Search results

1 – 10 of 34
Article
Publication date: 20 November 2009

Liming Chen and Chris Nugent

This paper aims to serve two main purposes. In the first instance it aims to it provide an overview addressing the state‐of‐the‐art in the area of activity recognition, in…

1548

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to serve two main purposes. In the first instance it aims to it provide an overview addressing the state‐of‐the‐art in the area of activity recognition, in particular, in the area of object‐based activity recognition. This will provide the necessary material to inform relevant research communities of the latest developments in this area in addition to providing a reference for researchers and system developers who ware working towards the design and development of activity‐based context aware applications. In the second instance this paper introduces a novel approach to activity recognition based on the use of ontological modeling, representation and reasoning, aiming to consolidate and improve existing approaches in terms of scalability, applicability and easy‐of‐use.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper initially reviews the existing approaches and algorithms, which have been used for activity recognition in a number of related areas. From each of these, their strengths and weaknesses are discussed with particular emphasis being placed on the application domain of sensor enabled intelligent pervasive environments. Based on an analysis of existing solutions, the paper then proposes an integrated ontology‐based approach to activity recognition. The proposed approach adopts ontologies for modeling sensors, objects and activities, and exploits logical semantic reasoning for the purposes of activity recognition. This enables incremental progressive activity recognition at both coarse‐grained and fine‐grained levels. The approach has been considered within the realms of a real world activity recognition scenario in the context of assisted living within Smart Home environments.

Findings

Existing activity recognition methods are mainly based on probabilistic reasoning, which inherently suffer from a number of limitations such as ad hoc static models, data scarcity and scalability. Analysis of the state‐of‐the‐art has helped to identify a major gap between existing approaches and the need for novel recognition approaches posed by the emerging multimodal sensor technologies and context‐aware personalised activity‐based applications in intelligent pervasive environments. The proposed ontology based approach to activity recognition is believed to be the first of its kind, which provides an integrated framework‐based on the unified conceptual backbone, i.e. activity ontologies, addressing the lifecycle of activity recognition. The approach allows easy incorporation of domain knowledge and machine understandability, which facilitates interoperability, reusability and intelligent processing at a higher level of automation.

Originality/value

The comprehensive overview and critiques on existing work on activity recognition provide a valuable reference for researchers and system developers in related research communities. The proposed ontology‐based approach to activity recognition, in particular the recognition algorithm has been built on description logic based semantic reasoning and offers a promising alternative to traditional probabilistic methods. In addition, activities of daily living (ADL) activity ontologies in the context of smart homes have not been, to the best of one's knowledge, been produced elsewhere.

Details

International Journal of Web Information Systems, vol. 5 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-0084

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 October 2014

Priyanka Chaurasia, Sally McClean, Chris D. Nugent and Bryan Scotney

The purpose of this paper is to discuss an online sensor-based support system which the authors believe can be useful in such scenarios. Persons with a cognitive impairment, such…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to discuss an online sensor-based support system which the authors believe can be useful in such scenarios. Persons with a cognitive impairment, such as those with Alzheimer’s disease, suffer from deficiencies in cognitive skills which reduce their independence; such patients can benefit from the provision of further assistance such as reminders for carrying out instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs).

Design/methodology/approach

The system proposed processes data from a network of sensors that have the capability of sensing user interactions and on-going IADLs in the living environment itself. A probabilistic learning model is built that computes joint probability distributions over different activities representing users’ behavioural patterns in performing activities. This probability model can underpin an intervention framework that prompts the user with the next step in the IADL when inactivity is being observed. This prompt for the next step is inferred from the conditional probability taken into consideration the IADL steps that have already been completed, in addition to contextual information relating to the time of day and the amount of time already spent on the activity. The originality of the work lies in combining partially observed sensor sequences and duration data associated with the IADLs. The prediction of the next step is then adjusted as further steps are completed and more time is spent towards the completion of the activity, thus updating the confidence that the prediction is correct. A reminder is only issued when there has been sufficient inactivity on the part of the patient and the confidence is high that the prediction is correct.

Findings

The results of this study verify that by including duration information the prediction accuracy of the model is increased and the confidence level for the next step in the IADL is also increased. As such, there is approximately a 10 per cent rise in the prediction performance in the case of single sensor activation in comparison to an alternative approach which did not consider activity durations.

Practical implications

Duration information to a certain extent has been widely ignored by activity recognition researchers and has received a very limited application within smart environments.

Originality/value

This study concludes that incorporating progressive duration information into partially observed sensor sequences of IADLs has the potential to increase performance of a reminder system for patients with a cognitive impairment, such as Alzheimer’s disease.

Details

International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications, vol. 10 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-7371

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 26 August 2014

Priyanka Chaurasia, Sally McClean, Chris D. Nugent and Bryan Scotney

This paper aims to discuss an online sensor-based support system which is believed to be useful for persons with a cognitive impairment, such as those with Alzheimer’s disease…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to discuss an online sensor-based support system which is believed to be useful for persons with a cognitive impairment, such as those with Alzheimer’s disease, suffering from deficiencies in cognitive skills which reduce their independence. Such patients can benefit from the provision of further assistance such as reminders for carrying out instrumental activities of daily living (iADLs).

Design/methodology/approach

The system proposed processes data from a network of sensors that have the capability of sensing user interactions and ongoing iADLs in the living environment itself. A probabilistic learning model is built that computes joint probability distributions over different activities representing users’ behavioural patterns in performing activities. This probability model can underpin an intervention framework that prompts the user with the next step in the iADL when inactivity is being observed. This prompt for the next step is inferred from the conditional probability, taking into consideration the iADL steps that have already been completed, in addition to contextual information relating to the time of day and the amount of time already spent on the activity. The originality of the work lies in combining partially observed sensor sequences and duration data associated with the iADLs. The prediction of the next step is then adjusted as further steps are completed and more time is spent towards the completion of the activity; thus, updating the confidence that the prediction is correct. A reminder is only issued when there has been sufficient inactivity on the part of the patient and the confidence is high that the prediction is correct.

