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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1994

Carol A. McKeen and Ronald J. Burke

This exploratory study examined satisfactions and work experiences of managerial and professional women as a function of the gender composition of their organizations…

Abstract

This exploratory study examined satisfactions and work experiences of managerial and professional women as a function of the gender composition of their organizations. Gender composition considered both the number of women (predominantly women, 50% women, predominantly men) and their location (at every level, in senior management). Data were collected from 792 managerial and professional women using questionnaires completed anonymously. Most respondents worked in organizations with predominantly men in senior management, although women were as likely as men to be present at other organizational levels. There was a fairly consistent pattern throughout the findings. Managerial and professional women employed in male dominated organizations (defined as mostly men at all levels or mainly men at the top) were less job and career satisfied, differed on several demographic and situational variables, but reported similar levels of emotional well‐being for managerial women employed in organizations that were not male‐dominated.

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The International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. 2 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1055-3185

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1995

Ronald J. Burke and Carol A. McKeen

Organisations have historically been designed and managed by men (Morrison & Von Glinow, 1990). Even today, the number of women in the highest ranks of corporate…

Abstract

Organisations have historically been designed and managed by men (Morrison & Von Glinow, 1990). Even today, the number of women in the highest ranks of corporate management is still only about six per cent (Burke & McKeen, 1992). The presence of women at these senior levels may affect the experiences of managerial and professional women at lower organisational levels (Ely, 1991). In addition the presence of women at senior organisational levels may influence the behaviour of men, and the relationships of men and women, at lower levels as well (Kanter, 1977).

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Equal Opportunities International, vol. 14 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0261-0159

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1998

Merridee L. Bujaki and Carol A. McKeen

It has been suggested that household and family responsibilities may adversely impact the career success achieved by women. This paper examines the number of hours spent…

Abstract

It has been suggested that household and family responsibilities may adversely impact the career success achieved by women. This paper examines the number of hours spent weekly on household tasks by male and female business school graduates. Analysis of variance and multiple regression revealed that the presence of children increases the number of hours spent on household tasks by all graduates, but the effect is most pronounced for female graduates. The presence of children adds from three to ten hours per week to the workload of male graduates and from ten to 20 hours per week to the workload of female graduates. Effective organizational initiatives and changes in expectations within families and society are needed so that graduates of business schools, particularly women, can accommodate the careers for which they have been educated as well as their household responsibilities.

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Women in Management Review, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0964-9425

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 1998

Carol A. McKeen and Nailin Bu

The career and life expectations of male and female Chinese students and graduates of the Certified General Accountants (CGA) Canada program in China were explored using a

Abstract

The career and life expectations of male and female Chinese students and graduates of the Certified General Accountants (CGA) Canada program in China were explored using a survey and semi‐structured interviews. The results of the survey were compared to data from students of a leading Canadian business school. Chinese students of both sexes show a much higher level of commitment to their careers than their Canadian counterparts. Despite this commitment, their qualifications, and the critical shortage of professionally trained people in China, female Chinese students are pessimistic about their prospects for career advancement. They cite negative stereotypes, lack of mentors and role models, isolation, and a lack of organizational policies enabling them to successfully fulfill their parental roles as major barriers. This is consistent with the North American literature on the “glass ceiling”.

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Women in Management Review, vol. 13 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0964-9425

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1992

Carol A. McKeen and Ronald J. Burke

An increasing number of women are preparing themselves for managerial and professional careers. They are doing this by enrolling in and graduating from schools of…

Abstract

An increasing number of women are preparing themselves for managerial and professional careers. They are doing this by enrolling in and graduating from schools of administration, obtaining additional professional designations, working long hours, and acquiring the years of experience necessary for entering the ranks of corporate management. However, the number of women who advance to levels of General Manager and above are few and this pattern is common across all industrialised countries (Morrison & Von Glinow, 1990; Adler & Israeli, 1988).

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Equal Opportunities International, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0261-0159

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1989

Carol A. McKeen and Ronald J. Burke

An overview is provided of the mentoring process and why it can becrucial to the success of women managers. Also explored are some of thereasons why it is more difficult…

Abstract

An overview is provided of the mentoring process and why it can be crucial to the success of women managers. Also explored are some of the reasons why it is more difficult for women to find mentors than for men, and a frank look is taken at the problems of cross‐sex mentoring. In conclusion an examination is made of what organisations can do to help and prospects for the future are assessed.

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Journal of Management Development, vol. 8 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1992

Carol A. McKeen and Ronald J. Burke

Examines the desirability of 21 different career developmentopportunities for managerial and professional women. Data were collectedfrom 245 women in early career stages…

Abstract

Examines the desirability of 21 different career development opportunities for managerial and professional women. Data were collected from 245 women in early career stages using questionnaires. There was considerable variety in their desired developmental opportunities; women with family responsibilities were less desirous of career development activities and geographic moves and more desirous of flexible working hours and working fewer hours; managerial and professional women desirous of flexible work hours or working fewer hours reported less work satisfaction and poorer psychological wellbeing. Offers implications for organizations and managerial women (and men).

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Women in Management Review, vol. 7 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0964-9425

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 1994

Ronald J. Burke, Irina Todorova, Tatyana Kotzeva and Carol A. McKeen

This research examined correlates of three career priority patterns– career‐primary, modified career‐family, and career‐family – among 218managerial and professional women…

Abstract

This research examined correlates of three career priority patterns – career‐primary, modified career‐family, and career‐family – among 218 managerial and professional women in Bulgaria. Data were collected using questionnaires completed anonymously. It attempted to replicate similar research conducted in Canada. Although career‐family women worked fewer hours per week, and were less involved with their jobs than were career‐primary women, many of the differences observed in the Canadian sample were absent in the Bulgarian sample. Offers possible explanations for the differences in the two studies.

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International Journal of Career Management, vol. 6 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6214

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1992

Ronald J. Burke and Carol A. McKeen

Reports on a study which examined the incidence, antecedents andconsequences of social‐sexual behaviours at work. These include anynon‐work related behaviour having a

Abstract

Reports on a study which examined the incidence, antecedents and consequences of social‐sexual behaviours at work. These include any non‐work related behaviour having a sexual component, such as harassment, flirting, posters and pin‐ups, and sexual jokes. Data were collected from 267 Canadian managerial and professional women using questionnaires completed anonymously. Women experiencing more harassing and non‐harassing social‐sexual behaviours at work were less satisfied and less committed to their organizations and reported poorer emotional wellbeing. Few demographic characteristics were related to social‐sexual behaviours experienced. Work environment characteristics, however, were more strongly related to experienced social‐sexual behaviours at work. Managerial and professional women reported experiencing harassing and non‐harassing social‐sexual behaviours with the same frequency as working women in general.

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Women in Management Review, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0964-9425

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1997

Ronald J. Burke and Carol A. McKeen

The mentor relationship has been identified as an important contributor to job and career success. Compares managerial and professional women with and without mentors on a

Abstract

The mentor relationship has been identified as an important contributor to job and career success. Compares managerial and professional women with and without mentors on a variety of measures. These include personal demographic and situational characteristics, work outcomes and aspects of psychological well‐being. Women having mentor relationships were younger, in higher level positions, had shorter job tenure, worked more hours and extra hours per week and attached higher priority to their careers. Women having mentor relationships also indicated more favourable work outcomes but similar levels of psychological well‐being. Results of logistic regression analysis revealed only two significant differences: women with mentors expressed more optimistic future career prospects and worked more extra‐hours per week. Concludes that potential benefits of mentoring for managerial and professional women may be smaller than suggested by proponents of mentoring.

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Women in Management Review, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0964-9425

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