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Book part
Publication date: 7 November 2018

Alexandre Frenette and Richard E. Ocejo

Deriving pleasure and meaning from one’s job is especially potent in the cultural industries, where workers routinely sacrifice monetary rewards, stability, and tidier…

Abstract

Deriving pleasure and meaning from one’s job is especially potent in the cultural industries, where workers routinely sacrifice monetary rewards, stability, and tidier careers for the nonmonetary benefits of self-expression, autonomy, and contribution to the greater good. Cultural labor markets are consequently characterized by the continual churning of its workforce; the lure of “cool” employment attracts an oversupply of aspirants while precariousness and routinized work lead to short careers. This article draws on qualitative data to further conceptualize the appeal and limits of nonmonetary rewards over time. Why do workers stay in precarious “cool” jobs? More specifically, how do workers stay committed to their jobs and perform the requisite deep acting for their roles? Through qualitative research on two sets of workers – music industry personnel and craft cocktail bartenders – this article examines patterns in these workers’ “experiential careers.” We identify three strategies cultural workers use to re-enchant their work lives: (1) deep engagement, (2) boundary work, and (3) changing jobs. In doing so, we show how the experiential careers of cultural workers resemble more of a cycle of enchantment than a linear path to exiting the field.

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Article
Publication date: 27 September 2011

Paschal Preston and Jim Rogers

Digital technological innovations are commonly perceived to be radically disrupting the power or role of corporate actors within the music industry and their established

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6138

Abstract

Purpose

Digital technological innovations are commonly perceived to be radically disrupting the power or role of corporate actors within the music industry and their established industrial practices and interests. In particular, the internet is widely regarded as having produced a “crisis” for the music industry. While such assumptions reflect the predominance of technological deterministic thinking in relation to the music industry, this paper aims to draw upon historical insights from past research on radical technical innovation processes to inform this approach to examining some of the key innovations that have occurred in the music industry in the digital era.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper draws on a range of qualitative data obtained primarily from a recently completed Irish‐based music industry research project, primarily comprised of interviews conducted with key music industry informants and personnel.

Findings

Key findings indicate that ongoing legal innovations, combined with the widespread adoption of social networking sites and other online content platforms are (amongst other factors) serving to maintain and bolster the position of major music copyright owners.

Originality/value

In the context of the contemporary “knowledge economy”, the authors propose paying special attention to one specific area of policy innovation – that related to the intellectual property rights (IPRs) regime. In particular, they place emphasis on the copyright strand of IPRs in shaping the outcome of digital platforms for the promotion and dissemination of music. In doing this, they consider the evolution of a re‐configured music industry “structure” which re‐conceptualises the music artist as an “all‐encompassing bundle” of rights through which a diverse range of revenue streams are increasingly streamlined back to a small handful of major copyright owners.

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info, vol. 13 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6697

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Book part
Publication date: 24 October 2003

Timothy J Dowd

The study of markets encompasses a number of disciplines – including anthropology, economics, history, and sociology – and a larger number of theoretical frameworks (see…

Abstract

The study of markets encompasses a number of disciplines – including anthropology, economics, history, and sociology – and a larger number of theoretical frameworks (see Plattner, 1989; Reddy, 1984; Smelser & Swedberg, 1994). Despite this disciplinary and theoretical diversity, scholarship on markets tends toward either realist or constructionist accounts (Dobbin, 1994; Dowd & Dobbin, forthcoming).1 Realist accounts treat markets as extant arenas that mostly (or should) conform to a singular ideal-type. Realists thus take the existence of markets as given and examine factors that supposedly shape all markets in a similar fashion. When explaining market outcomes, they tout such factors as competition, demand, and technology; moreover, they can treat the impact of these factors as little influenced by context. Constructionist accounts treat markets as emergent arenas that result in a remarkable variety of types. They problematize the existence of markets and examine how contextual factors contribute to this variety. When explaining market outcomes, some show that social relations and/or cultural assumptions found in a particular setting can qualify the impact of competition (Uzzi, 1997), demand (Peiss, 1998), and technology (Fischer, 1992). Constructionists thus stress the contingent, rather than universal, processes that shape markets.

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Comparative Studies of Culture and Power
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76230-885-9

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2002

John B. Meisel and Timothy S. Sullivan

Business as usual in the music industry is over. Online music is a force to be reckoned with now and increasingly in the future. This paper first describes the current…

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10913

Abstract

Business as usual in the music industry is over. Online music is a force to be reckoned with now and increasingly in the future. This paper first describes the current revenue streams and cost causers that characterize the traditional business model in the music industry. Then, the impact of the Internet on the current business model is described, especially as it relates to the distribution stage of the value chain in the record business. Also, the impact of the Internet’s disruption of the distribution stage on the state of existing copyright law, as manifested through the introduction of Napster’s peer‐to‐peer innovation, is explained. Third, an analysis of salient economic, political/legal, and technological issues arising from these changes on the entire industry is presented. Finally, the paper identifies characteristics of a viable business model in the music industry and offers lessons for other digital content industries.

