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Open Access
Article
Publication date: 19 December 2022

Gerry Larsson, Malin Mattson Molnar, Helena Tinnerholm Ljungberg and Christina Björklund

The study represents a theory-based leadership approach in exploring the subordinate's perceptions of leadership behaviors in relation to age, gender and type of work environment…

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Abstract

Purpose

The study represents a theory-based leadership approach in exploring the subordinate's perceptions of leadership behaviors in relation to age, gender and type of work environment. The aim was (1) to compare subordinates' ratings of their respective leaders' leadership behaviors based on of the leaders' age and gender, controlling for type of work environment and (2) to analyze the relationship between the subordinates' ratings of their leaders' leadership behaviors and their ratings of the outcome of these leadership behaviors.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected using the Developmental Leadership Questionnaire (DLQ) from a sample of Swedish leadership course participants (n = 10,869) and their respective subordinates (n = 97,943). The DLQ measures leadership behaviors designed to reflect the following leadership styles: developmental leadership, conventional-positive leadership, conventional-negative leadership and destructive leadership.

Findings

Results showed that older leaders (51 years or older) were rated less favorably than younger (29 years or younger) and mid-aged leaders. Female leaders received more positive ratings than male leaders. A 3-way analysis-of-variance showed strong main effects for age, gender, and type of work environment and no significant interaction effects. A significant model with high equivalents of R2 coefficients (Cox and Snell, 1989; Nagelkerke, 1991) was obtained in a logistic regression analysis. Developmental leadership and conventional-positive leadership made significant positive contributions to the subordinates' ratings of the outcome of their leaders' leadership behaviors. Destructive leadership behaviors contributed negatively to the outcome ratings.

Research limitations/implications

Weaknesses include the cross-sectional study design. The large sample size is a strength, and the results have novel implications for leadership theory related to subordinates' view on leadership.

Practical implications

Counter-stereotype age and gender findings may have implications for organizational decisions and processes regarding selection of managers. Development programs are suggested for all categories but for older, male leaders with a focus on reducing their use of leadership behaviors perceived negatively by their subordinates, whereas younger female leaders should be encouraged to continue to develop their positive leadership behaviors.

Originality/value

The theory-based approach on subordinates' perceptions of leadership behaviors with a simultaneous focus on age, gender and type of work environment, based on a large-scale data set, is new.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 44 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 29 July 2020

Gerry Larsson and Christina Björklund

The purpose of this study is twofold. First, to compare the self-rated leadership behaviors, leadership-related competencies and results of the leadership of younger, mid-aged and…

10368

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is twofold. First, to compare the self-rated leadership behaviors, leadership-related competencies and results of the leadership of younger, mid-aged and older leaders; and second to compare these aspects among younger leaders in different kinds of the work environment and between men and women.

Design/methodology/approach

Data was collected using the developmental leadership questionnaire from a sample of Swedish leadership course participants (N = 7,743).

Findings

The results showed that the younger group of leaders (29 years old or younger n = 539), rated themselves more negatively than the mid-aged (30–50 years, n = 5,208) and older (51 years or older, n = 1,996) leaders. Analysis of the group of younger leaders showed that those working in the private sector scored most favorably. The gender comparison revealed that young male leaders scored higher on negative conventional (transactional) and destructive leadership behaviors. A logistic regression analysis of the younger group showed that social competence, developmental leadership and destructive leadership (negative) influenced self-rated results of leadership.

Research limitations/implications

The study is based on leaders’ self-ratings only.

Practical implications

The results can be used in leadership development contexts and in individualized coaching or mentoring programs.

Originality/value

The results have new implications for leadership theory related to self-confidence, stereotypes, selection and organizational culture.

Details

Management Research Review, vol. 44 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8269

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 December 2017

Teresa Martha Söderhjelm, Gerry Larsson, Christer Sandahl, Christina Björklund and Kristina Palm

The purpose of this paper is to understand the influence of leadership programmes on leaders and co-workers, as well as which mechanisms are involved in the process.

6010

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to understand the influence of leadership programmes on leaders and co-workers, as well as which mechanisms are involved in the process.

Design/methodology/approach

An analysis was done into 431 free-text answers to questionnaires given to 120 participants in two different leadership programmes and their co-workers six months after their participation, using a grounded theory inspired approach.

