderman

It is just over fifty years since the British government instigated the scheme that was to lead to the setting up of Government Training Centres (GTCs) shortly afterwards.

Abstract

It is just over fifty years since the British government instigated the scheme that was to lead to the setting up of Government Training Centres (GTCs) shortly afterwards.

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International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article
Publication date: 21 March 2016

John L. Worrall

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate a foot patrol and citizen contact-based policing intervention in a suburb outside Dallas. Funded by the Bureau of Justice…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate a foot patrol and citizen contact-based policing intervention in a suburb outside Dallas. Funded by the Bureau of Justice Assistance “Smart Policing” initiative, the intervention consisted of assigning a single bilingual officer to an economically disadvantaged apartment complex in the heart of the city.

Design/methodology/approach

An examination of calls for service across several offense types was performed for the target complex, the adjacent neighborhood, and a nearby apartment complex. The aims of the study were to determine whether the intervention affected specific calls for service and geographic and/or temporal displacement/diffusion occurred.

Findings

Two key findings emerged. First, the intervention produced several hypothesized reductions and increases in specific call types, but temporal displacement rendered those effects short-lived. Second, diffusion to surrounding areas was observed and persisted through various treatment dosages.

Practical implications

The study provides useful information to practitioners who might seek to implement foot-patrol-based tactics in hot spots and micro-places. However, foot patrol and/or citizen contact patrol alone may not yield sustainable crime reductions in their target areas.

Originality/value

Few recent studies have examined the efficacy of foot patrol in crime hot spots. No recent studies have evaluated citizen contact patrol within micro-places. This study sought to address both limitations.

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Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 39 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1992

E. Robert Bewick

Reviews the various problems associated with tunnels (such asunderground railway and sewerage systems) below urban areas, and theireffects on surface buildings. Discusses…

Abstract

Reviews the various problems associated with tunnels (such as underground railway and sewerage systems) below urban areas, and their effects on surface buildings. Discusses briefly tunnelling techniques and the effect on buildings, although makes the point that no reliable data exists on the techniques and their effect on ground displacement (which causes problems to buildings). Gives brief guidelines to structural condition surveyors in assessing actual and potential damage to buildings from tunnelling.

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Structural Survey, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-080X

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1999

Kenneth J. Novak, Jennifer L. Hartman, Alexander M. Holsinger and Michael G. Turner

This paper adds to a growing body of research which explores the relationship between aggressive police strategies and serious crime. For one month, police enforced…

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Abstract

This paper adds to a growing body of research which explores the relationship between aggressive police strategies and serious crime. For one month, police enforced disorder crime in a small section of one community. An interrupted time series analysis was utilized to evaluate the effects of this intervention on robbery and aggravated burglary in a target area and a control area. The strategy was found to be unrelated to levels of aggravated burglary and robbery in the target area. There was no spatial displacement of crime. Explanations for the findings are offered.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 22 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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