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Article
Publication date: 5 November 2019

James Reardon, Denny McCorkle, Anita Radon and Desalegn Abraha

Intellectual property theft amounts to billions of dollars per year worldwide. The first step in stemming this loss is to understand the underlying precursors of this behavior…

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Abstract

Purpose

Intellectual property theft amounts to billions of dollars per year worldwide. The first step in stemming this loss is to understand the underlying precursors of this behavior. This paper aims to propose and test a model of consumer choice to purchase or pirate intellectual property, specifically music. This paper combines and applies the theory of reasoned action (TRA) and Becker’s theory of crime to develop a more comprehensive model of digital piracy behavior. Culture was tested as an antecedent to the attitudes and the perceptions of risk associated with music piracy.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey of 4,618 participants was conducted across 23 countries. Construct measures were validated using confirmatory factor analysis in LISREL. A conceptual model was tested using logistic structural equation modeling in MPlus. Respondents were asked about the last music they acquired to test a behavioral model of music piracy.

Findings

The results indicated that culture, specifically rule orientation and uncertainty avoidance, had a significant impact on attitudes toward the music industry, ethical perceptions of music piracy and risk perceptions. Respondents’ ethical perceptions of downloading had the highest impact on music piracy behavior. The personal/copy risk associated with the illegal downloading of music had a significant impact while the relative channel risk did not. The market value, quality and selection also had a significant impact on downloading behavior, as did the respondent's ability to find and download music.

Research limitations/implications

While this paper was limited by focusing on the illegal downloading of music, the results can provide guidance in the design of future research concerning the piracy and unlicensed downloading of other types of intellectual properties such as movies/videos, TV, paywall content and e-books.

Practical implications

In recent years, improved access to music and video through online streaming and online stores has significantly decreased music piracy. This research indicated that further inroads into this behavior could be made through better online purchase access and through consumer education about the ethics and results of digital downloading. Further, efforts are more efficient by targeting cultures with lower levels of rule orientation with ethics education and targeted risk messages in countries with higher uncertainty avoidance.

Social implications

Yearly losses to the music industry amount to about $5-29bn. Many find music and video downloading and “sharing” as acceptable. The model developed in this research has implications to affect this mass loss of revenue to the music industry and perhaps the societal view of downloading behavior that is illegal but commonly accepted.

Originality/value

This model is the first to integrate cultural aspects into models of digital piracy. In addition, the model is developed from a strong theoretical base (TRA and Becker’s theory of crime) to integrate multiple antecedents to intellectual property theft research.

Details

Journal of Research in Interactive Marketing, vol. 13 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7122

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 25 January 2021

Desalegn Abraha and Akmal S. Hyder

This chapter presents a description of transition economies of Europe focusing different aspects related to the economic development of this area. First, the transition economies…

Abstract

This chapter presents a description of transition economies of Europe focusing different aspects related to the economic development of this area. First, the transition economies are introduced. Later on, political conditions, cultural factors affecting these countries, and economic situation are presented. Referring earlier studies and different factors, a new classification of transition economies is offered.

To have critical perspective, some of the performances of transition economies are compared with BRICS countries, which have been particularly focused as major economies of the emerging markets. Finally, the case countries are presented.

Details

Transformation of Strategic Alliances in Emerging Markets, Volume I
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-745-6

Book part
Publication date: 25 January 2021

Desalegn Abraha and Akmal S. Hyder

In this chapter, the main research outcomes are discussed and analyzed in connection with relevant studies in the field. The ambition has been to focus on whether the result…

Abstract

In this chapter, the main research outcomes are discussed and analyzed in connection with relevant studies in the field. The ambition has been to focus on whether the result matches with the present body of the literature or not, and what new thoughts and ideas can be generated by comparing and matching the literature and the results of the underlying study. Emphasis is on the changes that have taken place during the operation of the ventures over a longer period. In the cases, the business operations have been discussed in three phases and sometimes in two phases. But for the purpose of the literature linkage, changes are analyzed in two steps. Step one discusses major changes in the beginning (mainly phase one), while step two covers changes that have taken place in the other two phases.