Findings

The results verify that by including duration information, the prediction accuracy of the model is increased, and the confidence level for the next step in the iADL is also increased. As such, there is approximately a 10 per cent rise in the prediction performance in the case of single-sensor activation in comparison to an alternative approach which did not consider activity durations. Thus, it is concluded that incorporating progressive duration information into partially observed sensor sequences of iADLs has the potential to increase performance of a reminder system for patients with a cognitive impairment, such as Alzheimer’s disease.

Originality/value

Activity duration information can be a potential feature in measuring the performance of a user and distinguishing different activities. The results verify that by including duration information, the prediction accuracy of the model is increased, and the confidence level for the next step in the activity is also increased. The use of duration information in online prediction of activities can also be associated to monitoring the deterioration in cognitive abilities and in making a decision about the level of assistance required. Such improvements have significance in building more accurate reminder systems that precisely predict activities and assist its users, thus, improving the overall support provided for living independently.

Details

International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-7371

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 31 August 2012

Xin Hong, Chris D. Nugent, Maurice D. Mulvenna, Suzanne Martin, Steven Devlin and Jonathan G. Wallace

Within smart homes, ambient sensors are used to monitor interactions between users and the home environment. The data produced from the sensors are used as the basis for the…

Abstract

Purpose

Within smart homes, ambient sensors are used to monitor interactions between users and the home environment. The data produced from the sensors are used as the basis for the inference of the users' behaviour information. Partitioning sensor data in response to individual instances of activity is critical for a smart home to be fully functional and to fulfil its roles, such as correctly measuring health status and detecting emergency situations. The purpose of this study is to propose a similarity‐based segmentation approach applied on time series sensor data in an effort to detect and recognise activities within a smart home.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper explores methods for analysing time‐related sensor activation events in an effort to undercover hidden activity events through the use of generic sensor modelling of activity based upon the general knowledge of the activities. Two similarity measures are proposed to compare a time series based sensor sequence and a generic sensor model of an activity. In addition, a framework is developed for automatically analysing sensor streams.

Findings

The results from evaluation of the proposed methodology on a publicly accessible reference dataset show that the proposed methods can detect and recognise multi‐category activities with satisfying accuracy, in addition to the capability of detecting interleaved activities.

Originality/value

The concepts introduced in this paper will improve automatic detection and recognition of daily living activities from timely ordered sensor events based on domain knowledge of the activities.

Details

International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-7371

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 November 2013

Andrew Ennis, Liming Chen, Chris D. Nugent, George Ioannidis and Alexandru Stan

Improvements and portability of technologies and smart devices have enabled a rapid growth in the amount of user-generated media such as photographs and videos. Whilst various…

Abstract

Purpose

Improvements and portability of technologies and smart devices have enabled a rapid growth in the amount of user-generated media such as photographs and videos. Whilst various media generation and management systems exist, it still remains a challenge to discover the right information, for the right purpose. This paper aims to propose an approach to reverse geocoding by cross-referencing multiple geospatial data sources to enable the enrichment of media and therefore enable better organisation and searching of the media to create an overall picture about places.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper presents a system architecture that incorporates the proposed approach to aggregate several geospatial databases to enrich geo-tagged media with human readable information, which will further enable the goal of creating an overall picture about places. The approach enables the semantic information relating to point of interest.

Findings

Implementation of the proposed approach shows that a single geospatial data source does not contain enough information to accurately describe the high-level geospatial information for geocoded multimedia. However, fusing several geospatial data sources together enables richer, more accurate high-level geospatial information to be tagged to the geocoded multimedia.

Originality/value

The contribution in this paper shows that high-level geospatial information can be retrieved from many data sources and fused together to enrich geocoded multimedia which can facilitate better searching and retrieval of the multimedia.

Details

International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-7371

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 25 November 2013

Ismail Khalil

138

Abstract

Details

International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-7371

Content available
Article
Publication date: 20 November 2009

Ismail Khalil

460

Abstract

Details

International Journal of Web Information Systems, vol. 5 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-0084

Book part
Publication date: 20 January 2023

Barry Colfer

This chapter explores the notion of the European Social Model (ESM) and examines the EU-level social policy reforms that have taken place since the 1950s. ESM is taken to be…

Abstract

This chapter explores the notion of the European Social Model (ESM) and examines the EU-level social policy reforms that have taken place since the 1950s. ESM is taken to be distinct from but intimately related to the web and patchwork of rules explored in this volume. After sketching out the development of ESM since the 1950s, up to and including its near-death experience in the context of the Great Recession and the EU's turn to austerity, the chapter considers the social and political consequences of the EU's lurch to austerity as well as the consequences this might have for the web and patchwork of rules. The chapter ultimately reflects on whether another ESM might be possible in the context of the EU's response to the economic and social consequences following the onset of COVID-19, particularly in the context of the EU's Next Generation EU programme whereby the EU provides financial assistance directly to the regions worst affected by the pandemic.

Details

Protecting the Future of Work: New Institutional Arrangements for Safeguarding Labour Standards
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-248-5

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Rethinking Community Sanctions
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80117-641-5

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 22 August 2019

Brett Lashua

Abstract

Details

Popular Music, Popular Myth and Cultural Heritage in Cleveland: The Moondog, The Buzzard, and the Battle for the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-156-8

1 – 10 of 34