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info, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6697

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Article
Publication date: 22 August 2011

Rose Marie Santini

This paper aims to discuss how collaborative classification works in online music information retrieval systems and its impacts on the construction, fixation and…

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2044

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to discuss how collaborative classification works in online music information retrieval systems and its impacts on the construction, fixation and orientation of the social uses of popular music on the internet.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a comparative method, the paper examines the logic behind music classification in Recommender Systems by studying the case of Last.fm, one of the most popular web sites of this type on the web. Data collected about users' ritual classifications are compared with the classification used by the music industry, represented by the AllMusic web site.

Findings

The paper identifies the differences between the criteria used for the collaborative classification of popular music, which is defined by users, and the traditional standards of commercial classification, used by the cultural industries, and discusses why commercial and non‐commercial classification methods vary.

Practical implications

Collaborative ritual classification reveals a shift in the demand for cultural information that may affect the way in which this demand is organized, as well as the classification criteria for works on the digital music market.

Social implications

Collective creation of a music classification in recommender systems represents a new model of cultural mediation that might change the way of building new uses, tastes and patterns of musical consumption in online environments.

Originality/value

The paper highlights the way in which the classification process might influence the behavior of the users of music information retrieval systems, and vice versa.

Details

OCLC Systems & Services: International digital library perspectives, vol. 27 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1065-075X

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Article
Publication date: 11 November 2013

Jordan Gamble and Audrey Gilmore

This paper aims to address the emerging post-millennium trends in co-creational marketing, in the context of how these trends apply to the recorded and live sectors of the…

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12614

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to address the emerging post-millennium trends in co-creational marketing, in the context of how these trends apply to the recorded and live sectors of the music industry. Consideration of marketing as a broadened concept to include societal processes has implications not only for the marketing concept itself, but also for the roles of the parties implicitly involved in the marketing process. Therefore, the standard and polarising marketing clichés of “firm and customer”, “buyer and seller”, and “producer and consumer” may be replaced with a more contemporary marketing approach in which value can be created and shared by either party.

Design/methodology/approach

Initially the paper provides a review of contemporary literature on co-creational aspects of marketing and a subsequent identification of typologies of co-creation practices. Conceptual frameworks pertaining to the relationships of these typologies are then proposed. An extensive review and analysis of journal articles, industry reports and news sources on music industry marketing was conducted. From this review and analysis, 30 examples of co-creational marketing were identified. The music industry was chosen as it constitutes a relevant and contemporary marketing context due to the existence of interactive technology and changing consumer preferences regarding their interaction with music intermediaries and against a context of digital piracy.

Findings

Five typologies of co-creational marketing were found to be relevant to the music industry. Key examples of co-creational marketing within the music industry are discussed and analysed in relation to the identified typologies and conceptual frameworks.

Research limitations/implications

The relevancy of co-creational marketing practices to the music industry is investigated, followed by consideration of managerial implications and future research directions.

Originality/value

The theoretical prospect of value co-creation through active consumer contributions to the marketing process is not revolutionary or new, but the implications of such a potential shift in power or influence have developed into a contemporary challenge for marketers.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 47 no. 11/12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 20 March 2017

Ida Madieha Abdul Ghani Azmi and Rokiah Alavi

One of the binding commitments under the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement is the extension of the copyright term to 70 years after the death of the author. This paper…

Abstract

Purpose

One of the binding commitments under the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement is the extension of the copyright term to 70 years after the death of the author. This paper reports the preliminary findings of a research on the potential impact of the extension of copyright term on the music industry in Malaysia. As Malaysia is a user and net importer of intellectual property, it is feared that extending the copyright term will likely impede incentives for the creation of new contents, increase the cost of licensing/royalties, diminish the choice and creativity of film and music industry and increase royalty payments abroad. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the commercial lifespan of copyright works is long enough.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a qualitative research method, in-depth interviews were carried out with key industry players between June and September 2015 to collect relevant information from the industry. The information obtained was analysed to gauge the market standing of the local music industry and how the proposed extension would bolster their financial and market power. The paper does not intend to explore the legal implications from the retrospective extension of copyright term and data on illegal use and piracy. The findings of the research will be purely drawn from the non-structured interviews and information gathered from respondents.

Findings

The paper concludes that there is not enough evidence to support the notion that the copyright extension will be economically advantageous to the local music industry.