Details

Transformation of Strategic Alliances in Emerging Markets, Volume II
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-748-7

Book part
Publication date: 25 January 2021

Desalegn Abraha and Akmal S. Hyder

The method applied to carry out the study of the transformation of strategic alliances in emerging markets is discussed in this chapter. Specifically, this chapter discusses how…

Abstract

The method applied to carry out the study of the transformation of strategic alliances in emerging markets is discussed in this chapter. Specifically, this chapter discusses how the whole study is conducted, i.e. the identification and development of the research issues, the research aim and problem, the development of the conceptual framework, the development of the research method, how the empirical study is analyzed and conclusions are drawn. The specific research strategy applied to conduct the current study is a longitudinal research approach. A short discussion on how the ECE countries are classified into various groups is conducted in the current chapter and a detailed discussion on the classification of ECE countries into different groups is also conducted in chapter eight. Moreover, the logic for adopting a longitudinal research strategy to conduct the current study of the transformation of strategic alliances is also justified. The identification and choice of the case companies, the logic followed in the development of the questionnaire and how much and to what extent the questionnaire is modified are also discussed in detail. The identification of the interviewees, the execution of the interviews and the transcription of the interview materials and the structuring of the cases are also discussed in detail.

Details

Transformation of Strategic Alliances in Emerging Markets, Volume I
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-745-6

Book part
Publication date: 25 January 2021

Desalegn Abraha and Akmal S. Hyder

This chapter highlights and examines the journey of strategic alliances, how alliances lead to the creation of new alliances, and whether alliances succeed or precede firms'…

Abstract

This chapter highlights and examines the journey of strategic alliances, how alliances lead to the creation of new alliances, and whether alliances succeed or precede firms' market networks. Moreover, the chapter attempts to identify the market and environmental factors which impact the journey and the end result of alliances. The findings show that before the alliance and in the early strategic alliance phase, firms can have direct and indirect relationships/networks which can lead to the formation of strategic alliances. The other finding is that one of the main factors which determines the journey of strategic alliances is the degree of internationalization of the firm and the market. The journey of alliances was also found to be different in the various groups of Eastern and Central Europe (ECE) countries depending on the pace or degree of adaptation of those countries. It was also found that well-developed networks have a positive impact on the alliance results. Moreover, the chapter also provides evidence that alliances enable firms to defend and strengthen existing networks to build new networks and to penetrate partners' networks. It is finally observed that it is difficult to determine whether alliances succeed or precede networks.

Details

Transformation of Strategic Alliances in Emerging Markets, Volume I
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-745-6

Book part
Publication date: 25 January 2021

Desalegn Abraha and Akmal S. Hyder

In this chapter, the authors provide an overview of the results of their research on the subject of strategic alliances until 2001. Specifically, they summarize their findings…

Abstract

In this chapter, the authors provide an overview of the results of their research on the subject of strategic alliances until 2001. Specifically, they summarize their findings published in Strategic Alliances in Eastern and Central Europe (2003). The authors conducted 20 case studies of Swedish firms involved in strategic alliances with firms in Eastern and Central Europe. This chapter also presents a brief account of the authors' other research on the same phenomenon which resulted in several conference papers and journal articles. The theoretical framework developed and applied in the 2003 book is also briefly presented in this summary chapter. The method applied in writing the book and the justification for applying this specific method are also discussed. Following this, an updated review of the literature of strategic alliances is conducted to discuss the research work covered and the issues examined after 2003. The overview of the authors' strategic alliances studies and the updated review of the literature together highlight the overall logic behind this new book, Transformation of Strategic Alliances in Eastern and Central Europe.

