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This review article focuses on the factors that affect the selection and implementation of three principles of distributive justice (i.e., equity, equality, and need) to…
This review article focuses on the factors that affect the selection and implementation of three principles of distributive justice (i.e., equity, equality, and need) to reward systems in group and organizational settings. After presenting an overview of the assumptions, goals, and possible consequences associated with each of the three perspectives, the article then describes the moderating factors influencing distribution rule preferences across four levels of analysis: (1) the interorganizational, (2) the intraorganizational, (3) the work group, and (4) the individual. Some of the variables discussed include cross‐cultural differences, reward system implementation, task interdependency, work group climate, and individual characteristics. This material is then summarized through the use of a new conceptual model for describing allocation rule preferences. The article concludes with suggestions for future research.
The purpose of this study is to provide a general review of the existing academic and practitioner literatures, pertaining to entrepreneurial selling with a view to articulate major entrepreneurial selling practices, patterns and principles that lead to entrepreneurial success and to propose two four-quadrant matrices.
The paper explores commonalities and distinctions in the entrepreneurial selling concepts articulated by Deutsch and Wortmann and Onyemah and Rivera-Pesquera – and relevant writings by Blank as well as Sarasvathy – are explored and analyzed.
It was found that the early stage entrepreneurial selling activities of founders – as a means of gleaning prospective customer feedback for product prototyping – form the core of contemporary entrepreneurial selling conceptualizations. Two provisional four-quadrant entrepreneurial selling matrices are proposed corresponding to the literature reviewed.
It is hoped that the two four-quadrant matrices might serve as a springboard for future researchers interested in exploring entrepreneurial selling. The notion of preliminary selling as a valuable form of marketing research is also worthy of future research.
Given the extent to which the perspectives of entrepreneurship practitioners, clinical professors and consultants are cited and explored, manifold aspects of entrepreneurial selling are put forth. The various approaches to preliminary selling that are explored are of especially high value to practitioners.
This is the first paper to fully explore the commonalities and distinctions across the entrepreneurial selling conceptualizations developed by Deutsch and Wortmann, as well as by Onyemah and Rivera-Pesquera, and the first to propose a conceptual framework focused specifically on entrepreneurial selling.
Organisations responsible for the maintenance of photographic archives are showing a developing interest in the creation of compact disc digital catalogues. These are…
Organisations responsible for the maintenance of photographic archives are showing a developing interest in the creation of compact disc digital catalogues. These are perceived as a means of providing a ‘shop window’ to their collections, and a facility whereby their clients can order pictures directly without recourse to request mediation by a picture researcher or librarian. The Hulton Deutsch Collection's pioneering approach to this new dimension in picture library operation is described, with particular reference to those policies on indexing and interface design by which that approach was guided. Brief consideration is given to the extension of such desktop browsing facilities into the arena of high‐resolution electronic image delivery.
This paper considers the progress that has been made during the past sixty years or so in the social psychological study of conflict. It begins with a brief description of the influence of the writings of Darwin, Marx, and Freud, of game theory, and of studies of cooperation and competition as they affected the study of conflict. The main body of the paper summarizes the research bearing upon five major questions that have been the major foci of inquiry in this area during the past twenty‐five years: (1) What conditions give rise to a constructive or destructive process of conflict resolution? (2) What circumstances, strategies, and tactics lead one party to do better than another in a conflict situation? (3) What determines the nature of the agreement between conflicting parties, if they are able to reach agreement? (4) How can third parties be used to prevent conflicts from becoming destructive? (5) How can people be educated to manage their conflicts more constructively?
This paper is concerned with the difficult question of what our field can contribute to preventing and resolving the sorts of destructive conflicts which are so prevalent…
This paper is concerned with the difficult question of what our field can contribute to preventing and resolving the sorts of destructive conflicts which are so prevalent in our world today at the interpersonal, inter‐group, interethnic, and international levels. In this paper, I outline an approach to this question. The paper is divided into three parts. The first is a brief discussion of some of the factors which determine whether a conflict will take a constructive or destructive course. The second deals with the prevention of destructive conflicts—here I consider the potential roles of government, education, the media, religion, and industry. The third is concerned with how to manage intractable, destructive conflicts.
CONTINUITY is a precious virtue, and in this respect no classic aeronautical competition can boast of a record approaching that of the Coupe Deutsch de la Meurthe…
CONTINUITY is a precious virtue, and in this respect no classic aeronautical competition can boast of a record approaching that of the Coupe Deutsch de la Meurthe. Regulations drawn up for the first contest, held in 1933, have since remained identical, except in some minor details. The main points—the limitation of the cubic capacity of engines to 8 litres (488.2 cu. in.), the distance of the race, 2,000 km. (1,242 miles), and the provision of a qualifying test calling both for a high average speed and for the demonstration of the ability of the machines to take‐off and land in a reasonable space after clearing an obstruction—all these characteristic features combined have proved the most remarkable incentive to technical progress ever recorded in the history of aviation.
Managing conflicts between employees and supervisors is a critical issue in maintaining productive labor‐management relations. This study uses the theory of cooperation…
Managing conflicts between employees and supervisors is a critical issue in maintaining productive labor‐management relations. This study uses the theory of cooperation and competition to specify the nature of the relationship and the flexible strategies that facilitate mutually beneficial solutions to employee complaints. Results based on interviews of supervisors and union employees in a remote site in British Columbia support the hypotheses that cooperative, compared to competitive and independent, goals promote open‐minded discussions of complaints that result in efficient resolutions which benefit both supervisors and employees. Results suggested that developing cooperative goals and open‐minded negotiation skills can help supervisors and employees to create integrative solutions to shopfloor conflicts.
Aims to analyse the influence of Norbert Wiener’s ideas on the social sciences and on social systems, including society as a whole. Describes Wiener’s own attitudes regarding the applicability of cybernetics to social systems and his vision on the development of modern society. Highlights sociologists and political scientists who were inspired by his ideas and deals with researchers who tried to apply his ideas to social systems. Concludes by evaluating to what extent specific ideas of Wiener have impacted on the social sciences.
THE second edition of the now classic Deutsch de la Meurthe Cup race showed considerable progress over the first competition; the principle of setting a relatively low…
THE second edition of the now classic Deutsch de la Meurthe Cup race showed considerable progress over the first competition; the principle of setting a relatively low limit for the cubic capacity of the engine and giving the designers an otherwise entirely free hand is unquestionably one of the best ways towards rapid technical strides. It must be particularly stressed that the competing machines had no certificate of airworthiness of any sort; in fact, Government control was for once completely left aside and the racers allowed to take part in the contest without having been subjected to the slightest examination of officials of the Ministère de l'Air. Thus manufacturers were relieved of the customary administrative difficulties and losses of time. The result proved perfectly satisfactory; machines were rapidly built and tried, they demonstrated remarkable flying qualities and performance, and technical advances of great practical value have been attained in a very short space of time. The experience is likely to have long‐reaching and beneficial results.