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Article
Publication date: 31 August 2023

Danladi Chiroma Husaini, Florita Bolon, Natasha Smith, Rhondine Reynolds, Shenille Humes and Verlene Cayetano

Increased outsourcing and importation of drugs from different parts of the world to the Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) region result in the proliferation of substandard and…

Abstract

Purpose

Increased outsourcing and importation of drugs from different parts of the world to the Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) region result in the proliferation of substandard and fake medicines, posing a threat to public health. The presence of substandard and fake medications in LAC regions is a source of public health concern and causes an economic burden to the governments in these regions. Whereas testing and detecting medication quality can easily be achieved in developed countries, the situation is different in developing countries such as LAC. This paper aims to examine the public health challenges faced by LAC regarding substandard, fake and counterfeit medicines and how the region can tackle these challenges.

Design/methodology/approach

Databases such as Scopus, PubMed, ScienceDirect, Embase, HINARI, EBSCOhost, Google Scholar, unpublished data, conference abstracts and papers from World Health Organization, Pan-American Health Organization and electronic newspapers were searched concerning medicine quality and in LAC.

Findings

Drug treatment improves the quality of life while decreasing morbidity and mortality among diseased populations. Absence of or inadequate testing laboratories, old and ineffective legislature, lack of enforcement or willpower and lack of effective surveillance are challenges in LAC for the proliferation of substandard and falsified medicines (SFMs).

Research limitations/implications

The most significant limitation of this study was the need for the reviewers to have used articles written in other languages besides English. The LAC region has a large population in non-English-speaking countries, and many articles are written using local languages. Hence, excluding those articles is a limitation worthy of note in this review. The articles accessed needed to provide adequate information on SFM markets and illegal pharmacies or hospitals but did not. Future reviews may focus on providing illegal substandard and falsified medicines markets in the region and how they can be minimized or eliminated.

Originality/value

This review highlights the challenges faced by LAC countries regarding substandard, fake and counterfeit medicines. The sources, prevalence and consequences of substandard and falsified drugs were identified to suggest the measures needed to curb the infiltration of low-quality medicines in LAC.

Details

International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing, vol. 17 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6123

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 18 December 2023

Danladi Chiroma Husaini, Vinlee Bernardez, Naim Zetina and David Ditaba Mphuthi

A direct correlation exists between waste disposal, disease spread and public health. This article systematically reviewed healthcare waste and its implication for public health…

Abstract

Purpose

A direct correlation exists between waste disposal, disease spread and public health. This article systematically reviewed healthcare waste and its implication for public health. This review identified and described the associations and impact of waste disposal on public health.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper systematically reviewed the literature on waste disposal and its implications for public health by searching Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA), PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus and ScienceDirect databases. Of a total of 1,583 studies, 59 articles were selected and reviewed.

Findings

The review revealed the spread of infectious diseases and environmental degradation as the most typical implications of improper waste disposal to public health. The impact of waste includes infectious diseases such as cholera, Hepatitis B, respiratory problems, food and metal poisoning, skin infections, and bacteremia, and environmental degradation such as land, water, and air pollution, flooding, drainage obstruction, climate change, and harm to marine and wildlife.

Research limitations/implications

Infectious diseases such as cholera, hepatitis B, respiratory problems, food and metal poisoning, skin infections, bacteremia and environmental degradation such as land, water, and air pollution, flooding, drainage obstruction, climate change, and harm to marine and wildlife are some of the public impacts of improper waste disposal.

Originality/value

Healthcare industry waste is a significant waste that can harm the environment and public health if not properly collected, stored, treated, managed and disposed of. There is a need for knowledge and skills applicable to proper healthcare waste disposal and management. Policies must be developed to implement appropriate waste management to prevent public health threats.

Details

Arab Gulf Journal of Scientific Research, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1985-9899

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 16 February 2023

Danladi Chiroma Husaini, Kemberly Manzur and Jorge Medrano

This systematic review examined the emerging threat of indoor and outdoor pollutants to public health in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC).

Abstract

Purpose

This systematic review examined the emerging threat of indoor and outdoor pollutants to public health in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC).

Design/methodology/approach

Pollutants and pollution levels are becoming an increasing cause for concern within the LAC region, primarily because of the rapid increase in urbanization and the use of fossil fuels. The rise in indoor and outdoor air pollutants impacts public health, and there are limited regional studies on the impact of these pollutants and how they affect public health. A comprehensive literature search was conducted using Google Scholar, PubMed, Scopus, EBSCOhost, Web of Science and ScienceDirect databases. Significant search terms included “indoor air pollution,” “outdoor air pollution,” “pollution,” “Latin America,” “Central America,” “South America” and “Caribbean was used.” The systematic review utilized the Rayyan systematic software for uploading and sorting study references.

Findings

Database searches produced 1,674 results, of which, after using the inclusion–exclusion criteria and assessing for bias, 16 studies were included and used for the systematic review. These studies covered both indoor and outdoor pollution. Various indoor and outdoor air pollutants linked to low birth weight, asthma, cancer and DNA impairment were reported in this review. Even though only some intervention programs are available within the region to mitigate the harmful effects of pollution, these programs need to be robust and appropriately implemented, causing possible threats to public health. Significant gaps in the research were identified, especially in the Caribbean.

Research limitations/implications

Limitations of the study include limited available research done within LAC, with most of the research quantifying pollutants rather than addressing their impacts. Additionally, most studies focus on air pollution but neglect water and land pollution’s effects on public health. For this reason, the 16 studies included limited robustness of the review.

Originality/value

Although available studies quantifying pollution threats in LAC were identified in this review, research on the adverse impacts of pollution, especially concerning public health, is limited. LAC countries should explore making cities more energy-efficient, compact and green while improving the transportation sector by utilizing clean power generation. In order to properly lessen the effects of pollution on public health, more research needs to be done and implemented programs that are working need to be strengthened and expanded.

Details

Arab Gulf Journal of Scientific Research, vol. 42 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1985-9899

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 10 January 2023

Danladi Chiroma Husaini, Orish Ebere Orisakwe, David Ditaba Mphuthi, Sani Maaji Garba, Cecilia Nwadiuto Obasi and Innocent Ejiofor Nwachukwu

This review aims to provide synoptic documentation on acclaimed anecdotal plant-based remedies used by Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) communities to manage COVID-19. The…

Abstract

Purpose

This review aims to provide synoptic documentation on acclaimed anecdotal plant-based remedies used by Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) communities to manage COVID-19. The theoretical approaches that form the basis for using the anecdotally claimed phytotherapies were reviewed against current scientific evidence.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper plant-based remedies for managing COVID-19 were searched on social and print media to identify testimonies of people from different communities in LAC countries. Information was extracted, evaluated and reviewed against current scientific evidence based on a literature search from databases such as Journal Storage (JSTOR), Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE), SpringerLink, Scopus, ScienceDirect, PubMed, Google Scholar and Medline to explore the scientific basis for anecdotal claims.

Findings

A total of 23 medicinal plants belonging to 15 families were identified as phytotherapies used in managing COVID-19 in LAC communities.

Originality/value

The plant-based remedies contained valuable phytochemicals scientifically reported for their anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antioxidant and anticancer effects. Anecdotal information helps researchers investigate disease patterns, management and new drug discoveries. The identified acclaimed plant-based remedies are potential candidates for pharmacological evaluations for possible drug discovery for future pandemics.

Details

Arab Gulf Journal of Scientific Research, vol. 41 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1985-9899

Keywords

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