Details

Transformation of Strategic Alliances in Emerging Markets, Volume I
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-745-6

Book part
Publication date: 25 January 2021

Desalegn Abraha and Akmal S. Hyder

The purpose of this chapter is to introduce emerging markets (EMs) and then European transition economies in which alliance transformation takes place. Considering the complexity…

Abstract

The purpose of this chapter is to introduce emerging markets (EMs) and then European transition economies in which alliance transformation takes place. Considering the complexity of EMs, researchers and academics feel pressure in recent years to seek comprehensive understanding of the EM context (Kumar and Srivastava, 2019). Transition economies are a special category of EMs, which have attracted many multinational firms to invest after the fall of Berlin wall in the beginning of 1990s. This region constitutes of former soviet bloc, located in central and eastern Europe. After a short introduction and discussion on the importance on EMs, development process within EMs is taken up. Transition economies are then introduced, particularly in relation to their link with the European Union. Aims and research questions are outlined to display the objective and direction of the study. The next section discusses major contributions, followed by limitations of the study describing what issues are left out to concentrate on the research object. Finally, it is shortly described what other chapters are coming and what they deal with.

Details

Transformation of Strategic Alliances in Emerging Markets, Volume I
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-745-6

Book part
Publication date: 25 January 2021

Desalegn Abraha and Akmal S. Hyder

This chapter gives an understanding on how consideration of institutional factors can be important in establishing alliances in emerging markets. There is a huge difference…

Abstract

This chapter gives an understanding on how consideration of institutional factors can be important in establishing alliances in emerging markets. There is a huge difference between developed and emerging markets on different issues starting from government and financial institutions to culture and infrastructure. Although these factors have impact on business relationships, they can affect differently from case to case and on the experience of the partners involved in relationships. Further, the extent of difference is not always negative for all firms as it can give some MNEs, who are experts in doing business with emerging market partners, specific advantage over their competitors.

Details

Transformation of Strategic Alliances in Emerging Markets, Volume I
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-745-6

Book part
Publication date: 25 January 2021

Desalegn Abraha and Akmal S. Hyder

This chapter illustrates the theoretical foundation of the study. Several issues such as motives, resources, learning, networking, and institutional and environmental impacts are…

Abstract

This chapter illustrates the theoretical foundation of the study. Several issues such as motives, resources, learning, networking, and institutional and environmental impacts are elaborately discussed to point out why strategic alliances are formed and how the firms attempt to fulfill different goals by collaborating with partners. Furthermore, it is taken up how the issues are intertwined and jointly contribute to strengthen the alliance activity. From a longitudinal perspective, a theoretical framework has been drawn not only to show the links but also to highlight the dynamism in the relationship over time. This theoretical framework is used to collect, organize, and analyze the data to finally draw conclusions of the study.

Details

Transformation of Strategic Alliances in Emerging Markets, Volume I
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-745-6

Article
Publication date: 9 April 2010

Desalegn Abraha Gebrekidan

The purpose of this paper is to address the issues of how business people perceive the business environment, how government policies impact the environment and how the environment…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to address the issues of how business people perceive the business environment, how government policies impact the environment and how the environment impacts the establishment processes and position development of new firms in the Eritrean market. The process is discussed by keeping a strict focus on the main actors and the activities they carried out, as well as how the available resources are utilized and exchanged in the market.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing on the establishment process model developed from the network approach, case studies based on interviews and focus group discussions have been used to shed light on the extent to how government policies and the environment impacts the establishment processes and position development in the Eritrean market.

Findings

An important conclusion of this paper is that the main obstacle for business establishment is the hostile attitude of the government to the private sector. Another significant obstacle for building a successful position in the market is the state‐owned command economy network of relationships. An additional crucial hindrance is the non‐existence of a market economy network of relationships that can provide firms in the private sector with the resources they need to perform their operations.

Research limitations/implications

All firms in this paper have demonstrated that the main obstacle for establishment is the hostile attitude of the government to the private sector. Another obstacle is the state‐owned command economy network of relationships, which hinders firms from building a successful position in the market. An additional crucial hindrance is the non‐existence of a market economy network of relationships that can provide firms in the private sector with the resources they need to perform their operations. Since the paper is based on case studies and focus group discussions, conducting a similar study on a representative sample of firms selected from a larger population will be very useful.

Originality/value

This paper makes a unique contribution by focusing on the establishment process in a market, which is regulated, controlled and owned by the one party government. The other unique contribution is that a firm has to identify the secrets of business success and to follow the same strategy.

Details

African Journal of Economic and Management Studies, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-0705

Keywords

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