Findings

The result is a model, linking internal psychological and external behavioural aspects, with the central outcome that leaders gained more confidence in their leadership role through theoretical models learned, and reflection.

Research limitations/implications

The course participants as well as the co-workers seemed to experience a positive leadership development indicating a value of participating in the courses.

Practical implications

Confidence in leadership role seems important for having positive outcomes of leadership. Although this needs further research, it is something organisations should consider when working with leadership questions.

Social implications

The co-workers perceived their leaders to be calmer, more open for discussions, and willing both to give and receive feedback post training. There appears to be an increase in trust both in the leader and reciprocally from the leader in the co-workers.

Originality/value

Until now there has not been any systematic research into the effects on participants and co-workers following the programmes, despite the fact that over 100,000 have participated in the courses.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 39 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

Keywords

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 1 December 2022

Abstract

Details

Diversity and Discrimination in Research Organizations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80117-959-1

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 11 August 2022

Madelen Lagin, Johan Håkansson, Carin Nordström, Roger G. Nyberg and Christina Öberg

Current online business development redistributes last-mile logistics (LML) from consumer to retailer and producer. This paper identifies how empirical LML research has used and…

2631

Abstract

Purpose

Current online business development redistributes last-mile logistics (LML) from consumer to retailer and producer. This paper identifies how empirical LML research has used and defined logistic performance measures for key grocery industry actors. Using a multi-actor perspective on logistic performance, the authors discuss coordination issues important for optimising LML at system level.

Design/methodology/approach

A semi-systematic literature review of 85 publications was conducted to analyse performance measurements used for effectiveness and efficiency, and for which actors.

Findings

Few empirical LML studies exist examining coordination between key actors or on system level. Most studies focus on logistic performance measurements for retailers and/or consumers, not producers. Key goals and resource utilisations lack research, including all key actors and system-level coordination.

Research limitations/implications

Current LML performance research implies a risk for sub-optimisation. Through expanding on efficiency and effectiveness interplay at system level and introducing new research perspectives, the review highlights the need to revaluate single-actor, single-measurement studies.

Practical implications

No established scientific guidelines exist for solving LML optimisation in the grocery industry. For managers, it is important to thoroughly consider efficiency and effectiveness in LML execution, coordination and collaboration among key actors, avoiding sub-optimisations for business and sustainability.

Originality/value

The study contributes to current knowledge by reviewing empirical research on LML performance in the grocery sector, showing how previous research disregards the importance of multiple actors and coordination of actors, efficiency and effectiveness.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 50 no. 13
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 22 November 2019

Christina Rodell Olgaç

In this chapter, the author characterises the situation of Roma in the educational system of Sweden, focusing on achievements after year 2000 and on challenges for the future. A…

Abstract

In this chapter, the author characterises the situation of Roma in the educational system of Sweden, focusing on achievements after year 2000 and on challenges for the future. A brief historical background is initially presented to frame the discussion, including the processes of getting access to the formal educational system, followed by an overview of the socioeconomic situation of Roma and a presentation of the recognition of Roma as a national minority in 2000 and the Strategy for Roma Inclusion 2012–2032. The second part of the chapter is focusing on the educational situation of Roma, more specifically on the years from 2000 until the present, also presenting a Roma example and findings from a study concerning higher education and the first course for Roma mediators working in schools. The conclusion discusses some of the achievements reached during recent years as well as challenges and priorities for the future of the Roma minority.

Details

Lifelong Learning and the Roma Minority in Western and Southern Europe
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-263-8

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 6 November 2012

Christina Öberg

Purpose – In the recent redefinition of the European Commission's corporate social responsibility (CSR) strategy, attention is brought to CSR as a motor for innovation. However…

Abstract

Purpose – In the recent redefinition of the European Commission's corporate social responsibility (CSR) strategy, attention is brought to CSR as a motor for innovation. However, literature in the area remains scarce. This chapter describes and discusses innovation as a consequence of a firm's CSR activities.

Methodology/approach – The empirical part of the chapter is based on the content analysis of 58 annual reports issued by the companies listed on the Swedish large-cap stock exchange. Their statements on CSR were coded to grasp the meanings of CSR, what areas they focus on, and types of innovation.