Research limitations/implications

The feedback from the interviews, although cannot be generalised to be considered as representing the whole music industry in Malaysia, can nevertheless be taken as preliminary conclusions and an eye-opener to the quest for concrete support in the debate for the extension of the copyright term in Malaysia. The paper also does no explore the legal implications from the retrospective extension of copyright and data on illegal use and piracy.

Practical implications

In conclusion, more studies need to be conducted to understand the dynamics and needs of the music market in Malaysia for the extension of the copyright term to be really beneficial to them. As this study is only conducted using a qualitative research method, using open-ended and in-depth interview techniques on a small group of respondents, there may be a need to embark on empirical research with proper execution of survey instruments to a larger group of respondents.

Social implications

The music industry is chosen as the case study because it may develop into a potential export interest. The music industry as a small component of the larger “creative industry” has been identified as one of the new economic drivers under the Tenth Malaysia Plan.

Originality/value

The paper was first presented at the ATRIP Congress 2015 at Cape Town on 27th September 2015. The paper has not been published. No studies have been done on the possible implications of copyright extension term on the music industry in Malaysia before.

Details

Journal of International Trade Law and Policy, vol. 16 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-0024

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2005

Nicholas. C. Wilson and David Stokes

To distinguish managing creativity from managing innovation and highlight the importance for cultural entrepreneurs of recognising the differences between the two.

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10848

Abstract

Purpose

To distinguish managing creativity from managing innovation and highlight the importance for cultural entrepreneurs of recognising the differences between the two.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on government‐sponsored research project looking at access to finance in the UK music industry. Interviews were carried out with cultural entrepreneurs, finance providers and industry experts. A conceptual model of work and creative production put forward by Leadbeater and Oakley (1999) is used as a foundation for analysis.

Findings

Highlight the importance of recognising the differences between managing creativity and innovation, and call for effective management of them both, through developing business communication skills, external focus and promotional strategies. The different nature and role of collective activities associated with promoting creativity and innovation are highlighted.

Research limitations/implications

The findings are generalised across other “creative industry” businesses, but the empirical research is based only on the music industry.

Practical implications

Practical steps can be taken to increase the success of small creative businesses in managing both the generation of new ideas (creativity) and the successful exploitation of those new ideas (innovation). Formal education courses have an important role in encouraging creativity and flair alongside the acquisition of core business skills necessary for innovation.

Originality/value

This paper makes an important contribution in separating creativity and innovation – concepts that are too often used interchangeably. It is argued that this analytical separation will help practitioners and researchers gain a better understanding of the management behaviours required to foster both successfully.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

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Article
Publication date: 13 August 2021

Ariel Sanders, Barbara J. Phillips and David E. Williams

The relationship between musicians and the music industry has often been depicted as a dichotomy between creativity and commerce with musicians conflicted between their…

Abstract

Purpose

The relationship between musicians and the music industry has often been depicted as a dichotomy between creativity and commerce with musicians conflicted between their roles as artists and their roles as marketers of sound. Recently, marketing researchers have problematized this dichotomy and suggested musicians perceive these roles as inevitable and indivisible. However, the processes of how musicians market their sound to the industry gatekeepers remain unclear. This study seeks to find the key industry gatekeepers for musicians and how musicians sell their personal sound to them.

Design/methodology/approach

Using an interpretative phenomenological approach, ten interviews with professional musicians across different music genres provided insight into the strategies musicians use to market their sound to industry gatekeepers.

Findings

In total, three key gatekeepers and the five strategies that musicians use to sell their sound are identified. The gatekeepers are record labels, other musicians and consumers. Musicians sell their sound to these gatekeepers through the externally directed strategies of using social media to build relationships, defining their personal sound through genre and creating a unique sound, and through the internally directed strategies of keeping motivated through sound evolution and counting on luck.

Research limitations/implications

The findings are limited by the small number of musicians interviewed and the heterogeneous representation of music genres.

Originality/value

The study contributes to theoretical understandings of how musicians as cultural producers market their sound in a commercial industry.

Details

Arts and the Market, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4945

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Book part
Publication date: 3 April 2018

Noah Askin and Joeri Mol

Since the arrival of mass production, commodification has been plaguing markets – none more so than that for music. By separating production and consumption in space and…

Abstract

Since the arrival of mass production, commodification has been plaguing markets – none more so than that for music. By separating production and consumption in space and time, commodification challenges the very conditions underlying economic exchange. This chapter explores authenticity as the institutional response to the commodification of music, rekindling the relationship between isolated market participants in the increasingly digitized world of music. Building upon the “Production of Culture” perspective, we unpack the commodification of music across five different institutional realms – (1) production, (2) consumption, (3) selection, (4) appropriation, and (5) classification – and provide a thoroughly relational account of authenticity as an institutional practice.

Details

Frontiers of Creative Industries: Exploring Structural and Categorical Dynamics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-773-9

Keywords

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