Findings – The study indicates that CSR innovation mostly focuses on environmental aspects. Companies that are less regulated by law in their operations tend to become more creative in their CSR approaches. CSR policy complements rather than enhances CSR innovation. CSR orientation is path-dependent on competences and position in the supply chain, and puts focus on incremental innovation. For product innovation, CSR may either appear as CSR in product (CSR-influenced material choices) or CSR in use.

Research limitations/implications – The data comprises established Swedish firms, however acting on international markets.

Social implications – Innovation and CSR are two important pillars for societal development. Finding motors that foster innovation, while increasing CSR awareness and using CSR as the driver for innovation, are important challenges for the future.

Originality/value of chapter – The study contributes to previous research through linking CSR orientation to innovation, describing types of innovation, and connecting their combined foci to different industry sectors.

Details

Social and Sustainable Enterprise: Changing the Nature of Business
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-254-7

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 April 2024

Christina Nizamidou, Anastasia Chatziioannou and Panagiotis Gkorezis

Organizational exploration has recently emerged in the literature as an essential aspect of contemporary organizations. However, little is known about its antecedents and…

Abstract

Purpose

Organizational exploration has recently emerged in the literature as an essential aspect of contemporary organizations. However, little is known about its antecedents and, specifically, the role of contemporary leadership styles. The present study investigates the relationship between empowering leadership and organizational exploration. In addressing this relationship, we examine preoccupation with failure and leader gender as a mediator and a moderator, respectively.

Design/methodology/approach

We collected data from a sample of 326 US employees in March 2022. To test the present hypotheses, we used the PROCESS SPSS macro.

Findings

Our results supported our moderated mediation model, demonstrating that the indirect relationship of empowering leadership with organizational exploration via preoccupation with failure is stronger for male leaders than for female counterparts.

Practical implications

Concerning the practical implications of this study, organizations should be cognizant of empowering leaders’ impact on desirable outcomes. Additionally, organizations should promote preoccupation with failure to ameliorate organizational exploration. Preoccupation with failure can be achieved when error reporting is encouraged by organizations and supervisors and when a culture that promotes constructive feedback is established.

Originality/value

The present study offers novel insights into the underlying mechanisms and boundary conditions through which empowering leadership relates to organizational exploration. Additionally, it fills a gap in the literature concerning the relationship between empowering leadership and preoccupation with failure. Moreover, it adds to prior research regarding the outcomes of preoccupation with failure, filling the gap regarding the relationship between preoccupation with failure and organizational exploration. Lastly, it expands limited research focused on leader gender as a condition under which the effect of contemporary leadership styles could be enhanced or mitigated.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 62 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 June 2014

C. Grill, G. Ahlborg Jr and E. Wikström

Middle managers in health care today are expected to continuously and efficiently decide and act in administration, finance, care quality, and work environment, and strategic…

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Abstract

Purpose

Middle managers in health care today are expected to continuously and efficiently decide and act in administration, finance, care quality, and work environment, and strategic communication has become paramount. Since dialogical communication is considered to promote a healthy work environment, the purpose of this paper is to investigate the ways in which health care managers experienced observing subordinates’ dialogue training.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews and documents from eight middle managers in a dialogue programme intervention conducted by dialogue trainers. Focus was on fostering and assisting workplace dialogue. Conventional qualitative content analysis was used.

Findings

Managers’ experiences were both enriching and demanding, and consisted of becoming aware of communication, meaning perceiving interaction between subordinates as well as own silent interaction with subordinates and trainer; Discovering communicative actions for leadership, by gaining self-knowledge and recognizing relational leadership models from trainers – such as acting democratically and pedagogically – and converting theory into practice, signifying practising dialogue-promoting conversation behaviour with subordinates, peers, and superiors.

Research limitations/implications

Only eight managers participated in the intervention, but data afforded a basis for further research.

Practical implications

Findings stressed the importance of listening, and of support from superiors, for well-functioning leadership communication at work.

Originality/value

Studies focusing on health care managers’ communication and dialogue are few. This study contributes to knowledge about these activities in managerial leadership.

Details

Journal of Health Organization and Management, vol. 28 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7266

Keywords

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